Special Issue "Polymers Based Chemical Sensors"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. José Miguel García

Polymer Research Group, Faculty of Science, University of Burgos, 09001 Burgos, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Interests: polymers; polymer sensors; high performance polymers; polymers for advanced applications; design and synthesis of advanced polymers; monomers; monomer synthesis; chemical sensors; supramolecular chemistry
Guest Editor
Dr. José Antonio Reglero Ruiz

Polymer Research Group, Faculty of Science, University of Burgos, 09001 Burgos, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: polymers; micro and nanocellular polymers; design, synthesis and characterization of high performance polymers; nanoporous sensory polymers; polymer foaming processes
Guest Editor
Dr. Saúl Vallejos Calzada

Polymer Research Group, Faculty of Science, University of Burgos, 09001 Burgos, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: polymers; polymer sensors; polymers for advanced applications; design and synthesis of advanced polymers; monomers; monomer synthesis; chemical sensors; supramolecular chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of supramolecular chemistry by Pedersen, Cram, and Lehn, in the 1960s, brought forth the growth of a new research field called chemical sensors or chemosensors. These are molecules having receptor or host units devoted to providing information about the chemical composition of its environment through selective interaction with target molecules (guest molecules). The chemical sensors are usually organic or organometallic, low-mass molecules with a number of drawbacks: They are generally water insoluble, exhibit moderate to low light and thermal stability, and tend to migrate when they are dispersed in physical supports.

In a step forward, polymers with main chain, or lateral binding sites, also called host or receptor sub-units, opened the door for cutting-edge sensing applications in solution or gas phases, i.e., the detection and quantification of cations, anions, or neutral molecules. Polymers are materials with good thermal and mechanical resistances that can be transformed into solids of any shape. Accordingly, they can be easily transformed into end materials, such as films or coatings, to produce costless sensing devices, such as “naked-eye” sensory films, or to integrate them in conventional analytical techniques to detect gases or target species in solution. Moreover, sensory polymers can be designed to be soluble in water or in organic media so as to be exploited in solution as stable and easily-recovered sensory materials.

This Special Issue on polymer-based chemical sensors is devoted to the discussion and dissemination of the latest research in this quickly-evolving field. Emphasis will be placed on the preparation and applications of organic and hybrid polymers as sensing materials for the detection of chemicals of interest in solution and in the gas phase, in civil security and in the biomedical, food, environmental, and industrial fields, etc.

Prof. Dr. José Miguel García
Dr. José Antonio Reglero Ruiz
Dr. Saúl Vallejos Calzada
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Polymer chemosensors
  • Piezoelectric sensors
  • Chemomechanical sensors
  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Colorimetric sensors
  • Fluorescence sensors
  • Chemical sensor array
  • Sensing of cations
  • Sensing of anions
  • Sensing of explosives
  • Sensing of chemical warfare agents
  • Sensing of biomolecules
  • Sensing of pollutants

