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Vaccines, Volume 1, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 398-549

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle DNA-Encoded Flagellin Activates Toll-Like Receptor 5 (TLR5), Nod-like Receptor Family CARD Domain-Containing Protein 4 (NRLC4), and Acts as an Epidermal, Systemic, and Mucosal-Adjuvant
Vaccines 2013, 1(4), 415-443; doi:10.3390/vaccines1040415
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eliciting effective immune responses using non-living/replicating DNA vaccines is a significant challenge. We have previously shown that ballistic dermal plasmid DNA-encoded flagellin (FliC) promotes humoral as well as cellular immunity to co-delivered antigens. Here, we observe that a plasmid encoding secreted FliC [...] Read more.
Eliciting effective immune responses using non-living/replicating DNA vaccines is a significant challenge. We have previously shown that ballistic dermal plasmid DNA-encoded flagellin (FliC) promotes humoral as well as cellular immunity to co-delivered antigens. Here, we observe that a plasmid encoding secreted FliC (pFliC(-gly)) produces flagellin capable of activating two innate immune receptors known to detect flagellin; Toll-like Receptor 5 (TLR5) and Nod-like Receptor family CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NRLC4). To test the ability of pFliC(-gly) to act as an adjuvant we immunized mice with plasmid encoding secreted FliC (pFliC(-gly)) and plasmid encoding a model antigen (ovalbumin) by three different immunization routes representative of dermal, systemic, and mucosal tissues. By all three routes we observed increases in antigen-specific antibodies in serum as well as MHC Class I-dependent cellular immune responses when pFliC(-gly) adjuvant was added. Additionally, we were able to induce mucosal antibody responses and Class II-dependent cellular immune responses after mucosal vaccination with pFliC(-gly). Humoral immune responses elicited by heterologus prime-boost immunization with a plasmid encoding HIV-1 from gp160 followed by protein boosting could be enhanced by use of pFliC(-gly). We also observed enhancement of cross-clade reactive IgA as well as a broadening of B cell epitope reactivity. These observations indicate that plasmid-encoded secreted flagellin can activate multiple innate immune responses and function as an adjuvant to non-living/replicating DNA immunizations. Moreover, the capacity to elicit mucosal immune responses, in addition to dermal and systemic properties, demonstrates the potential of flagellin to be used with vaccines designed to be delivered by various routes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Vaccines)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Different DNA Vaccines against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in Pigs
Vaccines 2013, 1(4), 463-480; doi:10.3390/vaccines1040463
Received: 30 July 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In veterinary medicine, there have been different experiences with the plasmid DNA vaccination. In this area and with the hypothesis to demonstrate the effectiveness of different plasmids encoding porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), five DNA vaccines against PRRS were evaluated for [...] Read more.
In veterinary medicine, there have been different experiences with the plasmid DNA vaccination. In this area and with the hypothesis to demonstrate the effectiveness of different plasmids encoding porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome (PRRS), five DNA vaccines against PRRS were evaluated for their innocuity and efficacy in pigs. Eighteen animals were divided into five groups which were injected with five (A, B, C, D, E) different DNA vaccines. Albeit, none of the proposed vaccines were able to protect the animals against PRRS virus. Only vaccines A and B were able to reduce the clinical signs of the infection. ELISA IgM were detected 30 days after the first vaccination in the pigs injected by Vaccine A or B. ELISA IgG were detected 90 days after the first vaccination in the pigs injected by Vaccine B or C. Neutralizing antibody were detected Post Challenge Days 61 (PCD) in all groups. In the pigs inoculated with Vaccine C, IFN-g were detected 90 days after first vaccination, and after challenge exposure they increased. In the other groups, the IFN-g were detected after challenge infection. Pigs injected with each of the vaccines A, B, C, D and E showed a significantly higher level of CD4CD8+ lymphocytes (p < 0.001) after infection in comparison with their controls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Vaccines)
Open AccessArticle What Has 30 Years of HIV Vaccine Research Taught Us?
Vaccines 2013, 1(4), 513-526; doi:10.3390/vaccines1040513
Received: 21 August 2013 / Revised: 14 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983–1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve [...] Read more.
When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983–1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve that goal, different scientific paradigms have been explored. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. Major lessons learned are: the development of an HIV vaccine is an extremely difficult challenge; the temptation of just following the fashion should be avoided; clinical trials are critical, especially large-scale efficacy trials; HIV vaccine research will require long-term commitment; and sustainable collaborations are needed to accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine. Concrete actions must be implemented with the sense of urgency imposed by the severity of the AIDS epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)

