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Antioxidants, Volume 7, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The phenolic content in wine lees is affected by the vinification techniques used in the winemaking [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040050
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
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Abstract
Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with muscle soreness or discomfort and a
marked decline of muscle strength during the first 12–72 hours post-exercise [1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Extraction of Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds from Brewer’s Spent Grain: Optimization and Kinetics Modeling
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040045
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
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Abstract
The kinetics of polyphenol extraction from brewer’s spent grain (BSG), using a batch system, ultrasound assistance, and microwave assistance and the evolution of antioxidant capacity of these extracts over time, were studied. The main parameters of extraction employed in the batch system were
[...] Read more.
The kinetics of polyphenol extraction from brewer’s spent grain (BSG), using a batch system, ultrasound assistance, and microwave assistance and the evolution of antioxidant capacity of these extracts over time, were studied. The main parameters of extraction employed in the batch system were evaluated, and, by applying response surface analysis, the following optimal conditions were obtained: Liquid/solid ratio of 30:1 mL/g at 80 °C, using 72% (v/v) ethanol:water as the solvent system. Under these optimized conditions, ultrasound assistance demonstrated the highest extraction rate and equilibrium yield, as well as shortest extraction times, followed by microwave assistance. Among the mathematical models used, Patricelli’s model proved the most suitable for describing the extraction kinetics for each method tested, and is therefore able to predict the response values and estimate the extraction rates and potential maximum yields in each case. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Polymeric Nanoparticles for Increasing Oral Bioavailability of Curcumin
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040046
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Despite the promising biological and antioxidant properties of curcumin, its medical applications are limited due to poor solubility in water and low bioavailability. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) adapted to oral delivery may overcome these drawbacks. Properties such as particle size, zeta potential, morphology and
[...] Read more.
Despite the promising biological and antioxidant properties of curcumin, its medical applications are limited due to poor solubility in water and low bioavailability. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) adapted to oral delivery may overcome these drawbacks. Properties such as particle size, zeta potential, morphology and encapsulation efficiency were assessed. Then, the possibility of storing these NPs in a solid-state form obtained by freeze-drying, in vitro curcumin dissolution and cytocompatibility towards intestinal cells were evaluated. Curcumin-loaded Eudragit® RLPO (ERL) NPs showed smaller particle diameters (245 ± 2 nm) and better redispersibility after freeze-drying than either poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) NPs. The former NPs showed lower curcumin encapsulation efficiency (62%) than either PLGA or PCL NPs (90% and 99%, respectively). Nevertheless, ERL NPs showed rapid curcumin release with 91 ± 5% released over 1 h. The three curcumin-loaded NPs proposed in this work were also compatible with intestinal cells. Overall, ERL NPs are the most promising vehicles for increasing the oral bioavailability of curcumin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inspired by Nature: Antioxidants and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle High Glucose-Mediated Tyrosine Nitration of PI3-Kinase: A Molecular Switch of Survival and Apoptosis in Endothelial Cells
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040047
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
Diabetes and hyperglycemia are associated with increased retinal oxidative and nitrative stress and vascular cell death. Paradoxically, high glucose stimulates expression of survival and angiogenic growth factors. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that high glucose-mediated tyrosine nitration causes inhibition of the survival protein
[...] Read more.
Diabetes and hyperglycemia are associated with increased retinal oxidative and nitrative stress and vascular cell death. Paradoxically, high glucose stimulates expression of survival and angiogenic growth factors. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that high glucose-mediated tyrosine nitration causes inhibition of the survival protein PI3-kinase, and in particular, its regulatory p85 subunit in retinal endothelial cell (EC) cultures. Retinal EC were cultured in high glucose (HG, 25 mM) for 3 days or peroxynitrite (PN, 100 µM) overnight in the presence or absence of a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst (FeTPPs, 2.5 µM), or the selective nitration inhibitor epicatechin (100 µM). Apoptosis of ECs was assessed using TUNEL assay and caspase-3 activity. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot were used to assess protein expression and tyrosine nitration of p85 subunit and its interaction with the p110 subunit. HG or PN accelerated apoptosis of retinal ECs compared to normal glucose (NG, 5 mM) controls. HG- or PN-treated cells also showed significant increases in tyrosine nitration on the p85 subunit of PI3-kinase that inhibited its association with the catalytic p110 subunit and impaired PI3-kinase/Akt kinase activity. Decomposing peroxynitrite or blocking tyrosine nitration of p85 restored the activity of PI3-kinase, and prevented apoptosis and activation of p38 MAPK. Inhibiting p38 MAPK or overexpression of the constitutively activated Myr-Akt construct prevented HG- or peroxynitrite-mediated apoptosis. In conclusion, HG impairs pro-survival signals and causes accelerated EC apoptosis, at least in part via tyrosine nitration and inhibition of PI3-kinase. Inhibitors of nitration can be used in adjuvant therapy to delay diabetic retinopathy and microvascular complication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Phenolic Compounds in Wine Lees
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040048
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 25 March 2018
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Abstract
The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol
[...] Read more.
