Special Issue "Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr.ir. Peter van Oosterom

Section GIS technology, Department OTB Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: spatial databases (3D, performance, constraints, temporal, …); GIS architectures; spatial analysis; generalization; vario-scale; 5D modeling; querying and presentation; internet/interoperable GIS and (3D) cadastral applications
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Efi Dimopoulou

School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechneiou, 9, Athens 15780, Greece
E-Mail
Interests: cadastre; spatial information management; land policy; GIS; 3D cadastres and cadastral modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is devoted to all aspects of 3D Cadastres: legal, organization, and technical aspects. This is a subject where practice and research do meet, influence, stimulate and support each other. The Special Issue aims for papers showing the progress in key areas of 3D Cadastres: Legal framework 3D Cadastres, Initial registration of 3D parcels, 3D data management, Visualization, distribution and delivery of 3D parcels.

The increasing complexity of infrastructures and densely built-up areas requires a proper registration of the legal status (private and public), which can only be provided to a limited extent by the existing 2D cadastral registrations. The registration of the legal status in complex 3D situations will be investigated under the header of 3D Cadastres. Typical papers are expected to addresses the following 3D Cadastral topics:

  • 3D Cadastre operational experiences (analysis, LADM based, learn from each other, discover gaps)
  • 3D Cadastre cost effective work flow for new/updated 3D parcels = 4D (part of whole chain: from planning/design/permit in 3D, to registration/use in 3D)
  • 3D Cadastre web-based dissemination (usability, man-machine interfaces, including mobile/AR)
  • Legal aspects for 3D Cadastre, best legal practises in various legislation systems
  • Focus on large cities, including developing countries

Prof. Dr.ir. Peter van Oosterom
Prof. Dr. Efi Dimopoulou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • 3D cadastres
  • spatial databases
  • geographic information systems,
  • survey plans
  • 3D visualization
  • rights, restrictions, responsibilities
  • standardization
  • spatial data infrastructure
  • real property
  • utility networks

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial Introduction to the Special Issue: “Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems”
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 59; doi:10.3390/ijgi7020059
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract
The content of this Special Issue has its origin in the “5th International FIG Workshop on 3D Cadastres”, organized in Athens, Greece, 18–20 October 2016 [1][...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Spatial Data Structure and Functionalities for 3D Land Management System Implementation: Israel Case Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(1), 10; doi:10.3390/ijgi7010010
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
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Abstract
With the existence of mature technologies and modern urban planning necessities, there is a growing public demand to improve the efficiency and transparency of government administrations. This includes the formation of a comprehensive modern spatial land management (cadastre) system having the capacity to
[...] Read more.
With the existence of mature technologies and modern urban planning necessities, there is a growing public demand to improve the efficiency and transparency of government administrations. This includes the formation of a comprehensive modern spatial land management (cadastre) system having the capacity to handle various types of data in a uniform way—above-terrain and below-terrain—enabling the utilization of land and space for various complex entities. To utilize existing knowledge and systems, an adaptive approach suggests extending and augmenting the existing 2D cadastre systems to facilitate 3D land management capabilities. Following a comprehensive examination of the Survey of Israel’s operative cadastral system that supports 2D land administration, it turned out that it is crucial to outline new concepts, modify existing terms and define specification guidelines. That is, to augment and provide full 3D support to the current operative cadastral system, and to create a common and uniform language for the various parties involved in the preparation of 2D and 3D mutation plans required for modern urban planning needs. This study refers to the legal and technical aspects of Survey of Israel’s CHANIT, which is the legal set of cadastral work processes specifications, focusing on database, data structure, functionality, and regulation gaps while emphasizing on 3D cadastral processes. The outcome is recommendations concerning data structure and functionalities needed to be addressed for the facilitation and implementation of an operative 3D land management system in Israel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Supporting Indoor Navigation Using Access Rights to Spaces Based on Combined Use of IndoorGML and LADM Models
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(12), 384; doi:10.3390/ijgi6120384
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this research is to investigate the combined use of IndoorGML and the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) to define the accessibility of the indoor spaces based on the ownership and/or the functional right for use. The users of the indoor
