Special Issue "Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2017

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr.ir. Peter van Oosterom

Section GIS technology, Department OTB Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: spatial databases (3D, performance, constraints, temporal, …); GIS architectures; spatial analysis; generalization; vario-scale; 5D modeling; querying and presentation; internet/interoperable GIS and (3D) cadastral applications
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Efi Dimopoulou

School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechneiou, 9, Athens 15780, Greece
E-Mail
Interests: cadastre; spatial information management; land policy; GIS; 3D cadastres and cadastral modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is devoted to all aspects of 3D Cadastres: legal, organization, and technical aspects. This is a subject where practice and research do meet, influence, stimulate and support each other. The Special Issue aims for papers showing the progress in key areas of 3D Cadastres: Legal framework 3D Cadastres, Initial registration of 3D parcels, 3D data management, Visualization, distribution and delivery of 3D parcels.

The increasing complexity of infrastructures and densely built-up areas requires a proper registration of the legal status (private and public), which can only be provided to a limited extent by the existing 2D cadastral registrations. The registration of the legal status in complex 3D situations will be investigated under the header of 3D Cadastres. Typical papers are expected to addresses the following 3D Cadastral topics:

  • 3D Cadastre operational experiences (analysis, LADM based, learn from each other, discover gaps)
  • 3D Cadastre cost effective work flow for new/updated 3D parcels = 4D (part of whole chain: from planning/design/permit in 3D, to registration/use in 3D)
  • 3D Cadastre web-based dissemination (usability, man-machine interfaces, including mobile/AR)
  • Legal aspects for 3D Cadastre, best legal practises in various legislation systems
  • Focus on large cities, including developing countries

You are cordially invited to submit your 3D Cadastre contribution to this special issue.

Prof. Dr.ir. Peter van Oosterom
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Dimopoulou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D cadastres
  • spatial databases
  • geographic information systems,
  • survey plans
  • 3D visualization
  • rights, restrictions, responsibilities
  • standardization
  • spatial data infrastructure
  • real property
  • utility networks