The effect of vinification techniques on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wine lees are poorly understood. The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of white and red wine lees generated at early fermentation and during aging. In this study, the total phenol content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), mean degree of polymerization (mDP), and antioxidant activities of five white and eight red wine lees samples from different vinification backgrounds were determined. The results showed that vinification techniques had a significant (p < 0.05) impact on total phenol and tannin content of the samples. White wine lees had high mDP content compared with red ones. Catechin (50–62%) and epicatechin contents were the predominant terminal units of polymeric proanthocyanidin extracted from examined samples. Epigallocatechin was the predominant extension unit of white wine lees, whereas epicatechin was the predominant compound in red wine marc. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assay was strongly correlated with the DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the results showed the strong antioxidant activities associated with red wine lees (PN > 35 mg Trolox/g FDM) (PN: Pinot noir lees; FDM: Freeze-dried Material). This study indicates that tannin is one of the major phenolic compounds available in wine lees that can be useful in human and animal health applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Ingestion of Different Amounts of Carbohydrate after Endurance Exercise on Circulating Cytokines and Markers of Neutrophil Activation
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040051
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
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Abstract
We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO) after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h
[...] Read more.
We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO) after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% V · O2 max, followed by ingestion of 1.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (HCHO trial), 0.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (LCHO trial), or placebo (PLA trial) during the 2 h recovery phase in random order. Circulating glucose, insulin, and cytokine levels, blood cell counts, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin at 1 h after exercise were higher in the HCHO trial than in the LCHO and PLA trials. Although there were significant main effects of time on several variables, including neutrophil count, cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, significant time × trial interactions were not observed for any variables. These results suggest that CHO ingestion after endurance exercise does not enhance exercise-induced increase in circulating neutrophil and cytokine levels and markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, regardless of the amount of CHO ingested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activities and Caffeic Acid Content in New Zealand Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) Roots Extracts
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040052
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this
[...] Read more.
Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays) activities of New Zealand AR extract. The antioxidant activity decreased with a longer extraction time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cebpd Is Essential for Gamma-Tocotrienol Mediated Protection against Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic and Intestinal Injury
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040055
Received: 6 March 2018 / Revised: 2 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) confers protection against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced injury. However, the molecular targets that underlie the protective functions of GT3 are not yet known. We have reported that mice lacking CCAAT enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd−/−) display increased mortality to
[...] Read more.
Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) confers protection against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced injury. However, the molecular targets that underlie the protective functions of GT3 are not yet known. We have reported that mice lacking CCAAT enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd−/−) display increased mortality to IR due to injury to the hematopoietic and intestinal tissues and that Cebpd protects from IR-induced oxidative stress and cell death. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Cebpd mediates the radio protective functions of GT3. We found that GT3-treated Cebpd−/− mice showed partial recovery of white blood cells compared to GT3-treated Cebpd+/+ mice at 2 weeks post-IR. GT3-treated Cebpd−/− mice showed an increased loss of intestinal crypt colonies, which correlated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) after exposure to IR compared to GT3-treated Cebpd+/+ mice. Cebpd is induced by IR as well as a combination of IR and GT3 in the intestine. Studies have shown that granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), mediates the radioprotective functions of GT3. Interestingly, we found that IR alone as well as the combination of IR and GT3 caused robust augmentation of plasma G-CSF in both Cebpd+/+ and Cebpd−/− mice. These results identify a novel role for Cebpd in GT3-mediated protection against IR-induced injury, in part via modulation of IR-induced inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress, which is independent of G-CSF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fluid Intake and Beverage Consumption Description and Their Association with Dietary Vitamins and Antioxidant Compounds in Italian Adults from the Mediterranean Healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyles (MEAL) Study
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040056
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI) from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the total water intake (TWI) from drinks and foods and to evaluate the correlation between the different types of drinks on energy and antioxidant intake. The cohort comprised 1602 individuals from the city of Catania in Southern Italy. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to assess dietary and water intake. The mean total water intake was 2.7 L; more than about two thirds of the sample met the European recommendations for water intake. Water and espresso coffee were the most consumed drinks. Alcohol beverages contributed about 3.0% of total energy intake, and sugar sweetened beverages contributed about 1.4%. All antioxidant vitamins were significantly correlated with TWI. However, a higher correlation was found for water from food rather than water from beverages, suggesting that major food contributors to antioxidant vitamin intake might be fruits and vegetables, rather than beverages other than water. A mild correlation was found between fruit juices and vitamin C; coffee, tea and alcohol, and niacin and polyphenols; and milk and vitamin B12. The findings from the present study show that our sample population has an adequate intake of TWI and that there is a healthy association between beverages and dietary antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Selenium-Rich Ricegrass Juice Improves Antioxidant Properties and Nitric Oxide Inhibition in Macrophage Cells
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040057
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
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Abstract
Ricegrass juice (Oryza sativa L.) was introduced as a functional food as the consumption of sprouts or seedlings has been claimed to provide high nutritive value. Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral that plays a key role in the human antioxidation scheme.
