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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) We present a Spatial Information System (SIS) developed in the research project, “Traditional [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Social Force Model-Based Group Behavior Simulation in Virtual Geographic Environments
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020079
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Virtual geographic environments (VGEs) are extensively used to explore the relationship between humans and environments. Crowd simulation provides a method for VGEs to represent crowd behaviors that are observed in the real world. The social force model (SFM) can simulate interactions among individuals,
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Virtual geographic environments (VGEs) are extensively used to explore the relationship between humans and environments. Crowd simulation provides a method for VGEs to represent crowd behaviors that are observed in the real world. The social force model (SFM) can simulate interactions among individuals, but it has not sufficiently accounted for inter-group and intra-group behaviors which are important components of crowd dynamics. We present the social group force model (SGFM), based on an extended SFM, to simulate group behaviors in VGEs with focuses on the avoiding behaviors among different social groups and the coordinate behaviors among subgroups that belong to one social group. In our model, psychological repulsions between social groups make them avoid with the whole group and group members can stick together as much as possible; while social groups are separated into several subgroups, the rear subgroups try to catch up and keep the whole group cohesive. We compare the simulation results of the SGFM with the extended SFM and the phenomena in videos. Then we discuss the function of Virtual Reality (VR) in crowd simulation visualization. The results indicate that the SGFM can enhance social group behaviors in crowd dynamics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deriving Animal Movement Behaviors Using Movement Parameters Extracted from Location Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020078
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
We present a methodology for distinguishing between three types of animal movement behavior (foraging, resting, and walking) based on high-frequency tracking data. For each animal we quantify an individual movement path. A movement path is a temporal sequence consisting of the steps through
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We present a methodology for distinguishing between three types of animal movement behavior (foraging, resting, and walking) based on high-frequency tracking data. For each animal we quantify an individual movement path. A movement path is a temporal sequence consisting of the steps through space taken by an animal. By selecting a set of appropriate movement parameters, we develop a method to assess movement behavioral states, reflected by changes in the movement parameters. The two fundamental tasks of our study are segmentation and clustering. By segmentation, we mean the partitioning of the trajectory into segments, which are homogeneous in terms of their movement parameters. By clustering, we mean grouping similar segments together according to their estimated movement parameters. The proposed method is evaluated using field observations (done by humans) of movement behavior. We found that on average, our method agreed with the observational data (ground truth) at a level of 80.75% ± 5.9% (SE). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reliable Rescue Routing Optimization for Urban Emergency Logistics under Travel Time Uncertainty
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020077
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
The reliability of rescue routes is critical for urban emergency logistics during disasters. However, studies on reliable rescue routing under stochastic networks are still rare. This paper proposes a multiobjective rescue routing model for urban emergency logistics under travel time reliability. A hybrid
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The reliability of rescue routes is critical for urban emergency logistics during disasters. However, studies on reliable rescue routing under stochastic networks are still rare. This paper proposes a multiobjective rescue routing model for urban emergency logistics under travel time reliability. A hybrid metaheuristic integrating ant colony optimization (ACO) and tabu search (TS) was designed to solve the model. An experiment optimizing rescue routing plans under a real urban storm event, was carried out to validate the proposed model. The experimental results showed how our approach can improve rescue efficiency with high travel time reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human-Centric Data Science for Urban Studies)
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Open AccessProject Report The Rural Development Policy in Extremadura (SW Spain): Spatial Location Analysis of Leader Projects
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020076
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Since the 1990s, a series of rural development aid programs (LEADER Approach) has been implemented in European rural areas, including Extremadura, in order to solve the demographic, social, and economic problems that rural areas experience. The main objective of these programs is to
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Since the 1990s, a series of rural development aid programs (LEADER Approach) has been implemented in European rural areas, including Extremadura, in order to solve the demographic, social, and economic problems that rural areas experience. The main objective of these programs is to diversify the economy to reverse these problems. The purpose of this present paper is to study the distribution of the investments committed during the period of 2000–2013 in Extremadura according to the geolocation and to perform the analysis of clusters through Local Moran’s I, Getis-Ord Gi*, and Kernel Density in order to determine whether the results are related to the demographic and economic behavior of each territory of action and if these act as location factors for investments. We found that most dynamic towns receive more investments, leaving out the more physically, economically, and demographically disadvantaged ones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Open-Boundary Locally Weighted Dynamic Time Warping Method for Cropland Mapping
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020075
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes an open-boundary locally weighted dynamic time warping (OLWDTW) method using MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series data for cropland recognition. The method solves the problem of flexible planting times for crops in Southeast Asia, which has sufficient thermal and