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Overview of the Croatian Land Administration System and the Possibilities for Its Upgrade to 3D by Existing Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 223; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070223
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper explores the laws and other legal acts related to the Croatian 3D cadastre with an emphasis on those which relate to interests in strata, spatial planning, and other regulations that are valid or were valid on Croatian territory. The effects of
[...] Read more.
This paper explores the laws and other legal acts related to the Croatian 3D cadastre with an emphasis on those which relate to interests in strata, spatial planning, and other regulations that are valid or were valid on Croatian territory. The effects of the application of these regulations on the present situation of registration in cadastre and land register were considered. This paper also explores current legal, institutional, and technical solutions implemented in the Croatian Land Administration System and the possibilities for its upgrade to 3D cadastre. Implementation of any technological option to establish a 3D cadastre is tightly related to legislation. Hence, legislation and technological options are considered to find solutions that will be possible to implement. One suggestion presented in this paper was to use other sources of 3D data such as topographic signs or symbols used to represent topographic objects on 2D maps. In combination with other geodetic and cartographic products, useful information can be obtained, often quite relevant to provide a reference context for a 3D cadastre. Topographic signs on topographic maps and on other geodetic products provide a representation of complex real-world situations (tunnels, bridges, overpasses etc.) that are not usually presented on cadastral maps. This paper presents the possibility of utilizing those topographic signs to achieve the first steps towards establishing a 3D cadastre. Furthermore, this study proposes the establishment of a 3D Multipurpose Land Administration System as the most efficient system of land administration in a time when spatial information is easier to obtain than ever before and traditional real estate registers are subject to frequent and demanding changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Performance of Three BIM-Based Views of Buildings for Communication and Management of Vertically Stratified Legal Interests
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 198; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070198
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Multistorey buildings typically include stratified legal interests which provide entitlements to a community of owners to lawfully possess private properties and use communal and public properties. The spatial arrangements of these legal interests are often defined by multiplexing cognitively outlined spaces and physical
[...] Read more.
Multistorey buildings typically include stratified legal interests which provide entitlements to a community of owners to lawfully possess private properties and use communal and public properties. The spatial arrangements of these legal interests are often defined by multiplexing cognitively outlined spaces and physical elements of a building. In order to support 3D digital management and communication of legal arrangements of properties, a number of spatial data models have been recently developed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Building Information Modelling (BIM) domains. While some data models, such as CityGML, IndoorGML or IFC, provide a merely physical representation of the built environment, others, e.g., LADM, mainly rely on legal data elements to support a purely legal view of multistorey buildings. More recently, spatial data models integrating legal and physical notions of multistorey buildings have been proposed to overcome issues associated with purely legal models and purely physical ones. In previous investigations, it has been found that the 3D digital data environment of BIM has the flexibility to utilize either only physical elements or only legal spaces, or an integrated view of both legal spaces and physical elements to represent spatial arrangements of stratified legal interests. In this article, the performance of these three distinct BIM-based representations of legal interests defined inside multistorey buildings is assessed in the context of the Victorian jurisdiction of Australia. The assessment metrics are a number of objects and geometry batches, visualization speed in terms of frame rate, query time, modelling legal boundaries, and visual communication of legal boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Toward the Development of a Marine Administration System Based on International Standards
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 194; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070194
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
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Abstract
The interests, responsibilities and opportunities of states to provide infrastructure and resource management are not limited to their land territory but extend to marine areas as well. So far, although the theoretical structure of a Marine Administration System (MAS) is based on the
[...] Read more.
The interests, responsibilities and opportunities of states to provide infrastructure and resource management are not limited to their land territory but extend to marine areas as well. So far, although the theoretical structure of a Marine Administration System (MAS) is based on the management needs of the various countries, the marine terms have not been clearly defined. In order to define an MAS that meets the spatial marine requirements, the specific characteristics of the marine environment have to be identified and integrated in a management system. Most publications that address the Marine Cadastre (MC) concept acknowledge the three-dimensional (3D) character of marine spaces and support the need for MC to function as a multipurpose instrument. The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) conceptual standard ISO 19152 has been referenced in scholarly and professional works to have explicit relevance to 3D cadastres in exposed land and built environments. However, to date, very little has been done in any of those works to explicitly and comprehensively apply LADM to specific jurisdictional MAS or MC, although the standard purports to be applicable to those areas. Since so far the most comprehensive MC modeling approach is the S-121 Maritime Limits and Boundaries (MLB) Standard, which refers to LADM, this paper proposes several modifications including, among others, the introduction of class marine resources into the model, the integration of data on legal spaces and physical features through external classes, as well as the division of law and administrative sources. Within this context, this paper distinctly presents both appropriate modifications and applications of the IHO S-121 standard to the particular marine and maritime administrative needs of both Greece and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Addressing Public Law Restrictions within a 3D Cadastral Context
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 182; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070182
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Public law affects contemporary life by imposing various regulations that apply in 3D space. However, such restrictions are either literally described in legal documents or presented on a horizontal plane, resulting in ambiguities, especially in the case of vertically overlapping restrictions with a