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Polymer-Based Chemical Sensors
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030042
Received: 18 September 2018 / Accepted: 19 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Based Chemical Sensors)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Theoretical Investigations of the Interaction of Gaseous Pollutants Molecules with the Polyacrylonitrile Surface
Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030039
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
This work presents theoretical studies of the interaction of molecules of several gaseous pollutants with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) surface in the presence of a water and/or oxygen molecule. For this purpose, a PAN cluster model has been proposed by the methods of quantum chemical
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This work presents theoretical studies of the interaction of molecules of several gaseous pollutants with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) surface in the presence of a water and/or oxygen molecule. For this purpose, a PAN cluster model has been proposed by the methods of quantum chemical calculations and molecular modeling. The energy-favorable positions, in which the gas molecules are located relative to the surface of the PAN cluster, are determined and the thermodynamic and the following geometric parameters of the systems are calculated: “PAN cluster − oxygen molecule”, “PAN cluster − oxygen molecule − gas molecule”, “PAN cluster − water molecule − molecule of oxygen”, and “PAN cluster − a molecule of water − an oxygen molecule − a gas molecule”. It is concluded that PAN in atmospheric air in the presence of oxygen molecules is sensitive to carbon oxide (IV), sulfur (IV) oxide, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide and carbon oxide (II). In an anoxic environment, PAN films will show selective sensitivity to chlorine. The presence of water molecules in the investigated air should not affect the gas sensitivity of PAN films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Based Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Dangling Bonds on De-Poling Time for Polymeric Electric Field Optical Sensors
Received: 26 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates the possible chemical changes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) caused by two different techniques of fabrication for ultra-sensitive electric field optical sensors. The sensing element is a micro-sphere made from 60:1 PDMS (60 parts base silicon elastomer to one part polymer curing
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This paper investigates the possible chemical changes in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) caused by two different techniques of fabrication for ultra-sensitive electric field optical sensors. The sensing element is a micro-sphere made from 60:1 PDMS (60 parts base silicon elastomer to one part polymer curing agent by volume). The measurement principle is based on the morphology dependent resonances (MDR) shifts of the micro-sphere. We present the effects of curing and poling of polymer micro-spheres used as optical sensors. The degree of curing leads to changes in the de-poling time which results from dangling bonds in the polymeric chains. Consequently, the longevity of the sensitivity of the sensor can extended by two orders of magnitude. An analysis is carried out along with preliminary experiments to investigate that behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Based Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Biochars as Innovative Humidity Sensing Materials
Chemosensors 2017, 5(4), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors5040035
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5501 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, biochar-based humidity sensors were prepared by drop-coating technique. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was added as an organic binder to improve the adhesion of the sensing material onto ceramic substrates having platinum electrodes. Two biochars obtained from different precursors were used. The sensors
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In this work, biochar-based humidity sensors were prepared by drop-coating technique. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was added as an organic binder to improve the adhesion of the sensing material onto ceramic substrates having platinum electrodes. Two biochars obtained from different precursors were used. The sensors were tested toward relative humidity (RH) at room temperature and showed a response starting around 5 RH%, varying the impedance of 2 orders of magnitude after exposure to almost 100% relative humidity. In both cases, biochar materials are behaving as p-type semiconductors under low amounts of humidity. On the contrary, for higher RH values, the impedance decreased due to water molecules adsorption. When PVP is added to SWP700 biochar, n-p heterojunctions are formed between the two semiconductors, leading to a higher sensitivity at low RH values for the sensors SWP700-10% PVP and SWP700-20% PVP with respect to pure SWP700 sensor. Finally, response and recovery times were both reasonably fast (in the order of 1 min). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Based Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle vQRS Based on Hybrids of CNT with PMMA-POSS and PS-POSS Copolymers to Reach the Sub-PPM Detection of Ammonia and Formaldehyde at Room Temperature Despite Moisture
Chemosensors 2017, 5(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors5030022
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
Nanocomposite-based quantum resistive vapour sensors (vQRS) have been developed from the assembly of hybrid copolymers of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(styrene) (PS) with carbon nanotubes (CNT). The originality of the resulting conducting architecture is expected to be responsible