[...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to investigate the combined use of IndoorGML and the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) to define the accessibility of the indoor spaces based on the ownership and/or the functional right for use. The users of the indoor spaces create a relationship with the space depending on the type of the building and the function of the spaces. The indoor spaces of each building have different usage functions and associated users. By defining the user types of the indoor spaces, LADM makes it possible to establish a relationship between the indoor spaces and the users. LADM assigns rights, restrictions, and responsibilities to each indoor space, which indicates the accessible spaces for each type of user. The three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the building will be impacted by assigning such functional rights, and will provide additional knowledge to path computation for an individual or a group of users. As a result, the navigation process will be more appropriate and simpler because the navigation path will avoid all of the non-accessible spaces based on the rights of the party. The combined use of IndoorGML and LADM covers a broad range of information classes: (indoor 3D) cell spaces, connectivity, spatial units/boundaries, (access/use) rights and restrictions, parties/persons/actors, and groups of them. The new specialized classes for individual students, individual staff members, groups of students, groups of staff members are able to represent cohorts of education programmes and the organizational structure (organogram: faculty, department, group). The model is capable to represent the access times to lecture rooms (based on education/teaching schedules), use rights of meeting rooms, opening hours of offices, etc. The two original standard models remain independent in our approach, we do not propose yet another model, but applications can fully benefit of the potential of the combined use, which is an important contribution of this paper. The main purpose of the combined use model is to support the indoor navigation, but could also support different applications, such as the maintenance and facility management work, by computing the cleaning cost based on the space floor area. The main contributions of this paper are: a solution for the combined use of IndoorGML-LADM model, a conceptual enhancement of LADM by the refinement of the LA_Party package with specialization for staff and student (groups), and the assessment of the model by converting sample data (from two complex university buildings) into the model, and conducting actual access-rights aware navigation, based on the populated model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A 3D Digital Cadastre for New Zealand and the International Opportunity
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(11), 375; doi:10.3390/ijgi6110375
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
New Zealand has a legal 3D cadastre, and has done since the inception of its cadastral survey and tenure systems around 150 years ago. However, the digital representation of the cadastre is 2D with 3D situations handled via static plan, section and elevation
[...] Read more.
New Zealand has a legal 3D cadastre, and has done since the inception of its cadastral survey and tenure systems around 150 years ago. However, the digital representation of the cadastre is 2D with 3D situations handled via static plan, section and elevation images and supporting textual information. Work is currently underway to develop a 3D digital cadastre that will enable the 3D spatial extents of property rights, restrictions and responsibilities to be captured, validated, lodged, integrated with existing data, visualised, and made available for use in other systems. This article presents the approach that is being promoted by regulators of New Zealand’s cadastral survey system in discussions with suppliers of land administration systems. Previous research concluded that the most appropriate way for New Zealand to develop a 3D digital cadastre is to build upon its existing system. The 2D digital cadastre would continue to be the default layer with 3D situations incorporated as and where necessary. To enable this requires a new approach to handling parcels defined in 3D. The representation of a 3D parcel as a spatial object is being proposed to allow parcels limited in height to be integrated into the digital cadastre and subsequently maintained. While the authors discuss how New Zealand’s digital cadastre may be transitioned to 3D, it is suggested that the generic nature of spatial objects could be applied to other jurisdictions. For this reason, the international appeal of the approach is considered as other jurisdictions and providers of software applications may benefit from New Zealand’s efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Working with Open BIM Standards to Source Legal Spaces for a 3D Cadastre
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(11), 351; doi:10.3390/ijgi6110351
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
Much work has already been done on how a 3D Cadastre should best be developed. An inclusive information model, the Land Administration Model (LADM ISO 19152) has been developed to provide an international framework for how this can best be done. This conceptual
[...] Read more.
Much work has already been done on how a 3D Cadastre should best be developed. An inclusive information model, the Land Administration Model (LADM ISO 19152) has been developed to provide an international framework for how this can best be done. This conceptual model does not prescribe the technical data format. One existing source from which data could be obtained is 3D Building Information Models (BIMs), or, more specifically in this context, BIMs in the form of one of buildingSMART’s open standards: the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). The research followed a standard BIM methodology of first defining the requirements through the use of the Information Delivery Manual (IDM ISO29481) and then translating the process described in the IDM into technical requirements using a Model View Definition (MVD), a practice to coordinate upfront the multidisciplinary stakeholders of a construction project. The proposed process model illustrated how the time it takes to register 3D spatial units in a Land Registry could substantially be reduced compared to the first 3D registration in the Netherlands. The modelling of an MVD or a subset of the IFC data model helped enable the creation and exchange of boundary representations of topological objects capable of being combined into a 3D legal space overview map. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle INTERLIS Language for Modelling Legal 3D Spaces and Physical 3D Objects by Including Formalized Implementable Constraints and Meaningful Code Lists
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(10), 319; doi:10.3390/ijgi6100319
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) is one of the first ISO spatial domain standards, and has been proven one of the best candidates for unambiguously representing 3D Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities. Consequently, multiple LADM-based country profile implementations have been developed since the
[...] Read more.