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Public law affects contemporary life by imposing various regulations that apply in 3D space. However, such restrictions are either literally described in legal documents or presented on a horizontal plane, resulting in ambiguities, especially in the case of vertically overlapping restrictions with a significant impact on land management. This paper investigates public law restrictions (PLR) applying to 3D space and their management within a 3D cadastral context. Within this framework, a case study is examined in Greece concerning the establishment of a subway station, focusing on public utilities, archaeological legislation, and building regulations. Relative legal documentation is compiled and mapped in a 3D PLR model, presenting inefficiencies and malfunctions that can be resolved if PLRs are addressed within a 3D cadastral context. Stipulations implying restrictions in 3D space within current legislation are presented, along with the restrictions deriving from the absolute character of ownership right, thus highlighting the significance of 3D definition, modeling and recording of PLRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle LandXML Encoding of Mixed 2D and 3D Survey Plans with Multi-Level Topology
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(6), 171; doi:10.3390/ijgi6060171
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract
Cadastral spatial units around the world range from simple 2D parcels to complex 3D collections of spaces, defined at levels of sophistication from textural descriptions to complete, rigorous mathematical descriptions based on measurements and coordinates. The most common spatial unit in a cadastral
[...] Read more.
Cadastral spatial units around the world range from simple 2D parcels to complex 3D collections of spaces, defined at levels of sophistication from textural descriptions to complete, rigorous mathematical descriptions based on measurements and coordinates. The most common spatial unit in a cadastral database is the 2D land parcel—the basic unit subject to cadastral Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities (RRR). Built on this is a varying complexity of 3D subdivisions and secondary interests. Spatial units may also be subdivided into smaller units, with the remainder being kept as common property for the owners/tenants of the individual units. This has led to the adoption of hierarchical multi-level schemes. In this paper, we explore the encoding of spatial units in a way that highlights their 2D extent and topology, while fully defining their extent in the third dimension. Obviously, topological encoding itself is not new. However, having mixed a 2D and 3D topological structure is rather challenging. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of mixed 2D and 3D topology, it is currently not used in LandXML, one of the main and best documented formats when representing survey data. This paper presents a multi-level topological encoding for the purposes of survey plan representation in LandXML that is simple and efficient in space requirements, including the question of curved surfaces, (partly) unbounded spatial units, and grouping and division of 2D and 3D spatial units. No “off the shelf” software is available for validating newly lodged surveys and we present our prototype for this. It is further suggested that the conceptual model behind this encoding approach can be extend to the database schema itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Registration of Multi-Level Property Rights in 3D in The Netherlands: Two Cases and Next Steps in Further Implementation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(6), 158; doi:10.3390/ijgi6060158
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
This article reports on the first 3D cadastral registration in The Netherlands, accomplished in March 2016. The solution was sought within the current cadastral, organisational, and technical frameworks to obtain a deeper knowledge on the optimal way of implementing 3D registration, while avoiding
[...] Read more.
This article reports on the first 3D cadastral registration in The Netherlands, accomplished in March 2016. The solution was sought within the current cadastral, organisational, and technical frameworks to obtain a deeper knowledge on the optimal way of implementing 3D registration, while avoiding discussions between experts from different domains. The article presents the developed methodology to represent legal volumes in an interactive 3D visualisation that can be registered in the land registers. The source data is the 3D Building Information Model (BIM). The methodology is applied to two cases: (1) the case of the railway station in Delft, resulting in the actual 3D registration in 2016; and (2) a building complex in Amsterdam, improving the Delft-case and providing the possibility to describe a general workflow from design data to a legal document. An evaluation provides insights for an improved cadastral registration of multi-level property rights. The main conclusion is that in specific situations, a 3D approach has important advantages for cadastral registration over a 2D approach. Further study is needed to implement the solution in a standardised and uniform way, from registration to querying and updating in the future, and to develop a formal registration process accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Country Profile of the Czech Republic Based on an LADM for the Development of a 3D Cadastre
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(5), 143; doi:10.3390/ijgi6050143
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
The paper presents a country profile for the cadastre of the Czech Republic based on the ISO 19152:2012 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). The proposed profile consists of both legal and spatial components and represents an important driving force with which to develop
[...] Read more.
The paper presents a country profile for the cadastre of the Czech Republic based on the ISO 19152:2012 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). The proposed profile consists of both legal and spatial components and represents an important driving force with which to develop a 3D cadastre for the Czech Republic, which can guide the Strategy for the Development of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the Czech Republic to 2020. This government initiative emphasizes the creation of the National Set of Spatial Objects, which is defined as the source of guaranteed and reference 3D geographic data at the highest possible level of detail covering the entire territory of the Czech Republic. This can also be a potential source of data for the 3D cadastre. The abstract test suite stated in ISO 19152:2012—Annex A (Abstract Test Suite) and the LADM conformance requirements were applied in order to explore the conformity of the Czech country profile with this international standard. To test their conformity, a mapping of elements between the LADM and the tested country profile was conducted. The profile is conformant with the LADM at Level 2 (medium level) and can be further modified, especially when legislation is updated with respect to 3D real estate in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Comparative study of 3D real property concepts
Authors:
 Jesper Paasch, Jenny Paulsson, Gerhard Navratil, Nikola Vucic, Dimitrios Kitsakis, Diego Erba, Marcin Karabin and Mohamed El-Mekavy
Abstract: 
The concepts of three-dimensional (3D) real property have been the subject of increased interests in land use management and research during the last decade. There are several countries already implementing 3D cadastres. Among the first countries were the Netherlands and Australia where there are numerous publications on their development. However, in most cases the legal aspects of 3D real property and its incorporation of 3D cadastral systems have not been so rigorously examined. This paper compares and discusses 3D property concepts in selected countries. These countries have been selected as examples from own country’s experiences of the authors.