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This paper proposes an open-boundary locally weighted dynamic time warping (OLWDTW) method using MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series data for cropland recognition. The method solves the problem of flexible planting times for crops in Southeast Asia, which has sufficient thermal and water conditions. For NDVI time series starting at the beginning of the year and terminating at the end of the year, the method can separate the non-growing season cycle and growing season cycle for crops. The non-growing season cycle may provide some useful information for crop recognition, such as soil conditions. However, the shape of the growing season’s NDVI time series for crops is the key to separating cropland from other land cover types because the shape contains all of the crop growth information. The principle of the OLWDTW method is to enhance the effects of the growing season cycle on the NDVI time series by adding a local weight to the growing season when comparing the similarity of time series based on the open-boundary dynamic time warping (DTW) method. Experiments with two satellite datasets located near the Khorat Plateau in the Lower Mekong Basin validate that OLWDTW effectively improves the precision of cropland recognition compared to a non-weighted open-boundary DTW method in terms of overall accuracy. The method’s classification accuracy on cropland exceeds the non-weighted open-boundary DTW by 5–7%. In future studies, an open-boundary self-adaption locally weighted DTW and a more effective combination rule for different crop types should be explored for the method’s best performance and highest extraction accuracy for cropland. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Classification of PolSAR Images by Stacked Random Forests
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020074
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes the use of Stacked Random Forests (SRF) for the classification of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar images. SRF apply several Random Forest instances in a sequence where each individual uses the class estimate of its predecessor as an additional feature. To
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This paper proposes the use of Stacked Random Forests (SRF) for the classification of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar images. SRF apply several Random Forest instances in a sequence where each individual uses the class estimate of its predecessor as an additional feature. To this aim, the internal node tests are designed to work not only directly on the complex-valued image data, but also on spatially varying probability distributions and thus allow a seamless integration of RFs within the stacking framework. Experimental results show that the classification performance is consistently improved by the proposed approach, i.e., the achieved accuracy is increased by 4 % and 7 % for one fully- and one dual-polarimetric dataset. This increase only comes at the cost of a linear increased training and prediction time, which is rather limited as the method converges quickly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning for Geospatial Data Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Forecasting Transplanted Rice Yield at the Farm Scale Using Moderate-Resolution Satellite Imagery and the AquaCrop Model: A Case Study of a Rice Seed Production Community in Thailand
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020073
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Thailand has recently introduced agricultural policies to promote large-scale rice farming through supporting and integrating small-scale farmers. However, achieving these policies requires agricultural tools that can assist farmers in rice farming planning and management. Crop models, along with remote sensing technologies, can be
[...] Read more.
Thailand has recently introduced agricultural policies to promote large-scale rice farming through supporting and integrating small-scale farmers. However, achieving these policies requires agricultural tools that can assist farmers in rice farming planning and management. Crop models, along with remote sensing technologies, can be useful for farmers and field managers in this regard. In this study, we used the AquaCrop model along with moderate-resolution satellite images (30 m) to simulate the rice yield for small-scale farmers. We conducted field surveys on rice characteristics in order to calibrate the crop model parameters. Data on rice crop, leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover (CC) and agricultural practices were used to calibrate the model. In addition, the optimal rice constant value for conversion of CC was investigated. HJ-1A/B satellite images were used to calculate the CC value, which was then used to simulate yield. The validated results were applied to 126 sample pixels within transplanted rice fields, which were extracted from satellite imagery of activated rice plots using equivalent transplanting methods to the study area. The rice yield simulated using the AquaCrop model and assimilated with the results of HJ-1A/B, produced a satisfactory outcome when implemented into the validated rice plots, with RMSE = 0.18 t ha−1 and R2 = 0.88. These results suggest that integration of moderate-resolution satellite imagery and this crop model are useful tools for assisting rice farmers and field managers in their planning and management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Component Selection-Based Discriminative Model for Object Detection in High-Resolution SAR Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020072
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes an innovative Adaptive Component Selection-Based Discriminative Model (ACSDM) for object detection in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In order to explore the structural relationships between the target and the components, a multi-scale detector consisting of a root filter and
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This paper proposes an innovative Adaptive Component Selection-Based Discriminative Model (ACSDM) for object detection in high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In order to explore the structural relationships between the target and the components, a multi-scale detector consisting of a root filter and several part filters is established, using Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features to describe the object from different resolutions. To make the detected components of practical significance, the size and anchor position of each component are determined through statistical methods. When training the root model and the corresponding part models, manual annotation is adopted to label the target in the training set. Besides, a penalty factor is introduced to compensate information loss in preprocessing. In the detection stage, the Small Area-Based Non-Maximum Suppression (SANMS) method is utilised for filtering out duplicate results. In the experiments, the aeroplanes in TerraSAR-X SAR images are detected by the ACSDM algorithm and different comparative methods. The results indicate that the proposed method has a lower false alarm rate and can detect the components accurately. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Footprints of Human Perceptual Experience in Geo-Social Media
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020071
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
Analyses of social media have increased in importance for understanding human behaviors, interests, and opinions. Business intelligence based on social media can reduce the costs of managing customer trend complexities. This paper focuses on analyzing sensation information representing human perceptual experiences in social
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Analyses of social media have increased in importance for understanding human behaviors, interests, and opinions. Business intelligence based on social media can reduce the costs of managing customer trend complexities. This paper focuses on analyzing sensation information representing human perceptual experiences in social media through the five senses: sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste. First a measurement is defined to estimate social sensation intensities, and subsequently sensation characteristics on geo-social media are identified using geo-spatial footprints. Finally, we evaluate the accuracy and F-measure of our approach by comparing with baselines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating and Optimizing Urban Green Spaces for Compact Urban Areas: Cukurova District in Adana, Turkey
