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Cosmetics, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2014), Pages 140-221

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Research

Open AccessArticle Chitin-Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Multifunctional Carrier to Deliver Anti-Aging Active Ingredients through the Skin
Cosmetics 2014, 1(3), 140-158; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1030140
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2856 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA), showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were [...] Read more.
The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA), showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Zetasizer, while encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the entrapped ingredients were controlled by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Safeness was evidenced on fibroblasts and keratinocytes culture viability by the MTT (Methylthiazol) assay; anti-aging activity was evaluated in vitro measuring antioxidant capacity, anti-collagenase activity, and metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory release; efficacy was shown in vivo by a double-blind vehicle-controlled study for 60 days on 60 women affected by photo-aging. In addition, the CN-HA nanoparticles have shown interesting possibility to be used as active ingredients, for designing and making advanced medication by the electrospinning technology, as well as to produce transparent films for food packaging, by the casting method, and can be used also in their dry form as tissues or films without adding preservatives. These unusual CN-HA nanoparticles obtained from the use of raw materials of waste origin may offer an unprecedented occasion for making innovative products, ameliorating the quality of life, reducing pollution and safeguarding the environment’s integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Phototoxicity Assessment of Acylglutamate Surfactants Using a Human Keratinocyte Cell Line
Cosmetics 2014, 1(3), 159-170; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1030159
Received: 19 April 2014 / Revised: 17 June 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 14 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the current study, human keratinocyte cell line was used as in vitro cell culture model to elucidate the effects of the fatty acid chain length of acylglutamate (amino acid-based surfactant) namely, sodium cocoyl glutamate, sodium lauroyl glutamate, and sodium myristoyl glutamate [...] Read more.
In the current study, human keratinocyte cell line was used as in vitro cell culture model to elucidate the effects of the fatty acid chain length of acylglutamate (amino acid-based surfactant) namely, sodium cocoyl glutamate, sodium lauroyl glutamate, and sodium myristoyl glutamate on their cytotoxicity and the ultraviolet B induced phototoxicity. The endpoint used to assess toxicity was a tetrazolium-based assay whereas, the phototoxic potential of acylglutamate surfactants was predicted using two models namely, the Photo-Irritation Factor and Mean Photo Effect. The results of this study showed that the fatty acid chain length of acylglutamate greatly influences toxic effects on human keratinocyte cells. In addition, all the acylglutamate surfactants tested on human keratinocyte cells demonstrated significantly less cytotoxicity (when irradiated and non-irradiated with ultraviolet B light; p < 0.05) and no phototoxic potential was observed in any of the acylglutamate surfactants, when compared with the positive control chlorpromazine. In conclusion, the in vitro studies confirm the suitability of sodium lauroyl glutamate destined for the synthesis and stabilization of lipid nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Cosmetic Ingredients)
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Open AccessArticle In-Vial Micro-Matrix-Solid Phase Dispersion for the Analysis of Fragrance Allergens, Preservatives, Plasticizers, and Musks in Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2014, 1(3), 171-201; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1030171
Received: 28 May 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction [...] Read more.
Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction of these compounds providing a simple, low cost sample preparation, and the possibility of performing both extraction and clean-up in one step, reducing possible contamination and analyte losses. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to many cosmetics ingredients allowing obtaining quantitative recoveries. A new very simple micro-MSPD procedure performing the disruption step in a vial is proposed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of 66 chemicals usually present in cosmetics and personal care products. The method was validated showing general recoveries between 80% and 110%, relative standard deviation (RSD) values lower than 15%, and limits of detection (LODs) below 30 ng·g−1. The validated method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products, including several products intended for baby care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Methods for Quality Control of Cosmetics)
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Open AccessArticle Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover
Cosmetics 2014, 1(3), 202-210; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1030202
Received: 7 March 2014 / Revised: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 July 2014 / Published: 25 July 2014
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Abstract
Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying [...] Read more.
Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Elastin/Collagen Content in Human Dermis in-Vivo by Multiphoton Tomography—Variation with Depth and Correlation with Aging
Cosmetics 2014, 1(3), 211-221; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1030211
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 1 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the depth of the dermis on the measured collagen and elastin levels and to establish the correlation between the amount of these two extracellular matrix (ECM) components and age. Multiphoton Microscopy [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the depth of the dermis on the measured collagen and elastin levels and to establish the correlation between the amount of these two extracellular matrix (ECM) components and age. Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM) that measures the autofluorescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) was used to quantify the levels of elastin and collagen and to determine the SAAID (SHG-to-AF Aging Index of Dermis) at two different skin depths. A 50 MHz ultrasound scanner was used for the calculation of the Sub Epidermal Non Echogenic Band (SENEB). The measurements of the skin mechanical properties were done with a cutometer. All measurements were performed on two groups of 30 healthy female volunteers. The MPM showed a decrease of the quantity of collagen and elastin as a function of depth of the dermis as well as age. The SAAID was lower for the older skin in the deeper dermis. Ultrasound imaging revealed a significant decrease of SENEB as a function of aging. The mechanical properties confirmed a loss of cutaneous elasticity and firmness. Although multiphoton microscopy is a powerful technique to study the characteristics of the dermis and its age-related damage, the location of the measurements (depth) remains very important for the validation of these variations. These variations do not seem to be homogeneous according to the part of the dermis that is studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from ISBS/SICC 1st Joint International Congress)
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