[...] Read more.
Ricegrass juice (Oryza sativa L.) was introduced as a functional food as the consumption of sprouts or seedlings has been claimed to provide high nutritive value. Selenium (Se) is a trace mineral that plays a key role in the human antioxidation scheme. Supplementation of Se into plants is one strategy to enhance plant bioactivities, and the consumption of Se plant foods may confer superior health benefits. In this study, ricegrass juice extract was analyzed for its major phenolic components. The effect of ricegrass juice extracts bio-fortified with 0, 10 and 40 mg Se/L named as RG0, RG10, and RG40, respectively, were investigated for a percentage of cell viability, changes of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide inhibition in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Flavone glycosides, namely chrysoeriol arabinosyl arabinoside derivatives, were found to be the foremost bioactive components in ricegrass juice extract indicated by UHPLC-MS. The results of cell culture assessment revealed that RG40 showed an ability to promote macrophage cell proliferation at low concentration. Ricegrass juice extract in all treatments possessed the ability to reduce malondialdehyde content, which may be regarded as the bioactivity of phenolic compounds. Moreover, Se also played a role in this effect since RG40 showed the greatest ability via increasing the level of GPx enzyme. It was also discovered that phenolic compounds in the extracts played a role in inhibiting nitric oxide in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, RG40 expressed significantly higher NO inhibition properties at IC50 118.76 µg/mL compared to RG0 and RG10, at 147.02 and 147.73 µg/mL, respectively. Se bio-fortified ricegrass juice could be considered as a new potent functional food that can lower the risk of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Macronutrient and Major Food Group Intake in a Cohort of Southern Italian Adults
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040058
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 15 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian
[...] Read more.
Background: Dietary intake of macronutrient and foods is considered crucial to decrease the risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Methods: The aim of this study was to describe the intake of major food groups and macronutrients in a random sample of 1838 southern Italian adults. Results: No significant differences of macronutrient consumption between sexes were found. By contrast, younger individuals had significantly higher intake of animal protein than older ones. Men reported consuming significantly more total processed meats and less eggs than women; egg consumption significantly increased by age groups. Significantly lower intake of fruit in the younger age group compared to older ones was found. Various patterns of correlation between food groups were described. More than half of individuals reached the suggested recommendations for carbohydrate and fiber intake, and about two-thirds met the recommendations for total protein and cholesterol intake, while only a minority met for total fat intake. Total and plant protein, monounsaturated and omega-6 fatty acids, were significantly inversely related with BMI (body mass index), while trans fatty acids and cholesterol were directly correlated. A direct association with unprocessed meats and an inverse association with processed meats was also found. Conclusions: The overall findings suggest that relatively healthy dietary habits are common in southern Italy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases)
Open AccessArticle Use of Olive Oil Industrial By-Product for Pasta Enrichment
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040059
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 16 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. Objective: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the
[...] Read more.
Background: During recent years food industries generally produce a large volume of wastes both solid and liquid, representing a disposal and potential environmental pollution problem. Objective: The goal of the study was to optimize, from both sensory and nutritional points of view, the formulation of durum wheat spaghetti enriched with an olive oil industrial by-product, indicated as olive paste. Methods: Three consecutive steps were carried out. In the first one, the olive paste was air-dried at low temperature, milled to record olive paste flour and properly analyzed for its biochemical composition. In the second step, the olive paste flour was added to the pasta dough at 10% and 15% (w/w). In the last step, different concentrations of transglutaminase were added to enriched pasta (10% olive paste) to further improve the quality. Sensory properties and nutritional content of enriched and control pasta were properly measured. Results: Spaghetti with 10% olive paste flour and 0.6% transglutaminase were considered acceptable to the sensory panel test. Nutritional analyses showed that addition of 10% olive paste flour to pasta considerably increased content of flavonoids and total polyphenols. Conclusions: The proper addition of olive paste flour and transglutaminase for pasta enrichment could represent a starting point to valorize olive oil industrial by-products and produce new healthy food products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Milling the Mistletoe: Nanotechnological Conversion of African Mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus) Intoantimicrobial Materials
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040060
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Nanosizing represents a straight forward technique to unlock the biological activity of complex plant materials. The aim of this study was to develop herbal nanoparticles with medicinal value from dried leaves and stems of Loranthus micranthus with the aid of ball-milling, high speed
[...] Read more.