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020070
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
In recent decades, the ever-decreasing number of green spaces have become insufficient to meet public demands in terms of accessibility, spatial distribution and the size of urban green areas. This is mainly due to increasing attention on the issue of accessibility to urban
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In recent decades, the ever-decreasing number of green spaces have become insufficient to meet public demands in terms of accessibility, spatial distribution and the size of urban green areas. This is mainly due to increasing attention on the issue of accessibility to urban green spaces. This paper aims to quantify accessibility according to existing qualitative and quantitative characteristics of urban green spaces (UGS) in Çukurova district in Adana, Turkey. Firstly, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of UGS are divided into five main categories: area size, amenities of the UGS, transportation, focal points and population density. A set of 59 criteria are used by referring to the literature and expert views. Secondly, the Weighted Criteria Method was used to determine the significance of levels within these criteria and the existing situation of each park was identified and scored via field work. Thirdly, accounts of the distance of UGS service areas distance from people or users were optimized according to the total scores of existing UGS sites. Finally, the service areas of UGS were mapped by using Network Analysis tools. Results highlight some practical implications of optimizing accessibility for urban planning, for instance, specific land uses might be chosen for highly accessible UGS particularly those characterized by their high area size and equipment variety, low population density, and proximity to units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Open AccessArticle Roughness Spectra Derived from Multi-Scale LiDAR Point Clouds of a Gravel Surface: A Comparison and Sensitivity Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020069
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
The roughness spectrum (i.e., the power spectral density) is a derivative of digital terrain models (DTMs) that is used as a surface roughness descriptor in many geomorphological and physical models. Although light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has become one of the main data
[...] Read more.
The roughness spectrum (i.e., the power spectral density) is a derivative of digital terrain models (DTMs) that is used as a surface roughness descriptor in many geomorphological and physical models. Although light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has become one of the main data sources for DTM calculation, it is still unknown how roughness spectra are affected when calculated from different LiDAR point clouds, or when they are processed differently. In this paper, we used three different LiDAR point clouds of a 1 m × 10 m gravel plot to derive and analyze the roughness spectra from the interpolated DTMs. The LiDAR point clouds were acquired using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), and laser scanning from both an unmanned aerial vehicle (ULS) and an airplane (ALS). The corresponding roughness spectra are derived first as ensemble averaged periodograms and then the spectral differences are analyzed with a dB threshold that is based on the 95% confidence intervals of the periodograms. The aim is to determine scales (spatial wavelengths) over which the analyzed spectra can be used interchangeably. The results show that one TLS scan can measure the roughness spectra for wavelengths larger than 1 cm (i.e., two times its footprint size) and up to 10 m, with spectral differences less than 0.65 dB. For the same dB threshold, the ULS and TLS spectra can be used interchangeably for wavelengths larger than about 1.2 dm (i.e., five times the ULS footprint size). However, the interpolation parameters should be optimized to make the ULS spectrum more accurate at wavelengths smaller than 1 m. The plot size was, however, too small to draw particular conclusions about ALS spectra. These results show that novel ULS data has a high potential to replace TLS for roughness spectrum calculation in many applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leading Progress in Digital Terrain Analysis and Modeling)
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Participatory and Collaborative Risk Mapping for Enhancing Disaster Resilience
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020068
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Critical knowledge gaps seriously hinder efforts for building disaster resilience at all levels, especially in disaster-prone least developed countries. Information deficiency is most serious at local levels, especially in terms of spatial information on risk, resources, and capacities of communities. To tackle this
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Critical knowledge gaps seriously hinder efforts for building disaster resilience at all levels, especially in disaster-prone least developed countries. Information deficiency is most serious at local levels, especially in terms of spatial information on risk, resources, and capacities of communities. To tackle this challenge, we develop a general methodological approach that integrates community-based participatory mapping processes, one that has been widely used by governments and non-government organizations in the fields of natural resources management, disaster risk reduction and rural development, with emerging collaborative digital mapping techniques. We demonstrate the value and potential of this integrated participatory and collaborative mapping approach by conducting a pilot study in the flood-prone lower Karnali river basin in Western Nepal. The process engaged a wide range of stakeholders and non-stakeholder citizens to co-produce locally relevant geographic information on resources, capacities, and flood risks of selected communities. The new digital community maps are richer in content, more accurate, and easier to update and share than those produced by conventional Vulnerability and Capacity Assessments (VCAs), a variant of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), that is widely used by various government and non-government organizations. We discuss how this integrated mapping approach may provide an effective link between coordinating and implementing local disaster risk reduction and resilience building interventions to designing and informing regional development plans, as well as its limitations in terms of technological barrier, map ownership, and empowerment potential. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Automatic User Grouping Model for a Group Recommender System in Location-Based Social Networks
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020067
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Spatial group recommendation refers to suggesting places to a given set of users. In a group recommender system, members of a group should have similar preferences in order to increase the level of satisfaction. Location-based social networks (LBSNs) provide rich content, such as
