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Photonics, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2015), Pages 317-757

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Open AccessArticle Fano Resonance Enhanced Nonreciprocal Absorption and Scattering of Light
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 745-757; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020745
Received: 17 May 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 18 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We reveal that asymmetric plasmonic nanostructures can exhibit significantly different absorption and scattering properties for light that propagates in opposite directions, despite the conservation of total extinction. We analytically demonstrate that this is a consequence of nonorthogonality of eigenmodes of the system. This
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We reveal that asymmetric plasmonic nanostructures can exhibit significantly different absorption and scattering properties for light that propagates in opposite directions, despite the conservation of total extinction. We analytically demonstrate that this is a consequence of nonorthogonality of eigenmodes of the system. This results in the necessity for modal interference with potential enhancement via Fano resonances. Based on our theory, we propose a stacked nanocross design whose optical response exhibits an abrupt change between absorption and scattering cross-sections for plane waves propagating in opposite directions. This work thereby proposes the use of Fano resonances to employ nanostructures for measuring and distinguishing optical signals coming from opposite directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessReview Unlocking Spectral Versatility from Broadly−Tunable Quantum−Dot Lasers
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 719-744; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020719
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 15 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 22 June 2015
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Abstract
Wavelength−tunable semiconductor quantum−dot lasers have achieved impressive performance in terms of high−power, broad tunability, low threshold current, as well as broadly tunable generation of ultrashort pulses. InAs/GaAs quantum−dot−based lasers in particular have demonstrated significant versatility and promise for a range of applications in
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Wavelength−tunable semiconductor quantum−dot lasers have achieved impressive performance in terms of high−power, broad tunability, low threshold current, as well as broadly tunable generation of ultrashort pulses. InAs/GaAs quantum−dot−based lasers in particular have demonstrated significant versatility and promise for a range of applications in many areas such as biological imaging, optical fiber communications, spectroscopy, THz radiation generation and frequency doubling into the visible region. In this review, we cover the progress made towards the development of broadly−tunable quantum−dot edge−emitting lasers, particularly in the spectral region between 1.0–1.3 µm. This review discusses the strategies developed towards achieving lower threshold current, extending the tunability range and scaling the output power, covering achievements in both continuous wave and mode−locked InAs/GaAs quantum−dot lasers. We also highlight a number of applications which have benefitted from these advances, as well as emerging new directions for further development of broadly−tunable quantum−dot lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Dot Based Lasers and Photonic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Solution for the Stopping Power of the Cherenkov Radiation in a Uniaxial Nanowire Material
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 702-718; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020702
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 13 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We derive closed analytical formulae for the power emitted by moving charged particles in a uniaxial wire medium by means of an eigenfunction expansion. Our analytical expressions demonstrate that, in the absence of material dispersion, the stopping power of the uniaxial wire medium
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We derive closed analytical formulae for the power emitted by moving charged particles in a uniaxial wire medium by means of an eigenfunction expansion. Our analytical expressions demonstrate that, in the absence of material dispersion, the stopping power of the uniaxial wire medium is proportional to the charge velocity, and that there is no velocity threshold for the Cherenkov emission. It is shown that the eigenfunction expansion formalism can be extended to the case of dispersive lossless media. Furthermore, in the presence of material dispersion, the optimal charge velocity that maximizes the emitted Cherenkov power may be less than the speed of light in a vacuum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Scattering Intensity and Directionality Probed Along Individual Zinc Oxide Nanorods with Precisely Controlled Light Polarization and Nanorod Orientation
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 684-701; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020684
Received: 20 May 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 13 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We elucidated the light-matter interaction of individual ZnO NRs with a monochromatic beam of linearly polarized light that scatters elastically from the ZnO NRs by performing forward scattering and back-aperture imaging in a dark-field setting. We precisely controlled the electric field vector of