Review

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Open AccessReview Chemokines as Cancer Vaccine Adjuvants
Vaccines 2013, 1(4), 444-462; doi:10.3390/vaccines1040444
Received: 22 July 2013 / Revised: 31 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We are witnessing a new era of immune-mediated cancer therapies and vaccine development. As the field of cancer vaccines advances into clinical trials, overcoming low immunogenicity is a limiting step in achieving full success of this therapeutic approach. Recent discoveries in the [...] Read more.
We are witnessing a new era of immune-mediated cancer therapies and vaccine development. As the field of cancer vaccines advances into clinical trials, overcoming low immunogenicity is a limiting step in achieving full success of this therapeutic approach. Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendritic Cell Vaccine)
Open AccessReview Developing Combined HIV Vaccine Strategies for a Functional Cure
Vaccines 2013, 1(4), 481-496; doi:10.3390/vaccines1040481
Received: 5 September 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 28 October 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing numbers of HIV-infected individuals have access to potent antiretroviral drugs that control viral replication and decrease the risk of transmission. However, there is no cure for HIV and new strategies have to be developed to reach an eradication of the virus [...] Read more.
Increasing numbers of HIV-infected individuals have access to potent antiretroviral drugs that control viral replication and decrease the risk of transmission. However, there is no cure for HIV and new strategies have to be developed to reach an eradication of the virus or a natural control of viral replication in the absence of drugs (functional cure). Therapeutic vaccines against HIV have been evaluated in many trials over the last 20 years and important knowledge has been gained from these trials. However, the major obstacle to HIV eradication is the persistence of latent proviral reservoirs. Different molecules are currently tested in ART-treated subjects to reactivate these latent reservoirs. Such anti-latency agents should be combined with a vaccination regimen in order to control or eradicate reactivated latently-infected cells. New in vitro assays should also be developed to assess the success of tested therapeutic vaccines by measuring the immune-mediated killing of replication-competent HIV reservoir cells. This review provides an overview of the current strategies to combine HIV vaccines with anti-latency agents that could act as adjuvant on the vaccine-induced immune response as well as new tools to assess the efficacy of these approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
Open AccessReview Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers as HIV-1 Vaccine Immunogens
Vaccines 2013, 1(4), 497-512; doi:10.3390/vaccines1040497
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 11 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 28 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (580 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein spike is the target of neutralizing antibody attack, and hence represents the only relevant viral antigen for antibody-based vaccine design. Various approaches have been attempted to recapitulate Env in membrane-anchored and soluble forms, and these will be discussed [...] Read more.
The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein spike is the target of neutralizing antibody attack, and hence represents the only relevant viral antigen for antibody-based vaccine design. Various approaches have been attempted to recapitulate Env in membrane-anchored and soluble forms, and these will be discussed here in the context of recent successes and challenges still to be overcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
Open AccessReview Dendritic Cell-Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell Differentiation for Cancer Therapy
Vaccines 2013, 1(4), 527-549; doi:10.3390/vaccines1040527
Received: 7 August 2013 / Revised: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (695 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The success of cellular immunotherapies against cancer requires the generation of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. The type of T-cell response generated (e.g., Th1 or Th2) will determine the efficacy of the therapy, and it is generally assumed that a [...] Read more.
The success of cellular immunotherapies against cancer requires the generation of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. The type of T-cell response generated (e.g., Th1 or Th2) will determine the efficacy of the therapy, and it is generally assumed that a type-1 response is needed for optimal cancer treatment. IL-17 producing T-cells (Th17/Tc17) play an important role in autoimmune diseases, but their function in cancer is more controversial. While some studies have shown a pro-cancerous role for IL-17, other studies have shown an anti-tumor function. The induction of polarized T-cell responses can be regulated by dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are key regulators of the immune system with the ability to affect both innate and adaptive immune responses. These properties have led many researchers to study the use of ex vivo manipulated DCs for the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. While Th1/Tc1 cells are traditionally used for their potent anti-tumor responses, mounting evidence suggests Th17/Tc17 cells should be utilized by themselves or for the induction of optimal Th1 responses. It is therefore important to understand the factors involved in the induction of both type-1 and type-17 T-cell responses by DCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dendritic Cell Vaccine)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCase Report Clinical Development of a Cytomegalovirus DNA Vaccine: From Product Concept to Pivotal Phase 3 Trial
Vaccines 2013, 1(4), 398-414; doi:10.3390/vaccines1040398
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 23 August 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
2013 marks a milestone year for plasmid DNA vaccine development as a first-in-class cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA vaccine enters pivotal phase 3 testing. This vaccine consists of two plasmids expressing CMV antigens glycoprotein B (gB) and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) formulated with a CRL1005 [...] Read more.
2013 marks a milestone year for plasmid DNA vaccine development as a first-in-class cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA vaccine enters pivotal phase 3 testing. This vaccine consists of two plasmids expressing CMV antigens glycoprotein B (gB) and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) formulated with a CRL1005 poloxamer and benzalkonium chloride (BAK) delivery system designed to enhance plasmid expression. The vaccine’s planned initial indication under investigation is for prevention of CMV reactivation in CMV-seropositive (CMV+) recipients of an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 proof-of-concept study provided initial evidence of the safety of this product in CMV+ HCT recipients who underwent immune ablation conditioning regimens. This study revealed a significant reduction in viral load endpoints and increased frequencies of pp65-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells in vaccine recipients compared to placebo recipients. The results of this endpoint-defining trial provided the basis for defining the primary and secondary endpoints of a global phase 3 trial in HCT recipients. A case study is presented here describing the development history of this vaccine from product concept to initiation of the phase 3 trial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue DNA Vaccines)

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