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Spatial group recommendation refers to suggesting places to a given set of users. In a group recommender system, members of a group should have similar preferences in order to increase the level of satisfaction. Location-based social networks (LBSNs) provide rich content, such as user interactions and location/event descriptions, which can be leveraged for group recommendations. In this paper, an automatic user grouping model is introduced that obtains information about users and their preferences through an LBSN. The preferences of the users, proximity of the places the users have visited in terms of spatial range, users’ free days, and the social relationships among users are extracted automatically from location histories and users’ profiles in the LBSN. These factors are combined to determine the similarities among users. The users are partitioned into groups based on these similarities. Group size is the key to coordinating group members and enhancing their satisfaction. Therefore, a modified k-medoids method is developed to cluster users into groups with specific sizes. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, its mean intra-cluster distance and its distribution of cluster sizes are compared to those of general clustering algorithms. The results reveal that the proposed method compares favourably with general clustering approaches, such as k-medoids and spectral clustering, in separating users into groups of a specific size with a lower mean intra-cluster distance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geoinformatics in Citizen Science)
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Open AccessReview A Critical Review of the Integration of Geographic Information System and Building Information Modelling at the Data Level
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020066
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 18 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
The benefits brought by the integration of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are being proved by more and more research. The integration of the two systems is difficult for many reasons. Among them, data incompatibility is the most significant,
[...] Read more.
The benefits brought by the integration of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are being proved by more and more research. The integration of the two systems is difficult for many reasons. Among them, data incompatibility is the most significant, as BIM and GIS data are created, managed, analyzed, stored, and visualized in different ways in terms of coordinate systems, scope of interest, and data structures. The objective of this paper is to review the relevant research papers to (1) identify the most relevant data models used in BIM/GIS integration and understand their advantages and disadvantages; (2) consider the possibility of other data models that are available for data level integration; and (3) provide direction on the future of BIM/GIS data integration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Visually-Enabled Active Deep Learning for (Geo) Text and Image Classification: A Review
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020065
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
This paper investigates recent research on active learning for (geo) text and image classification, with an emphasis on methods that combine visual analytics and/or deep learning. Deep learning has attracted substantial attention across many domains of science and practice, because it can find
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This paper investigates recent research on active learning for (geo) text and image classification, with an emphasis on methods that combine visual analytics and/or deep learning. Deep learning has attracted substantial attention across many domains of science and practice, because it can find intricate patterns in big data; but successful application of the methods requires a big set of labeled data. Active learning, which has the potential to address the data labeling challenge, has already had success in geospatial applications such as trajectory classification from movement data and (geo) text and image classification. This review is intended to be particularly relevant for extension of these methods to GISience, to support work in domains such as geographic information retrieval from text and image repositories, interpretation of spatial language, and related geo-semantics challenges. Specifically, to provide a structure for leveraging recent advances, we group the relevant work into five categories: active learning, visual analytics, active learning with visual analytics, active deep learning, plus GIScience and Remote Sensing (RS) using active learning and active deep learning. Each category is exemplified by recent influential work. Based on this framing and our systematic review of key research, we then discuss some of the main challenges of integrating active learning with visual analytics and deep learning, and point out research opportunities from technical and application perspectives—for application-based opportunities, with emphasis on those that address big data with geospatial components. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Accounting for and Predicting the Influence of Spatial Autocorrelation in Water Quality Modeling
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020064
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 19 February 2018
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Abstract
Several studies in the hydrology field have reported differences in outcomes between models in which spatial autocorrelation (SAC) is accounted for and those in which SAC is not. However, the capacity to predict the magnitude of such differences is still ambiguous. In this
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Several studies in the hydrology field have reported differences in outcomes between models in which spatial autocorrelation (SAC) is accounted for and those in which SAC is not. However, the capacity to predict the magnitude of such differences is still ambiguous. In this study, we hypothesized that SAC, inherently possessed by a response variable, influences spatial modeling outcomes. We selected ten watersheds in the USA and analyzed if water quality variables with higher Moran’s I values undergo greater increases in the coefficient of determination (R2) and greater decreases in residual SAC (rSAC). We compared non-spatial ordinary least squares to two spatial regression approaches, namely, spatial lag and error models. The predictors were the principal components of topographic, land cover, and soil group variables. The results revealed that water quality variables with higher inherent SAC showed more substantial increases in R2 and decreases in rSAC after performing spatial regressions. In this study, we found a generally linear relationship between the spatial model outcomes (R2 and rSAC) and the degree of SAC in each water quality variable. We suggest that the inherent level of SAC in response variables can predict improvements in models before spatial regression is performed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Knowledge-Informed and Pareto-Based Artificial Bee Colony Optimization Algorithm for Multi-Objective Land-Use Allocation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020063
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
Land-use allocation is of great significance in urban development. This type of allocation is usually considered to be a complex multi-objective spatial optimization problem, whose optimized result is a set of Pareto-optimal solutions (Pareto front) reflecting different tradeoffs in several objectives. However, obtaining
[...] Read more.
