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Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040051

Effects of Ingestion of Different Amounts of Carbohydrate after Endurance Exercise on Circulating Cytokines and Markers of Neutrophil Activation

1
Department of Physical Activity Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
2
Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo 102-0083, Japan
3
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
4
Institute of Advanced Active Aging Research, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
5
Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa 359-1192, Japan
6
Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
7
Products Research & Development Laboratory, Asahi Soft Drinks Co., Ltd., Moriya 302-0106, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Abstract

We aimed to examine the effects of ingestion of different amounts of carbohydrate (CHO) after endurance exercise on neutrophil count, circulating cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage. Nine participants completed three separate experimental trials consisting of 1 h of cycling exercise at 70% V · O2 max, followed by ingestion of 1.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (HCHO trial), 0.2 g CHO·kg body mass−1·h−1 (LCHO trial), or placebo (PLA trial) during the 2 h recovery phase in random order. Circulating glucose, insulin, and cytokine levels, blood cell counts, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose and serum insulin at 1 h after exercise were higher in the HCHO trial than in the LCHO and PLA trials. Although there were significant main effects of time on several variables, including neutrophil count, cytokine levels, and the markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, significant time × trial interactions were not observed for any variables. These results suggest that CHO ingestion after endurance exercise does not enhance exercise-induced increase in circulating neutrophil and cytokine levels and markers of neutrophil activation and muscle damage, regardless of the amount of CHO ingested. View Full-Text
Keywords: exhaustion; leukocyte; inflammation; muscle damage exhaustion; leukocyte; inflammation; muscle damage
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Tanisawa, K.; Suzuki, K.; Ma, S.; Kondo, S.; Okugawa, S.; Higuchi, M. Effects of Ingestion of Different Amounts of Carbohydrate after Endurance Exercise on Circulating Cytokines and Markers of Neutrophil Activation. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 51.

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