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We elucidated the light-matter interaction of individual ZnO NRs with a monochromatic beam of linearly polarized light that scatters elastically from the ZnO NRs by performing forward scattering and back-aperture imaging in a dark-field setting. We precisely controlled the electric field vector of the incident light and the NR orientation within the plane of light interaction during both modes of measurement, and spatially resolved the scattering response from different interaction points along the NR long axis. We then discerned, for the first time, the effects of light polarization, analyzer angle, and NR orientation on the intensity and directionality of the optical responses both qualitatively and quantitatively along the length of the single ZnO NRs. We identified distinctive scattering profiles from individual ZnO NRs subject to incident light polarization with controlled NR orientation from the forward dark-field scattering and back-aperture imaging modes. The fundamental light interaction behavior of ZnO NRs is likely to govern their functional outcomes in photonics, optoelectronics, and sensor devices. Hence, our efforts provided much needed insight into unique optical responses from individual 1D ZnO nanomaterials, which could be highly beneficial in developing next-generation optoelectronic systems and optical biodetectors with improved device efficiency and sensitivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement and Tunability of Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer Mediated by Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Thin Plasmonic Films
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 659-683; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020659
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (6427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we
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The properties of thermal radiation exchange between hot and cold objects can be strongly modified if they interact in the near field where electromagnetic coupling occurs across gaps narrower than the dominant wavelength of thermal radiation. Using a rigorous fluctuational electrodynamics approach, we predict that ultra-thin films of plasmonic materials can be used to dramatically enhance near-field heat transfer. The total spectrally integrated film-to-film heat transfer is over an order of magnitude larger than between the same materials in bulk form and also exceeds the levels achievable with polar dielectrics such as SiC. We attribute this enhancement to the significant spectral broadening of radiative heat transfer due to coupling between surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on both sides of each thin film. We show that the radiative heat flux spectrum can be further shaped by the choice of the substrate onto which the thin film is deposited. In particular, substrates supporting surface phonon polaritons (SPhP) strongly modify the heat flux spectrum owing to the interactions between SPPs on thin films and SPhPs of the substrate. The use of thin film phase change materials on polar dielectric substrates allows for dynamic switching of the heat flux spectrum between SPP-mediated and SPhP-mediated peaks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Long-Wavelength InAs/GaAs Quantum-Dot Light Emitting Sources Monolithically Grown on Si Substrate
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 646-658; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020646
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 14 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2102 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Direct integration of III–V light emitting sources on Si substrates has attracted significant interest for addressing the growing limitations for Si-based electronics and allowing the realization of complex optoelectronics circuits. However, the high density of threading dislocations introduced by large lattice mismatch and
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Direct integration of III–V light emitting sources on Si substrates has attracted significant interest for addressing the growing limitations for Si-based electronics and allowing the realization of complex optoelectronics circuits. However, the high density of threading dislocations introduced by large lattice mismatch and incompatible thermal expansion coefficient between III–V materials and Si substrates have fundamentally limited monolithic epitaxy of III–V devices on Si substrates. Here, by using the InAlAs/GaAs strained layer superlattices (SLSs) as dislocation filter layers (DFLs) to reduce the density of threading dislocations. We firstly demonstrate a Si-based 1.3 µm InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) laser that lases up to 111 °C, with a low threshold current density of 200 A/cm2 and high output power over 100 mW at room temperature. We then demonstrate the operation of InAs/GaAs QD superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLDs) monolithically grown on Si substrates. The fabricated two-section SLD exhibits a 3 dB linewidth of 114 nm, centered at ~1255 nm with a corresponding output power of 2.6 mW at room temperature. Our work complements hybrid integration using wafer bonding and represents a significant milestone for direct monolithic integration of III–V light emitters on Si substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Dot Based Lasers and Photonic Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Fiber Tweezers Fabricated by Guided Wave Photo-Polymerization
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 634-645; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020634
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work the use of guided wave photo-polymerization for the fabrication of novel polymeric micro tips for optical trapping is demonstrated. It is shown that the selective excitation of linear polarized modes, during the fabrication process, has a direct impact on the
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In this work the use of guided wave photo-polymerization for the fabrication of novel polymeric micro tips for optical trapping is demonstrated. It is shown that the selective excitation of linear polarized modes, during the fabrication process, has a direct impact on the shape of the resulting micro structures. Tips are fabricated with modes LP02 and LP21 and their shapes and output intensity distribution are compared. The application of the micro structures as optical tweezers is demonstrated with the manipulation of yeast cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Trapping in Biology and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Imaging Functions of Quasi-Periodic Nanohole Array as an Ultra-Thin Planar Optical Lens
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 619-633; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020619
Received: 19 May 2015 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
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Abstract