Land-use allocation is of great significance in urban development. This type of allocation is usually considered to be a complex multi-objective spatial optimization problem, whose optimized result is a set of Pareto-optimal solutions (Pareto front) reflecting different tradeoffs in several objectives. However, obtaining a Pareto front is a challenging task, and the Pareto front obtained by state-of-the-art algorithms is still not sufficient. To achieve better Pareto solutions, taking the grid-representative land-use allocation problem with two objectives as an example, an artificial bee colony optimization algorithm for multi-objective land-use allocation (ABC-MOLA) is proposed. In this algorithm, the traditional ABC’s search direction guiding scheme and solution maintaining process are modified. In addition, a knowledge-informed neighborhood search strategy, which utilizes the auxiliary knowledge of natural geography and spatial structures to facilitate the neighborhood spatial search around each solution, is developed to further improve the Pareto front’s quality. A series of comparison experiments (a simulated experiment with small data volume and a real-world data experiment for a large area) shows that all the Pareto fronts obtained by ABC-MOLA totally dominate the Pareto fronts by other algorithms, which demonstrates ABC-MOLA’s effectiveness in achieving Pareto fronts of high quality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Smart Web-Based Geospatial Data Discovery System with Oceanographic Data as an Example
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020062
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
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Abstract
Discovering and accessing geospatial data presents a significant challenge for the Earth sciences community as massive amounts of data are being produced on a daily basis. In this article, we report a smart web-based geospatial data discovery system that mines and utilizes data
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Discovering and accessing geospatial data presents a significant challenge for the Earth sciences community as massive amounts of data are being produced on a daily basis. In this article, we report a smart web-based geospatial data discovery system that mines and utilizes data relevancy from metadata user behavior. Specifically, (1) the system enables semantic query expansion and suggestion to assist users in finding more relevant data; (2) machine-learned ranking is utilized to provide the optimal search ranking based on a number of identified ranking features that can reflect users’ search preferences; (3) a hybrid recommendation module is designed to allow users to discover related data considering metadata attributes and user behavior; (4) an integrated graphic user interface design is developed to quickly and intuitively guide data consumers to the appropriate data resources. As a proof of concept, we focus on a well-defined domain-oceanography and use oceanographic data discovery as an example. Experiments and a search example show that the proposed system can improve the scientific community’s data search experience by providing query expansion, suggestion, better search ranking, and data recommendation via a user-friendly interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Web and Mobile GIS)
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Analysis of Digital Imagery of Weeds in a Maize Crop
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020061
Received: 16 December 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract
Modern photographic imaging of agricultural crops can pin-point individual weeds, the patterns of which can be analyzed statistically to reveal how they are affected by variation in soil, by competition from other species and by agricultural operations. This contrasts with previous research on
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Modern photographic imaging of agricultural crops can pin-point individual weeds, the patterns of which can be analyzed statistically to reveal how they are affected by variation in soil, by competition from other species and by agricultural operations. This contrasts with previous research on the patchiness of weeds that has generally used grid sampling and ignored processes operating at a fine scale. Nevertheless, an understanding of the interaction of biology, environment and management at all scales will be required to underpin robust precise control of weeds. We studied the spatial distributions of six common weed species in a maize field in central Spain. We obtained digital imagery of a rectangular plot 41.0 m by 10.5 m (= 430.5 m2) and from it recorded the exact coordinates of every seedling: more than 82,000 individuals in all. We analyzed the resulting body of data using three techniques: an aggregation analysis of the punctual distributions, a geostatistical analysis of quadrat counts and wavelet analysis of quadrat counts. We found that all species were aggregated with average distances across patches ranging from 3 cm–18 cm. Species with small seeds tended to occur in larger patches than those with large seeds. Several species had aggregation patterns that repeated periodically at right angles to the direction of the crop rows. Wheel tracks favored some species (e.g., thornapple), whereas other species (e.g., johnsongrass) were denser elsewhere. Interactions between species at finer scales (<1 m) were negligible, although a negative correlation between thornapple and cocklebur was evident. We infer that the spatial distributions of weeds at the fine scales are products both of their biology and local environment caused by cultivation, with interactions between species playing a minor role. Spatial analysis of such high-resolution imagery can reveal patterns that are not immediately evident from sampling at coarser scales and aid our understanding of how and why weeds aggregate in patches. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Holo3DGIS: Leveraging Microsoft HoloLens in 3D Geographic Information
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020060
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 6 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
Three-dimensional geographic information systems (3D GIS) attempt to understand and express the real world from the perspective of 3D space. Currently, 3D GIS perspective carriers are mainly 2D and not 3D, which influences how 3D information is expressed and further affects the user