The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) is one of the first ISO spatial domain standards, and has been proven one of the best candidates for unambiguously representing 3D Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities. Consequently, multiple LADM-based country profile implementations have been developed since the approval of LADM as an ISO standard; however, there is still a gap for technical implementations. This paper summarizes LADM implementation approaches distilled from relevant publications available to date. Models based on land administration standards do focus on the legal aspects of urban structures; however, the juridical boundaries in 3D are sometimes (partly) bound by the corresponding physical objects, leading to ambiguous situations. To that end, more integrated approaches are being developed at a conceptual level, and it is evident that the evaluation and validation of 3D legal and physical models—both separately and together in the form of an integrated model—is vital. This paper briefly presents the different approaches to legal and physical integration that have been developed in the last decade, while the need for more explicit relationships between legal and physical notions is highlighted. In this regard, recent experience gained from implementing INTERLIS, the Swiss standard that enables land information system communications, in LADM-based country profiles, suggests the possibility of an integrated LADM/INTERLIS approach. Considering semantic interoperability within integrated models, the need for more formal semantics is underlined by introducing formalization of code lists and explicit definition of constraints. Last but not least, the first results of case studies based on the generic LADM/INTERLIS approach are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Towards 3D Cadastre in Serbia: Development of Serbian Cadastral Domain Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(10), 312; doi:10.3390/ijgi6100312
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes a Serbian cadastral domain model as the country profile for the real estate cadastre, based on the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), defined within ISO 19152. National laws and other legal acts were analyzed and the incorrect applications of the
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a Serbian cadastral domain model as the country profile for the real estate cadastre, based on the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), defined within ISO 19152. National laws and other legal acts were analyzed and the incorrect applications of the law are outlined. The national “Strategy of measures and activities for increasing the quality of services in the field of geospatial data and registration of real property rights in the official state records”, which was adopted in 2017, cites the shortcomings of the existing cadastral information system. The proposed profile can solve several problems with the system, such as the lack of interoperability, mismatch of graphic and alphanumeric data, and lack of an integrated cadastral information system. Based on the existing data, the basic concepts of the Serbian cadastre were extracted and the applicability of LADM was tested on an obtained conceptual model. Upon obtaining positive results, a complete country profile was developed according to valid national laws and rulebooks. A table of mappings of LADM classes and country profile classes is presented in this paper, together with an analysis of the conformance level. The proposed Serbian country profile is completely conformant at the medium level and on several high-level classes. LADM also provides support for three-dimensional (3D) representations and 3D registration of rights, so the creation of a country profile for Serbia is a starting point toward a 3D cadastre. Given the existence of buildings with overlapping rights and restrictions in 3D, considering expanding the spatial profile with 3D geometries is necessary. Possible solutions to these situations were analyzed. Since the two-dimensional (2D) cadastre in Serbia is not fully formed, the proposed solution is to use the 2D model for simple right situations, and the 3D model for more complex situations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Overview of the Croatian Land Administration System and the Possibilities for Its Upgrade to 3D by Existing Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 223; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070223
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
This paper explores the laws and other legal acts related to the Croatian 3D cadastre with an emphasis on those which relate to interests in strata, spatial planning, and other regulations that are valid or were valid on Croatian territory. The effects of
[...] Read more.