Despite that the examined countries are all based on Civil Law, they are on different stages of introducing and implementing the 3D cadastral systems, which could contribute to the detection of the main 3D real property concepts that apply as well as deficiencies and malfunctions that prohibit introduction of 3D cadastral systems. The examples in this paper shall therefore highlight challenges that may have not yet surfaced. The aim was to provide information concerning the following questions: What was the reason to introduce a 3D system or why would it be necessary?; What is the current status?; What is the legal definition of 3D objects and what are the possibilities for delimitations? and What types of rights can be registered in 3D?

The paper continues the legal framework discussions of the 4th international workshop on 3D cadastres in Dubai 2014 by analysing the legal concepts of 3D cadastres.The outcome is an overview and discussion of existing concepts of 3D property describing their similarities and differences and use, focusing on the legal framework of 3D cadastres. The concluding part of this article presents a possible way forward and identifies what further research is needed. This can then be used to draft national and international research proposals.

Title: Initial registration of 3D Parcels
Authors:
 Efi Dimopoulou, Sudarshan Karki, Roic Miodrag, Jose-Paulo Duarte de Almeida, Griffith-Charles Charisse, Rod Thompson, Shaoqing Shen and Peter van Oosterom
Abstract: 
Registering the rights of a 3D parcel provides certainty of ownership, protection of rights and unambiguous spatial location. While not all cadastral jurisdictions in the world maintain a digital cadastral database, the concepts of such registration hold true regardless of whether it is a paper-based cadastre or a digital one. Similarly, the motivations and purpose for the creation of a 2D cadastre for individual jurisdictions hold true for 3D cadastre as well. It provides a security of ownership of 3D parcel, protects the rights of the owners, and provides valuable financial instruments such as mortgage, collateral, valuation and taxation. Owners of such 3D property have rights that are important enough for the jurisdictions to consider a further investment towards the modification of their cadastral systems to accommodate the current market push towards 3D cadastre.

The current life cycle of the development of a parcel of land includes processes beginning from outside the cadastral registration sphere such as zoning plans and permits, but has a direct impact on how a certain development application is processed. Thus, in considering the changes required to allow a jurisdiction to register 3D, it is important to note the sphere of influence that could have an impact on 3D registration. These include planners, surveyors, data management and the registrars; however for the purpose of this paper, the discussions are focused on the core 3D aspects that are institutional, legal and technical issues. This paper presents an inventory of the current procedures of registration of 3D parcels in various countries. The various sources of 3D data are described and analysed in the context of 3D cadastres.