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Three-dimensional geographic information systems (3D GIS) attempt to understand and express the real world from the perspective of 3D space. Currently, 3D GIS perspective carriers are mainly 2D and not 3D, which influences how 3D information is expressed and further affects the user cognition and understanding of 3D information. Using mixed reality as a carrier of 3D GIS is promising and may overcome problems when using 2D perspective carriers in 3D GIS. The objective of this paper is to propose an architecture and method to leverage the Microsoft HoloLens in 3D geographic information (Holo3DGIS). The architecture is designed according to three processes for developing holographic 3D GIS; the three processes are the creation of a 3D asset, the development of a Holo3DGIS application, and the compiler deployment of the Holo3DGIS application. Basic geographic data of Philadelphia were used to test the proposed methods and Holo3DGIS. The experimental results showed that the Holo3DGIS can leverage 3D geographic information with the Microsoft HoloLens. By changing the traditional 3D geographic information carrier from a 2D computer screen perspective to mixed reality glasses using the HoloLens 3D holographic perspective, it changed the traditional vision, body sense, and interaction modes, which enables GIS users to experience real 3D GIS. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial Introduction to the Special Issue: “Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems”
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020059
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
The content of this Special Issue has its origin in the “5th International FIG Workshop on 3D Cadastres”, organized in Athens, Greece, 18–20 October 2016 [1][...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Interpreting the Fuzzy Semantics of Natural-Language Spatial Relation Terms with the Fuzzy Random Forest Algorithm
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020058
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
Naïve Geography, intelligent geographical information systems (GIS), and spatial data mining especially from social media all rely on natural-language spatial relations (NLSR) terms to incorporate commonsense spatial knowledge into conventional GIS and to enhance the semantic interoperability of spatial information in social media
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Naïve Geography, intelligent geographical information systems (GIS), and spatial data mining especially from social media all rely on natural-language spatial relations (NLSR) terms to incorporate commonsense spatial knowledge into conventional GIS and to enhance the semantic interoperability of spatial information in social media data. Yet, the inherent fuzziness of NLSR terms makes them challenging to interpret. This study proposes to interpret the fuzzy semantics of NLSR terms using the fuzzy random forest (FRF) algorithm. Based on a large number of fuzzy samples acquired by transforming a set of crisp samples with the random forest algorithm, two FRF models with different membership assembling strategies are trained to obtain the fuzzy interpretation of three line-region geometric representations using 69 NLSR terms. Experimental results demonstrate that the two FRF models achieve good accuracy in interpreting line-region geometric representations using fuzzy NLSR terms. In addition, fuzzy classification of FRF can interpret the fuzzy semantics of NLSR terms more fully than their crisp counterparts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Gross Primary Production (GPP) over the Past Two Decades Due to Land Use Conversion in a Tourism City
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020057
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
Understanding the changes in gross primary production (GPP), which is the total carbon fixation by terrestrial ecosystems through vegetation photosynthesis, due to land use conversion in a tourism city is important for carbon cycle studies. Satellite data from Landsat 5, Landsat 7 and
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Understanding the changes in gross primary production (GPP), which is the total carbon fixation by terrestrial ecosystems through vegetation photosynthesis, due to land use conversion in a tourism city is important for carbon cycle studies. Satellite data from Landsat 5, Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 and meteorological data are used to calculate annual GPP for 1995, 2003 and 2014, respectively, using the vegetation production model (VPM) in the tourism city Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Five land use types generated from topographic maps in three different years over the past two decades are used to quantify the impacts of land use changes on GPP estimation values. Analysis was performed for two periods to determine changes in land use and GPP value as well as their speed. The results demonstrated that urban land development, namely, the increase of settlement areas due to tourism activity, had overall negative effects on terrestrial GPP. The total GPP of the whole area decreased by 7793.96 tC year−1 (12.65%) during the study period. The decline is due to the conversion of agriculture and grassland area into settlements, which caused the city to lose half of its ability to uptake carbon through vegetation. However, although forest area is declining, forest maintenance and restoration by making them protection areas has been helpful in preventing a drastic decline in GPP value over the past two decades. This study provides information that is useful for carbon resource management, tourism, policy making and scholars concerned about carbon reduction in a tourism city. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Examining the Association of Economic Development with Intercity Multimodal Transport Demand in China: A Focus on Spatial Autoregressive Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020056
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
Transportation is generally perceived as a catalyst for economic development. This has been highlighted in previous studies. However, less attention has been paid to examine the relationship between economy and transport demand by exploring spatially cross-sectional data, especially for countries with significant regional