Nanosizing represents a straight forward technique to unlock the biological activity of complex plant materials. The aim of this study was to develop herbal nanoparticles with medicinal value from dried leaves and stems of Loranthus micranthus with the aid of ball-milling, high speed stirring, and high-pressure homogenization techniques. The milled nanoparticles were characterized using laser diffraction analysis, photon correlation spectroscopy analysis, and light microscopy. The average size of leaf nanoparticles was around 245 nm and that of stem nanoparticles was around 180 nm. The nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial and nematicidal properties against a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus, fungi Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a nematode Steinernemafeltiae. The results show significant activities for both leaf and (particularly) stem nanoparticles of Loranthus micranthus on all organisms tested, even at a particle concentration as low as 0.01% (w/w). The results observed indicate that nanoparticles (especially of the stem) of Loranthus micranthus could serve as novel antimicrobial agents with wide-ranging biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inspired by Nature: Antioxidants and Nanotechnology)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Sex-Specificity of Oxidative Stress in Newborns Leading to a Personalized Antioxidant Nutritive Strategy
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040049
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
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Abstract
Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis.
[...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is a critical process that triggers several diseases observed in premature infants. Growing recognition of the detriment of oxidative stress in newborns warrants the use of an antioxidant strategy that is likely to be nutritional in order to restore redox homeostasis. It appears essential to have a personalized approach that will take into account the age of gestation at birth and the sex of the infant. However, the link between sex and oxidative stress remains unclear. The aim of this study was to find a common denominator explaining the discrepancy between studies related to sex-specific effects of oxidative stress. Results highlight a specificity of sex in the levels of oxidative stress markers linked to the metabolism of glutathione, as measured in the intracellular compartments. Levels of all sex-dependent oxidative stress markers are greater and markers associated to a better antioxidant defense are lower in boys compared to girls during the neonatal period. This sex-specific discrepancy is likely to be related to estrogen metabolism, which is more active in baby-girls and promotes the activation of glutathione metabolism. Conclusion: our observations suggest that nutritive antioxidant strategies need to target glutathione metabolism and, therefore, should be personalized considering, among others, the sex specificity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants: Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Betalains in Some Species of the Amaranthaceae Family: A Review
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040053
Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract
Natural pigments are largely distributed in the plant kingdom. They belong to diverse groups, with distinct biochemical pathways. Betalains with colours that range from yellow to red-violet can de divided into two main subgroups: betaxanthins and betacyanins. These types of pigments are confined
[...] Read more.
Natural pigments are largely distributed in the plant kingdom. They belong to diverse groups, with distinct biochemical pathways. Betalains with colours that range from yellow to red-violet can de divided into two main subgroups: betaxanthins and betacyanins. These types of pigments are confined into 13 families of the order Caryophyllales and in some genera of higher fungi (Amanita muscaria, Hygrocybe and Hygrophorus). The Amaranthaceae family includes diverse genera in which betalains are present: Alternanthera, Amaranthus, Beta, Chenopodium, Celosia and Gomphrena. The biosynthesis of betalains and their general biological properties were reviwed in the present work. In addition, the types of betalains present in some species of the aforementioned genera, their stability and production, as well as biological attributes, were reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Antioxidants in 2018)
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Open AccessReview Iron and the Breastfed Infant
Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040054
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 6 April 2018
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Abstract
The first 6 months of life is a crucial time in meeting iron needs. The purpose of this review is to examine iron in mother’s milk and whether or not it meets the physiological needs of the growing infant. Key issues include iron
[...] Read more.
The first 6 months of life is a crucial time in meeting iron needs. The purpose of this review is to examine iron in mother’s milk and whether or not it meets the physiological needs of the growing infant. Key issues include iron content and iron transport from the mammary gland as well as when and what foods should be added to the solely breastfed infant. We examine these topics in light of new molecular biology findings in the mammary gland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants: Infant Nutrition)
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