In this paper, the lensing functions and imaging abilities of a quasi-periodic nanohole array in a metal screen have been theoretically investigated and demonstrated. Such an optical binary mask with nanoholes designed in an aperiodic arrangement can function as an ultra-thin planar optical
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In this paper, the lensing functions and imaging abilities of a quasi-periodic nanohole array in a metal screen have been theoretically investigated and demonstrated. Such an optical binary mask with nanoholes designed in an aperiodic arrangement can function as an ultra-thin planar optical lens, imaging complex structures composed of multiple light sources at tens of wavelengths away from the lens surface. Via resolving two adjacent testing objects at different separations, the effective numerical aperture (N.A.) and the effective imaging area of the planar optical lens can be evaluated, mimicking the imaging function of a conventional lens with high N.A. Furthermore, by using the quasi-periodic nanohole array as an ultra-thin planar optical lens, important applications such as X-ray imaging and nano-optical circuits may be found in circumstances where conventional optical lenses cannot readily be applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle A Model for the Force Exerted on a Primary Cilium by an Optical Trap and the Resulting Deformation
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 604-618; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020604
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 25 May 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
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Abstract
Cilia are slender flexible structures extending from the cell body; genetically similar to flagella. Although their existence has been long known, the mechanical and functional properties of non-motile (“primary”) cilia are largely unknown. Optical traps are a non-contact method of applying a localized
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Cilia are slender flexible structures extending from the cell body; genetically similar to flagella. Although their existence has been long known, the mechanical and functional properties of non-motile (“primary”) cilia are largely unknown. Optical traps are a non-contact method of applying a localized force to microscopic objects and an ideal tool for the study of ciliary mechanics. We present a method to measure the mechanical properties of a cilium using an analytic model of a flexible, anchored cylinder held within an optical trap. The force density is found using the discrete-dipole approximation. Utilizing Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we then integrate this force density and numerically obtain the equilibrium deformation of the cilium in response to an optical trap. The presented results demonstrate that optical trapping can provide a great deal of information and insight about the properties and functions of the primary cilium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Trapping in Biology and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Plasmonic Terahertz Amplification in Graphene-Based Asymmetric Hyperbolic Metamaterial
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 594-603; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020594
Received: 21 April 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose and theoretically explore terahertz amplification, based on stimulated generation of plasmons in graphene asymmetric hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMM), strongly coupled to terahertz radiation. In contrast to the terahertz amplification in resonant nanocavities, AHMM provides a wide-band THz amplification without any reflection in
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We propose and theoretically explore terahertz amplification, based on stimulated generation of plasmons in graphene asymmetric hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMM), strongly coupled to terahertz radiation. In contrast to the terahertz amplification in resonant nanocavities, AHMM provides a wide-band THz amplification without any reflection in optically thin graphene multilayers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Circuit Model of Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 568-593; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020568
Received: 14 April 2015 / Accepted: 13 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hybridized decaying oscillations in a nanosystem of two coupled elements—a quantum emitter and a plasmonic nanoantenna—are considered as a classical effect. The circuit model of the nanosystem extends beyond the assumption of inductive or elastic coupling and implies the near-field dipole-dipole interaction. Its
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Hybridized decaying oscillations in a nanosystem of two coupled elements—a quantum emitter and a plasmonic nanoantenna—are considered as a classical effect. The circuit model of the nanosystem extends beyond the assumption of inductive or elastic coupling and implies the near-field dipole-dipole interaction. Its results fit those of the previously developed classical model of Rabi splitting, however going much farther. Using this model, we show that the hybridized oscillations depending on the relationships between design parameters of the nanosystem correspond to several characteristic regimes of spontaneous emission. These regimes were previously revealed in the literature and explained involving semiclassical theory. Our original classical model is much simpler: it results in a closed-form solution for the emission spectra. It allows fast prediction of the regime for different distances and locations of the emitter with respect to the nanoantenna (of a given geometry) if the dipole moment of the emitter optical transition and its field coupling constant are known. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Creating and Controlling Polarization Singularities in Plasmonic Fields
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 553-567; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020553
Received: 29 April 2015 / Revised: 17 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7991 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoscale light fields near nanoplasmonic objects can be highly structured and can contain highly-subwavelength features. Here, we present the results of our search for the simplest plasmonic system that contains, and can be used to control, the smallest such optical feature: an optical