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Transportation is generally perceived as a catalyst for economic development. This has been highlighted in previous studies. However, less attention has been paid to examine the relationship between economy and transport demand by exploring spatially cross-sectional data, especially for countries with significant regional economic imbalance, like China. In this article, we assess the economic influence of intercity multimodal transport demand at the prefecture level in China. Spatial autoregressive regression models are used to examine the impact of transport demand on economy by deep analysis of transport modes (land, air, and water) and regions (eastern, central, and western). Through contrasting results from spatial lag model and spatial error model with those from the ordinary least square, this study finds that the estimation results can become more accurate by controlling for spatial autocorrelation, especially at the national level. Through rigorous analysis it is identified that except for water passenger traffic, all other intercity transport demand significantly contribute to a city’s economic development level in gross domestic product. In particular, air transport demands distribute more evenly and are estimated with the highest beta coefficients at both national and regional levels. In addition, the beta coefficients for land, air and water transportation are estimated with different magnitudes and significances at the national and regional levels. This study contributes to the ongoing discussion on the relationship between intercity multimodal transport demand and economic development level. Findings from this paper provide planning makers with valid and efficient strategies to better develop the economy by leveraging the special “⊣” cluster pattern of economic development and the benefits of air transportation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterizing 3D City Modeling Projects: Towards a Harmonized Interoperable System
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020055
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
3D city models have become common geospatial data assets for cities that can be utilized in numerous fields, in tasks related to planning, visualization, and decision-making among others. We present a study of 3D city modeling focusing on the six largest cities in
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3D city models have become common geospatial data assets for cities that can be utilized in numerous fields, in tasks related to planning, visualization, and decision-making among others. We present a study of 3D city modeling focusing on the six largest cities in Finland. The study portrays a contradiction between the realized 3D city modeling projects and the expectations towards them: models do not appear to reach the broad applicability envisioned. In order to deal with contradiction and to support the development of future 3D city models, characteristics of different operational cultures in 3D city modeling are presented, and a concept for harmonizing the 3D city modeling is suggested. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Heterogeneous Distributed Virtual Geographic Environment—Potential Application in Spatiotemporal Behavior Experiments
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020054
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
Due to their strong immersion and real-time interactivity, helmet-mounted virtual reality (VR) devices are becoming increasingly popular. Based on these devices, an immersive virtual geographic environment (VGE) provides a promising method for research into crowd behavior in an emergency. However, the current cheaper
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Due to their strong immersion and real-time interactivity, helmet-mounted virtual reality (VR) devices are becoming increasingly popular. Based on these devices, an immersive virtual geographic environment (VGE) provides a promising method for research into crowd behavior in an emergency. However, the current cheaper helmet-mounted VR devices are not popular enough, and will continue to coexist with personal computer (PC)-based systems for a long time. Therefore, a heterogeneous distributed virtual geographic environment (HDVGE) could be a feasible solution to the heterogeneous problems caused by various types of clients, and support the implementation of spatiotemporal crowd behavior experiments with large numbers of concurrent participants. In this study, we developed an HDVGE framework, and put forward a set of design principles to define the similarities between the real world and the VGE. We discussed the HDVGE architecture, and proposed an abstract interaction layer, a protocol-based interaction algorithm, and an adjusted dead reckoning algorithm to solve the heterogeneous distributed problems. We then implemented an HDVGE prototype system focusing on subway fire evacuation experiments. Two types of clients are considered in the system: PC, and all-in-one VR. Finally, we evaluated the performances of the prototype system and the key algorithms. The results showed that in a low-latency local area network (LAN) environment, the prototype system can smoothly support 90 concurrent users consisting of PC and all-in-one VR clients. HDVGE provides a feasible solution for studying not only spatiotemporal crowd behaviors in normal conditions, but also evacuation behaviors in emergency conditions such as fires and earthquakes. HDVGE could also serve as a new means of obtaining observational data about individual and group behavior in support of human geography research. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report An Effective Privacy Architecture to Preserve User Trajectories in Reward-Based LBS Applications
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020053
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract
How can training performance data (e.g., running or walking routes) be collected, measured, and published in a mobile program while preserving user privacy? This question is becoming important in the context of the growing use of reward-based location-based service (LBS) applications, which aim
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How can training performance data (e.g., running or walking routes) be collected, measured, and published in a mobile program while preserving user privacy? This question is becoming important in the context of the growing use of reward-based location-based service (LBS) applications, which aim to promote employee training activities and to share such data with insurance companies in order to reduce the healthcare insurance costs of an organization. One of the main concerns of such applications is the privacy of user trajectories, because the applications normally collect user locations over time with identities. The leak of the identified trajectories often results in personal privacy breaches. For instance, a trajectory would expose user interest in places and behaviors in time by inference and linking attacks. This information can be used for spam advertisements or individual-based assaults. To the best of our knowledge, no existing studies can be directly applied to solve the problem while keeping data utility. In this paper, we identify the personal privacy problem in a reward-based LBS application and propose privacy architecture with a bounded perturbation technique to protect user’s trajectory from the privacy breaches. Bounded perturbation uses global location set (GLS) to anonymize the trajectory data. In addition, the bounded perturbation will not generate any visiting points that are not possible to visit in real time. The experimental results on real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed bounded perturbation can effectively anonymize location information while preserving data utility compared to the existing methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Expansion Analysis of Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Imagery for 1993 to 2012