Title: Formalizing implementable constraints in the INTERLIS language for modelling 3D legal RRR spaces and 3D physical objects
Authors:
 Eftychia Kalogianni, Efi Dimopoulou, Wilko Quak and Peter van Oosterom
Abstract: 
This paper explores possibilities of linking 3D legal RRR spaces modelled with LADM (ISO 19152) with physical reality of 3D objects (CityGML or IFC). The models described with Unified Modelling Language (UML) diagrams, especially the constraints in OCL (Object Constraint Language) cannot be automatically converted into implementations.

Therefore, the model is first converted into the INTERLIS modelling language, in order to be formally expressed including various constraints in a platform/ vendor neutral manner. Next, INTERLIS tools are used to automatically generate implementation components for specific environments; e.g. database schema or exchange file format. Challenges among others include: how to express the various LADM constraints (OCL and semi-formal in standard) formally in INTERLIS, how to include extensible hierarchical code lists in INTERLIS models (not natively available), how to model 3D volumetric primitives in INTERLIS (not natively available), how to link two models (legal - physical) using cross domain constraints, etc.

The system’s development cycle, from conceptual model to implementation of working prototype is illustrated with a proposed model for multipurpose land administration system (MLAS) in Greece. This model includes several types of objects and interests that are not currently registered by the Hellenic Cadastre, such as utility networks (both the legal and their physical counterpart), planning zones, marine parcels and 3D (land) parcels. The proposed model aims to establish an appropriate basis for the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) of Greece. The prototype is developed in order to evaluate the strengths and limitations of the proposed model (linking legal and physical objects), as well as to investigate the efficiency and limitations of the existing technological (INTERLIS) tools.

Title: Representation of all condominiums through a 3D cadastre within the national territory of Costa Rica
Authors:
 Andres Hernandez Bolaños
Abstract: 
With the development of cities and condominium law the two-dimensional (2D) cadastral model no longer has the ability to properly locate the rights of a person on, for example, a vertical condominium. The National Registry and more specifically the Land Real Estate Registry has taken the initiative to investigate the development a three dimensional (3D) cadastral proposal. The property is a fundamental right in Costa Rica, where today vertical development is very important. The 3D volume definition in the Law on Land Registry is not obvious, and even though in most of the countries in the region property legislation mentions 3D, in practice it is rendered in 2D cadastral maps.

A 3D cadastre should be able to store, manipulate, query, analyze, update and view 3D cadastral objects using a Geographic Information System. In Costa Rica the National Register Act No. 6545 of 1981 states that the cadastral map is the graphical, numerical and literal representation and statistics of all lands within the national territory. The project of a 3D cadastre within the Property Real Estate Registry poses a graphics processing methodology in order to develop a cadastral map in three dimensions using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to represent graphical, numerical and literal way all condominiums within the national territory.

Title: LandXML encodig of mixed 2D and 3D Survey Plans with Topology.
Authors:
 Rod Thompson
Abstract: 
In many jurisdictions the cadastral survey plan is a critical instrument in the administration of property rights, being the point of truth that defines the extent and location of the property. With the growing trend towards digital submission of cadastral plans, there is a need to maintain the authoritative nature of the plan in the absence of a paper document. The secondary purpose of such a (digital) plan is as a data source for a database (and map) of cadastral property information. In a modern cadastre, there is need to ensure that the definitions of properties are correct and non-overlapping in 2D and 3D extent, and that adjoining properties are correctly identified in 3D.
This paper explores the practicality of encoding cadastral spatial units in a way that highlights their 2D extent (as typically represented on maps, survey plans and existing cadastral databases), and fully defines their extent in the third dimension. The suggested method uses a form of mixed-dimensional topographic encoding (sharing surface and edge definitions between adjoining spatial units) that is simple and efficient in space requirements. It prevents (or warns of) problems of overlap and encroachment between spatial units in 3D, while providing a data source for a mixed 2D / 3D digital cadastral database. This paper discusses the expression of this encoding in LandXML and alternatives, and further considers using the same model for the storage of 2D/3D spatial units in a cadastral database. The issue of curved surfaces is discussed.

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