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Batteries 2018, 4(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries4020021

Local Study of Lithiation and Degradation Paths in LiMn2O4 Battery Cathodes: Confocal Raman Microscopy Approach

1
School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg, Russia
2
Department of Physics & CICECO—Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Robert Bosch GmbH, 70839 Gerlingen-Schillerhoehe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract

Lithium manganese-based cathodes are widely used in rechargeable batteries due to their low cost, safety, and ecological stability. On the other hand, fast capacity fade occurs in LiMn2O4 mainly because of the induced manganese dissolution and formation of additional phases. Confocal Raman microscopy provides many opportunities for sensitive and spatially resolved structural studies of micro- and nanoscale phenomena. Here, we demonstrate advantages of confocal Raman spectroscopy approach for uncovering the mechanisms of lithiation/delithiation and degradation in LiMn2O4 commercial cathodes. The analysis of Raman spectra for inspecting local lithiation state and phase composition is proposed and exploited for the visualization of the inhomogeneous distribution of lithium ions. The cycling of cathodes is shown to be followed by the formation and dissolution of the Mn3O4 phase and local disturbance of the lithiation state. These processes are believed to be responsible for the capacity fade in the commercial batteries. View Full-Text
Keywords: confocal Raman microscopy; lithium manganese spinel; degradation; lithium-ion batteries confocal Raman microscopy; lithium manganese spinel; degradation; lithium-ion batteries
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Slautin, B.; Alikin, D.; Rosato, D.; Pelegov, D.; Shur, V.; Kholkin, A. Local Study of Lithiation and Degradation Paths in LiMn2O4 Battery Cathodes: Confocal Raman Microscopy Approach. Batteries 2018, 4, 21.

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