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020052
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract
Investigating the characteristics of urban expansion is helpful in managing the relationship between urbanization and the ecological and environmental issues related to sustainable development. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Line-scan System (DMSP/OLS) collects visible and near-infrared light from the Earth’s surface at night
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Investigating the characteristics of urban expansion is helpful in managing the relationship between urbanization and the ecological and environmental issues related to sustainable development. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Line-scan System (DMSP/OLS) collects visible and near-infrared light from the Earth’s surface at night without moonlight. It generates effective time series data for mapping the dynamics of urban expansion. As a major urban agglomeration in the world, the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) is an important intersection zone of both the “Belt and Road Initiative” and the “Yangtze River Economic Belt” in China. Therefore, this paper analyses urban expansion characteristics of the YRDUA for 1993–2012 from urban extents extracted from the DMSP/OLS for 1993, 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012. First, calibration procedures are applied to DMSP/OLS data, including intercalibration, intra-annual composition, and inter-annual series correction procedures. Spatial extents are then extracted from the corrected DMSP/OLS data, and a threshold is determined via the spatial comparison method. Finally, three models are used to explore urban expansion characteristics of the YRDUA from expansion rates, expansion spatial patterns, and expansion evaluations. The results show that the urban expansion of the YRDUA occurred at an increasing rate from 1993–2007 and then declined after 2007 with the onset of the global financial crisis. The Suxichang and Ningbo metropolitan circles were seriously affected by the financial crisis, while the Hefei metropolitan circle was not. The urban expansion of the YRDUA moved from the northeast to the southwest over the 20-year period. Urban expansion involved internal infilling over the first 15 years and then evolved into external sprawl and suburbanization after 2007. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Hydrological Sensitivity for Flood Risk Assessment
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020051
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract
In order for the Indian government to maximize Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), the Brahmaputra River has played an important role in the undertaking of the Pilot Basin Study (PBS) due to the Brahmaputra River’s annual regional flooding. The selected Kulsi River—a part
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In order for the Indian government to maximize Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), the Brahmaputra River has played an important role in the undertaking of the Pilot Basin Study (PBS) due to the Brahmaputra River’s annual regional flooding. The selected Kulsi River—a part of Brahmaputra sub-basin—experienced severe floods in 2007 and 2008. In this study, the Rainfall-Runoff-Inundation (RRI) hydrological model was used to simulate the recent historical flood in order to understand and improve the integrated flood risk management plan. The ultimate objective was to evaluate the sensitivity of hydrologic simulation using different Digital Elevation Model (DEM) resources, coupled with DEM smoothing techniques, with a particular focus on the comparison of river discharge and flood inundation extent. As a result, the sensitivity analysis showed that, among the input parameters, the RRI model is highly sensitive to Manning’s roughness coefficient values for flood plains, followed by the source of the DEM, and then soil depth. After optimizing its parameters, the simulated inundation extent showed that the smoothing filter was more influential than its simulated discharge at the outlet. Finally, the calibrated and validated RRI model simulations agreed well with the observed discharge and the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-detected flood extents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and a New Correlation Algorithm to Urban Construction and Supervision Using Multi-Source Government Data in Tianjin
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7020050
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 5 February 2018
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Abstract
As the era of big data approaches, big data has attracted increasing amounts of attention from researchers. Various types of studies have been conducted and these studies have focused particularly on the management, organization, and correlation of data and calculations using data. Most
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As the era of big data approaches, big data has attracted increasing amounts of attention from researchers. Various types of studies have been conducted and these studies have focused particularly on the management, organization, and correlation of data and calculations using data. Most studies involving big data address applications in scientific, commercial, and ecological fields. However, the application of big data to government management is also needed. This paper examines the application of multi-source government data to urban construction and supervision in Tianjin, China. The analytic hierarchy process and a new approach called the correlation degree algorithm are introduced to calculate the degree of correlation between different approval items in one construction project and between different construction projects. The results show that more than 75% of the construction projects and their approval items are highly correlated. The results of this study suggest that most of the examined construction projects are well supervised, have relatively high probabilities of satisfying the relevant legal requirements, and observe their initial planning schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Big Data and Urban Studies)
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