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Antioxidants 2018, 7(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7040060

Milling the Mistletoe: Nanotechnological Conversion of African Mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus) Intoantimicrobial Materials

1
Division of Bioorganic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken, Germany
2
Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35037 Marburg, Germany
3
Department of Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern, 66482 Zweibruecken, Germany
4
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, PMB 1010 Abakaliki, Nigeria
5
Department of Chemistry/Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, PMB 1010 Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inspired by Nature: Antioxidants and Nanotechnology)
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Abstract

Nanosizing represents a straight forward technique to unlock the biological activity of complex plant materials. The aim of this study was to develop herbal nanoparticles with medicinal value from dried leaves and stems of Loranthus micranthus with the aid of ball-milling, high speed stirring, and high-pressure homogenization techniques. The milled nanoparticles were characterized using laser diffraction analysis, photon correlation spectroscopy analysis, and light microscopy. The average size of leaf nanoparticles was around 245 nm and that of stem nanoparticles was around 180 nm. The nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial and nematicidal properties against a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus, fungi Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a nematode Steinernemafeltiae. The results show significant activities for both leaf and (particularly) stem nanoparticles of Loranthus micranthus on all organisms tested, even at a particle concentration as low as 0.01% (w/w). The results observed indicate that nanoparticles (especially of the stem) of Loranthus micranthus could serve as novel antimicrobial agents with wide-ranging biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial activity; mistletoe nanoparticle; Loranthus micranthus; nanosizing; nematicidal activity antimicrobial activity; mistletoe nanoparticle; Loranthus micranthus; nanosizing; nematicidal activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sarfraz, M.; Griffin, S.; Gabour Sad, T.; Alhasan, R.; Nasim, M.J.; Irfan Masood, M.; Schäfer, K.H.; Ejike, C.E.; Keck, C.M.; Jacob, C.; Ebokaiwe, A.P. Milling the Mistletoe: Nanotechnological Conversion of African Mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus) Intoantimicrobial Materials. Antioxidants 2018, 7, 60.

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