Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Healthcare, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 150-252

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Telemedicine, Telehealth and m-Health: New Frontiers in Medical Practice
Healthcare 2014, 2(2), 250-252; doi:10.3390/healthcare2020250
Received: 24 April 2014 / Revised: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 13 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (53 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Telemedicine is changing the practice of medicine. It is part of the ever-growing use of communications technology in health care being used in prevention, disease management, home health care, long-term (chronic) care, emergency medicine, remote medical imaging, and many other applications. The pace
[...] Read more.
Telemedicine is changing the practice of medicine. It is part of the ever-growing use of communications technology in health care being used in prevention, disease management, home health care, long-term (chronic) care, emergency medicine, remote medical imaging, and many other applications. The pace at which telemedicine is being adopted and integrated into the healthcare enterprise is exponential and, for many (even those in the field!), it is often difficult to keep up with all of the changes occurring. Thus, it is useful periodically to stand back and summarize recent advances, to take stock, analyze where we have been, and project where we are headed. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery
Healthcare 2014, 2(2), 150-165; doi:10.3390/healthcare2020150
Received: 26 November 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 27 March 2014
PDF Full-text (125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews
[...] Read more.
This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Burden of Obesity in Health Care)
Open AccessArticle Antifungal Effect of Non-Woven Textiles Containing Polyhexamethylene Biguanide with Sophorolipid: A Potential Method for Tinea Pedis Prevention
Healthcare 2014, 2(2), 183-191; doi:10.3390/healthcare2020183
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 21 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion.
[...] Read more.
Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion. This study investigates the antifungal effects, cytotoxicity, permeability, and efficacy of non-woven textiles containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) mixed with sophorolipid. Permeability of PHMB with varying concentrations of sophorolipid was assessed via a cultured skin model. Stratum corneum PHMB concentration was quantified by polyvinylsulphuric acid potassium salt titration and cytotoxicity was assayed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Antifungal effects were evaluated via a new cultured skin/Trichophyton mentagrophytes model, with varying PHMB exposure duration. Clinically-isolated Trichophyton were applied to the feet of four healthy volunteers and then immediately treated with the following methods: washing with soap, a non-woven textile with PHMB, the textile without PHMB, or without washing. Fungal colony forming units (CFUs) were evaluated after one of these treatments were performed. Sophorolipid with various concentrations significantly facilitated PHMB permeation into the stratum corneum, which was not in a dose-dependent manner. Significant PHMB antifungal effects were achieved at 30 min, with low cytotoxicity. Textiles containing PHMB significantly reduced CFU of fungi in healthy volunteers to levels comparable to soap washing. Our results indicate the utility of this product for tinea pedis prevention in clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wound Care) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle PNI Biomarkers and Health Outcomes in College Women
Healthcare 2014, 2(2), 207-219; doi:10.3390/healthcare2020207
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
PDF Full-text (118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sleep disturbance has been found to trigger a stress response with a subsequent activation of the psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) pathway associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the association among selected PNI biomarkers, sleep disturbances, and adverse health outcomes (depressive symptoms,
[...] Read more.
Sleep disturbance has been found to trigger a stress response with a subsequent activation of the psychoneuroimmunological (PNI) pathway associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the association among selected PNI biomarkers, sleep disturbances, and adverse health outcomes (depressive symptoms, physical symptoms). A stratified, quota sample (14 poor sleepers and 15 good sleepers) was drawn from a pool of healthy college women from a larger scale of study. The participants reported their sleep, stress, depressive, and physical symptoms. Wrist actigraphy was used to collect objective sleep data, and the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay was used to assess PNI biomarkers. Poor sleep quality, higher stress perception, elevated serum serotonin, and lower serum interleukin-10 explained 75.3% of the variances for the depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality along with delayed peak activity rhythms accounted 31.4% of the physical symptoms. High serotonin and tumor necrosis factor-α were the significant predictors for poor sleep efficiency, and serotonin was the single significant predictor for poor daytime functioning. Stress and sleep disturbances negatively impact the health of college women and should be as part of regular check-ups on campus. PNI effects on health outcomes should be further explored. Educational materials in the areas of sleep hygiene, health impacts from sleep disturbances, and strategies to maintain synchronized circadian rhythms should be mandatorily included in the college curriculum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Close Relationship: Health and Nutrition)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Obesity and Serious Mental Ill Health: A Critical Review of the Literature
Healthcare 2014, 2(2), 166-182; doi:10.3390/healthcare2020166
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 1 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (132 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Individuals who experience serious mental ill health such as schizophrenia are more likely to be overweight or obese than others in the general population. This high prevalence of obesity and other associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, contribute
[...] Read more.