This paper explores the laws and other legal acts related to the Croatian 3D cadastre with an emphasis on those which relate to interests in strata, spatial planning, and other regulations that are valid or were valid on Croatian territory. The effects of the application of these regulations on the present situation of registration in cadastre and land register were considered. This paper also explores current legal, institutional, and technical solutions implemented in the Croatian Land Administration System and the possibilities for its upgrade to 3D cadastre. Implementation of any technological option to establish a 3D cadastre is tightly related to legislation. Hence, legislation and technological options are considered to find solutions that will be possible to implement. One suggestion presented in this paper was to use other sources of 3D data such as topographic signs or symbols used to represent topographic objects on 2D maps. In combination with other geodetic and cartographic products, useful information can be obtained, often quite relevant to provide a reference context for a 3D cadastre. Topographic signs on topographic maps and on other geodetic products provide a representation of complex real-world situations (tunnels, bridges, overpasses etc.) that are not usually presented on cadastral maps. This paper presents the possibility of utilizing those topographic signs to achieve the first steps towards establishing a 3D cadastre. Furthermore, this study proposes the establishment of a 3D Multipurpose Land Administration System as the most efficient system of land administration in a time when spatial information is easier to obtain than ever before and traditional real estate registers are subject to frequent and demanding changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Assessing Performance of Three BIM-Based Views of Buildings for Communication and Management of Vertically Stratified Legal Interests
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 198; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070198
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
Multistorey buildings typically include stratified legal interests which provide entitlements to a community of owners to lawfully possess private properties and use communal and public properties. The spatial arrangements of these legal interests are often defined by multiplexing cognitively outlined spaces and physical
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Multistorey buildings typically include stratified legal interests which provide entitlements to a community of owners to lawfully possess private properties and use communal and public properties. The spatial arrangements of these legal interests are often defined by multiplexing cognitively outlined spaces and physical elements of a building. In order to support 3D digital management and communication of legal arrangements of properties, a number of spatial data models have been recently developed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Building Information Modelling (BIM) domains. While some data models, such as CityGML, IndoorGML or IFC, provide a merely physical representation of the built environment, others, e.g., LADM, mainly rely on legal data elements to support a purely legal view of multistorey buildings. More recently, spatial data models integrating legal and physical notions of multistorey buildings have been proposed to overcome issues associated with purely legal models and purely physical ones. In previous investigations, it has been found that the 3D digital data environment of BIM has the flexibility to utilize either only physical elements or only legal spaces, or an integrated view of both legal spaces and physical elements to represent spatial arrangements of stratified legal interests. In this article, the performance of these three distinct BIM-based representations of legal interests defined inside multistorey buildings is assessed in the context of the Victorian jurisdiction of Australia. The assessment metrics are a number of objects and geometry batches, visualization speed in terms of frame rate, query time, modelling legal boundaries, and visual communication of legal boundaries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Toward the Development of a Marine Administration System Based on International Standards
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 194; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070194
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
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Abstract
The interests, responsibilities and opportunities of states to provide infrastructure and resource management are not limited to their land territory but extend to marine areas as well. So far, although the theoretical structure of a Marine Administration System (MAS) is based on the
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The interests, responsibilities and opportunities of states to provide infrastructure and resource management are not limited to their land territory but extend to marine areas as well. So far, although the theoretical structure of a Marine Administration System (MAS) is based on the management needs of the various countries, the marine terms have not been clearly defined. In order to define an MAS that meets the spatial marine requirements, the specific characteristics of the marine environment have to be identified and integrated in a management system. Most publications that address the Marine Cadastre (MC) concept acknowledge the three-dimensional (3D) character of marine spaces and support the need for MC to function as a multipurpose instrument. The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) conceptual standard ISO 19152 has been referenced in scholarly and professional works to have explicit relevance to 3D cadastres in exposed land and built environments. However, to date, very little has been done in any of those works to explicitly and comprehensively apply LADM to specific jurisdictional MAS or MC, although the standard purports to be applicable to those areas. Since so far the most comprehensive MC modeling approach is the S-121 Maritime Limits and Boundaries (MLB) Standard, which refers to LADM, this paper proposes several modifications including, among others, the introduction of class marine resources into the model, the integration of data on legal spaces and physical features through external classes, as well as the division of law and administrative sources. Within this context, this paper distinctly presents both appropriate modifications and applications of the IHO S-121 standard to the particular marine and maritime administrative needs of both Greece and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Addressing Public Law Restrictions within a 3D Cadastral Context
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(7), 182; doi:10.3390/ijgi6070182
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 18 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
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Abstract
Public law affects contemporary life by imposing various regulations that apply in 3D space. However, such restrictions are either literally described in legal documents or presented on a horizontal plane, resulting in ambiguities, especially in the case of vertically overlapping restrictions with a
[...] Read more.
Public law affects contemporary life by imposing various regulations that apply in 3D space. However, such restrictions are either literally described in legal documents or presented on a horizontal plane, resulting in ambiguities, especially in the case of vertically overlapping restrictions with a significant impact on land management. This paper investigates public law restrictions (PLR) applying to 3D space and their management within a 3D cadastral context. Within this framework, a case study is examined in Greece concerning the establishment of a subway station, focusing on public utilities, archaeological legislation, and building regulations. Relative legal documentation is compiled and mapped in a 3D PLR model, presenting inefficiencies and malfunctions that can be resolved if PLRs are addressed within a 3D cadastral context. Stipulations implying restrictions in 3D space within current legislation are presented, along with the restrictions deriving from the absolute character of ownership right, thus highlighting the significance of 3D definition, modeling and recording of PLRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle LandXML Encoding of Mixed 2D and 3D Survey Plans with Multi-Level Topology
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(6), 171; doi:10.3390/ijgi6060171
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cadastral spatial units around the world range from simple 2D parcels to complex 3D collections of spaces, defined at levels of sophistication from textural descriptions to complete, rigorous mathematical descriptions based on measurements and coordinates. The most common spatial unit in a cadastral
[...] Read more.