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Nanocomposite-based quantum resistive vapour sensors (vQRS) have been developed from the assembly of hybrid copolymers of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(styrene) (PS) with carbon nanotubes (CNT). The originality of the resulting conducting architecture is expected to be responsible for the ability of the transducer to detect sub-ppm concentrations of ammonia and formaldehyde at room temperature despite the presence of humidity. In particular, the boosting effect of POSS is evidenced in CNT-based nanocomposite vQRS. The additive fabrication by spraying layer-by-layer provides (sLbL) is an effective method to control the reproducibility of the transducers’ chemo-resistive responses. In dry atmosphere, the two types of sensors showed a high sensitivity towards both hazardous gases, as they were able to detect 300 ppb of formaldehyde and 500 ppb of ammonia with a sufficiently good signal to noise ratio (SNR > 10). They also exhibited a quick response times less than 5 s for both vapours and, even in the presence of 100 ppm of water, they were able to detect small amounts of gases (1.5 ppm of NH3 and 9 ppm of CH2O). The results suggest promising applications of POSS-based vQRS for air quality or volatolome monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Based Chemical Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Smart Polymers in Micro and Nano Sensory Devices
Chemosensors 2018, 6(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6020012
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
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Abstract
The present review presents the most recent developments concerning the application of sensory polymers in the detection and quantification of different target species. We will firstly describe the main polymers that are being employed as sensory polymers, including, for example, conducting or acrylate-based
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The present review presents the most recent developments concerning the application of sensory polymers in the detection and quantification of different target species. We will firstly describe the main polymers that are being employed as sensory polymers, including, for example, conducting or acrylate-based polymers. In the second part of the review, we will briefly describe the different mechanisms of detection and the target species, such as metal cations and anions, explosives, and biological and biomedical substances. To conclude, we will describe the advancements in recent years concerning the fabrication of micro and nano sensory devices based on smart polymers, with a bibliographic revision of the research work published between 2005 and today, with special emphasis on research work presented since 2010. A final section exposing the perspectives and challenges of this interesting research line will end the present review article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Based Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Recent Advances in the Detection of Neurotransmitters
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 31 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 4 January 2018
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Abstract
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that act as messengers in the synaptic transmission process. They are essential for human health and any imbalance in their activities can cause serious mental disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease. Hence, monitoring the concentrations of various
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Neurotransmitters are chemicals that act as messengers in the synaptic transmission process. They are essential for human health and any imbalance in their activities can cause serious mental disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease. Hence, monitoring the concentrations of various neurotransmitters is of great importance in studying and diagnosing such mental illnesses. Recently, many researchers have explored the use of unique materials for developing biosensors for both in vivo and ex vivo neurotransmitter detection. A combination of nanomaterials, polymers, and biomolecules were incorporated to implement such sensor devices. For in vivo detection, electrochemical sensing has been commonly applied, with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry being the most promising technique to date, due to the advantages such as easy miniaturization, simple device architecture, and high sensitivity. However, the main challenges for in vivo electrochemical neurotransmitter sensors are limited target selectivity, large background signal and noise, and device fouling and degradation over time. Therefore, achieving simultaneous detection of multiple neurotransmitters in real time with long-term stability remains the focus of research. The purpose of this review paper is to summarize the recently developed sensing techniques with the focus on neurotransmitters as the target analyte, and to discuss the outlook of simultaneous detection of multiple neurotransmitter species. This paper is organized as follows: firstly, the common materials used for developing neurotransmitter sensors are discussed. Secondly, several sensor surface modification approaches to enhance sensing performance are reviewed. Finally, we discuss recent developments in the simultaneous detection capability of multiple neurotransmitters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Based Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessReview Polymeric Materials for Printed-Based Electroanalytical (Bio)Applications
Chemosensors 2017, 5(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors5040031
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advances in design of selective interfaces and printed technology have mighty contributed to the expansion of the electroanalysis fame. The real advantage in electroanalytical field is the possibility to manufacture and customize plenty of different sensing platforms, thus avoiding expensive equipment, hiring skilled
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Advances in design of selective interfaces and printed technology have mighty contributed to the expansion of the electroanalysis fame. The real advantage in electroanalytical field is the possibility to manufacture and customize plenty of different sensing platforms, thus avoiding expensive equipment, hiring skilled personnel, and expending economic effort. Growing developments in polymer science have led to further improvements in electroanalytical methods such as sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility, and accuracy. This review provides an overview of the technical procedures that are used in order to establish polymer effectiveness in printed-based electroanalytical methods. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of electronalytical sensors and biosensors, which highlights the diverse role of the polymeric materials depending on their specific application. A wide overview is provided, taking into account the most significant findings that have been reported from 2010 to 2017. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Based Chemical Sensors)
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