Individuals who experience serious mental ill health such as schizophrenia are more likely to be overweight or obese than others in the general population. This high prevalence of obesity and other associated metabolic disturbances, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, contribute to a reduced life expectancy of up to 25 years. Several reasons have been proposed for high levels of obesity including a shared biological vulnerability between serious mental ill health and abnormal metabolic processes, potentially compounded by unhealthy lifestyles. However, emerging evidence suggests that the most significant cause of weight gain is the metabolic side effects of antipsychotic medication, usual treatment for people with serious mental ill health. In this paper we review the prevalence of obesity in people with serious mental ill health, explore the contribution that antipsychotic medication may make to weight gain and discuss the implications of this data for future research and the practice of mental health and other professionals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Burden of Obesity in Health Care)
Open AccessReview University-Based Teleradiology in the United States
Healthcare 2014, 2(2), 192-206; doi:10.3390/healthcare2020192
Received: 18 November 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 15 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reviews the University of Arizona’s more than 15 years of experience with teleradiology and provides an overview of university-based teleradiology practice in the United States (U.S.). In the U.S., teleradiology is a major economic enterprise with many private for-profit companies offering
[...] Read more.
This article reviews the University of Arizona’s more than 15 years of experience with teleradiology and provides an overview of university-based teleradiology practice in the United States (U.S.). In the U.S., teleradiology is a major economic enterprise with many private for-profit companies offering national teleradiology services (i.e., professional interpretation of radiologic studies of all types by American Board of Radiology certified radiologists). The initial thrust for teleradiology was for after-hours coverage of radiologic studies, but teleradiology has expanded its venue to include routine full-time or partial coverage for small hospitals, clinics, specialty medical practices, and urgent care centers. It also provides subspecialty radiologic coverage not available at smaller medical centers and clinics. Many U.S. university-based academic departments of radiology provide teleradiology services usually as an additional for-profit business to supplement departmental income. Since academic-based teleradiology providers have to compete in a very demanding marketplace, their success is not guaranteed. They must provide timely, high-quality professional services for a competitive price. Academic practices have the advantage of house officers and fellows who can help with the coverage, and they have excellent subspecialty expertise. The marketplace is constantly shifting, and university-based teleradiology practices have to be nimble and adjust to ever-changing situations. Full article
Open AccessReview Mobile Tele-Mental Health: Increasing Applications and a Move to Hybrid Models of Care
Healthcare 2014, 2(2), 220-233; doi:10.3390/healthcare2020220
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 22 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mobile telemental health is defined as the use of mobile phones and other wireless devices as applied to psychiatric and mental health practice. Applications of such include treatment monitoring and adherence, health promotion, ecological momentary assessment, and decision support systems. Advantages of mobile
[...] Read more.
Mobile telemental health is defined as the use of mobile phones and other wireless devices as applied to psychiatric and mental health practice. Applications of such include treatment monitoring and adherence, health promotion, ecological momentary assessment, and decision support systems. Advantages of mobile telemental health are underscored by its interactivity, just-in-time interventions, and low resource requirements and portability. Challenges in realizing this potential of mobile telemental health include the low penetration rates of health applications on mobile devices in part due to health literacy, the delay in current published research in evaluating newer technologies, and outdated research methodologies. Despite such challenges, one immediate opportunity for mobile telemental health is utilizing mobile devices as videoconferencing mediums for psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions enhanced by novel sensor based monitoring and behavior-prediction algorithms. This paper provides an overview of mobile telemental health and its current trends, as well as future opportunities as applied to patient care in both academic research and commercial ventures. Full article
Figures

Open AccessReview Update and Review on the Surgical Management of Primary Cutaneous Melanoma
Healthcare 2014, 2(2), 234-249; doi:10.3390/healthcare2020234
Received: 19 November 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 10 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The surgical management of malignant melanoma historically called for wide excision of skin and subcutaneous tissue for any given lesion, but has evolved to be rationally-based on pathological staging. Breslow and Clark independently described level and thickness as determinant in prognosis and margin
[...] Read more.
The surgical management of malignant melanoma historically called for wide excision of skin and subcutaneous tissue for any given lesion, but has evolved to be rationally-based on pathological staging. Breslow and Clark independently described level and thickness as determinant in prognosis and margin of excision. The American Joint Committee of Cancer (AJCC) in 1988 combined features from each of these histologic classifications, generating a new system, which is continuously updated and improved. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) has also combined several large randomized prospective trials to generate current guidelines for melanoma excision as well. In this article, we reviewed: (1) Breslow and Clark classifications, AJCC and NCCN guidelines, the World Health Organization’s 1988 study, and the Intergroup Melanoma Surgical Trial; (2) Experimental use of Mohs surgery for in situ melanoma; and (3) Surgical margins and utility and indications for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and lymphadenectomy. Current guidelines for the surgical management of a primary melanoma of the skin is based on Breslow microstaging and call for cutaneous margins of resection of 0.5 cm for MIS, 1.0 cm for melanomas ≤1.0 mm thick, 1–2 cm for melanoma thickness of 1.01–2 mm, 2 cm margins for melanoma thickness of 2.01–4 mm, and 2 cm margins for melanomas >4 mm thick. Although the role of SLNB, CLND, and TLND continue to be studied, current recommendations include SLNB for Stage IB (includes T1b lesions ≤1.0 with the adverse features of ulceration or ≥1 mitoses/mm2) and Stage II melanomas. CLND is recommended when sentinel nodes contain metastatic deposits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanoma and Neoplasms of Skin)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Healthcare Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
healthcare@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Healthcare
Back to Top