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Nanoscale light fields near nanoplasmonic objects can be highly structured and can contain highly-subwavelength features. Here, we present the results of our search for the simplest plasmonic system that contains, and can be used to control, the smallest such optical feature: an optical singularity. Specifically, we study the field around subwavelength holes in a metal film and look for polarization singularities. These can be circular (C)-points, at which the polarization is circular, or linear (L)-lines, where the polarization is linear. We find that, depending on the polarization of the incident light, two or three holes are sufficient to create a wealth of these singularities. Moreover, we find for the two-hole system that C-points are created in multiples of eight. This can be explained using symmetry arguments and conservation laws. We are able to predict where these singularities are created, their index and the topology of the field surrounding them. These results demonstrate the promise of this plasmonic platform as a tool for studying and controlling fundamental properties of light fields and may be important to applications where control over these properties is required at the nanoscale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessReview Optical Scattering Cancellation through Arrays of Plasmonic Nanoparticles: A Review
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 540-552; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020540
Received: 14 April 2015 / Revised: 12 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 18 May 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this contribution, we review and discuss our recent results on the design of optical scattering cancellation devices based on an array of plasmonic nanoparticles. Starting from two different analytical models available to describe its electromagnetic behavior, we show that a properly designed
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In this contribution, we review and discuss our recent results on the design of optical scattering cancellation devices based on an array of plasmonic nanoparticles. Starting from two different analytical models available to describe its electromagnetic behavior, we show that a properly designed array of plasmonic nanoparticles behaves both as an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial and as a reactive metasurface and, therefore, can be successfully used to reduce the optical scattering of a subwavelength object. Three different typologies of nanoparticle arrays are analyzed: spherical, core-shell, and ellipsoidal nanoparticles. We prove, both theoretically and through full-wave simulations, that such nanostructures can be successfully used as a cloaking device at ultraviolet and optical frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Format Wavelength Conversion Using Quantum Dash Mode-Locked Laser Pumps
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 527-539; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020527
Received: 21 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 14 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigate and compare the performance of wavelength conversion for two different non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation formats at 40 Gb/s: on off keying (OOK) and differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). To achieve wide wavelength coverage and integrability, we use a dual pump scheme exploiting four-wave
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We investigate and compare the performance of wavelength conversion for two different non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation formats at 40 Gb/s: on off keying (OOK) and differential phase-shift keying (DPSK). To achieve wide wavelength coverage and integrability, we use a dual pump scheme exploiting four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers. For phase stability, we use a quantum-dash mode-locked laser (QD-MLL) as a multi-wavelength source for the dual pumps, with tunability provided by the output filter. The significant sidelobes of the DPSK spectrum (relative to OOK) require the balancing of the pump proximity to the original signal (facilitating high conversion efficiency) with the signal degradation from the pump spectrum overlapping the converted DPSK signal. We achieve a conversion efficiency near –3.6 dB for OOK and –5.4 dB for DPSK across a 12 nm tuning range with low input powers (1 dBm). We measure bit error rate (BER) and obtain error free transmission (BER < 109) with a power penalty less than 2 dB for OOK and 3 dB for DPSK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Fiber Optics)
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Open AccessArticle Tailoring Effective Media by Mie Resonances of Radially-Anisotropic Cylinders
Photonics 2015, 2(2), 509-526; https://doi.org/10.3390/photonics2020509
Received: 18 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 May 2015 / Published: 14 May 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper studies constructing advanced effective materials using arrays of circular radially-anisotropic (RA) cylinders. Homogenization of such cylinders is considered in an electrodynamic case based on Mie scattering theory. The homogenization procedure consists of two steps. First, we present an effectively isotropic model
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This paper studies constructing advanced effective materials using arrays of circular radially-anisotropic (RA) cylinders. Homogenization of such cylinders is considered in an electrodynamic case based on Mie scattering theory. The homogenization procedure consists of two steps. First, we present an effectively isotropic model for individual cylinders, and second, we discuss the modeling of a lattice of RA cylinders. Radial anisotropy brings us extra parameters, which makes it possible to adjust the desired effective response for a fixed frequency. The analysis still remains simple enough, enabling a derivation of analytical design equations. The considered applications include generating artificial magnetism using all-dielectric cylinders, which is currently a very sought-after phenomenon in optical frequencies. We also study how negative refraction is achieved using magnetodielectric RA cylinders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Plasmonics and Metamaterials)
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