Cadastral spatial units around the world range from simple 2D parcels to complex 3D collections of spaces, defined at levels of sophistication from textural descriptions to complete, rigorous mathematical descriptions based on measurements and coordinates. The most common spatial unit in a cadastral database is the 2D land parcel—the basic unit subject to cadastral Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities (RRR). Built on this is a varying complexity of 3D subdivisions and secondary interests. Spatial units may also be subdivided into smaller units, with the remainder being kept as common property for the owners/tenants of the individual units. This has led to the adoption of hierarchical multi-level schemes. In this paper, we explore the encoding of spatial units in a way that highlights their 2D extent and topology, while fully defining their extent in the third dimension. Obviously, topological encoding itself is not new. However, having mixed a 2D and 3D topological structure is rather challenging. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of mixed 2D and 3D topology, it is currently not used in LandXML, one of the main and best documented formats when representing survey data. This paper presents a multi-level topological encoding for the purposes of survey plan representation in LandXML that is simple and efficient in space requirements, including the question of curved surfaces, (partly) unbounded spatial units, and grouping and division of 2D and 3D spatial units. No “off the shelf” software is available for validating newly lodged surveys and we present our prototype for this. It is further suggested that the conceptual model behind this encoding approach can be extend to the database schema itself. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Registration of Multi-Level Property Rights in 3D in The Netherlands: Two Cases and Next Steps in Further Implementation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(6), 158; doi:10.3390/ijgi6060158
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 31 May 2017
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Abstract
This article reports on the first 3D cadastral registration in The Netherlands, accomplished in March 2016. The solution was sought within the current cadastral, organisational, and technical frameworks to obtain a deeper knowledge on the optimal way of implementing 3D registration, while avoiding
[...] Read more.
This article reports on the first 3D cadastral registration in The Netherlands, accomplished in March 2016. The solution was sought within the current cadastral, organisational, and technical frameworks to obtain a deeper knowledge on the optimal way of implementing 3D registration, while avoiding discussions between experts from different domains. The article presents the developed methodology to represent legal volumes in an interactive 3D visualisation that can be registered in the land registers. The source data is the 3D Building Information Model (BIM). The methodology is applied to two cases: (1) the case of the railway station in Delft, resulting in the actual 3D registration in 2016; and (2) a building complex in Amsterdam, improving the Delft-case and providing the possibility to describe a general workflow from design data to a legal document. An evaluation provides insights for an improved cadastral registration of multi-level property rights. The main conclusion is that in specific situations, a 3D approach has important advantages for cadastral registration over a 2D approach. Further study is needed to implement the solution in a standardised and uniform way, from registration to querying and updating in the future, and to develop a formal registration process accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Country Profile of the Czech Republic Based on an LADM for the Development of a 3D Cadastre
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(5), 143; doi:10.3390/ijgi6050143
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 28 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract
The paper presents a country profile for the cadastre of the Czech Republic based on the ISO 19152:2012 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). The proposed profile consists of both legal and spatial components and represents an important driving force with which to develop
[...] Read more.
The paper presents a country profile for the cadastre of the Czech Republic based on the ISO 19152:2012 Land Administration Domain Model (LADM). The proposed profile consists of both legal and spatial components and represents an important driving force with which to develop a 3D cadastre for the Czech Republic, which can guide the Strategy for the Development of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the Czech Republic to 2020. This government initiative emphasizes the creation of the National Set of Spatial Objects, which is defined as the source of guaranteed and reference 3D geographic data at the highest possible level of detail covering the entire territory of the Czech Republic. This can also be a potential source of data for the 3D cadastre. The abstract test suite stated in ISO 19152:2012—Annex A (Abstract Test Suite) and the LADM conformance requirements were applied in order to explore the conformity of the Czech country profile with this international standard. To test their conformity, a mapping of elements between the LADM and the tested country profile was conducted. The profile is conformant with the LADM at Level 2 (medium level) and can be further modified, especially when legislation is updated with respect to 3D real estate in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in 3D Cadastral Systems)
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