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Antioxidants, Volume 7, Issue 5 (May 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The philothion “glutathione” (GSH) was first discovered in yeast 130 years ago. GSH roles, from [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Exogenous Plant-Based Nutraceutical Supplementation and Peripheral Cell Mononuclear DNA Damage Following High Intensity Exercise
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050070
Received: 20 April 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 17 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice
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Plant-based nutraceuticals are categorised as nutritional supplements which contain a high concentration of antioxidants with the intention of minimising the deleterious effect of an oxidative insult. The primary aim of this novel study was to determine the effect of exogenous barley-wheat grass juice (BWJ) on indices of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Ten (n = 10) apparently healthy, recreationally trained (V̇O2max 55.9 ± 6 mL·kg−1·min−1), males (age 22 ± 2 years, height 181 ± 6 cm, weight 87 ± 8 kg, body mass index (BMI) 27 ± 1) volunteered to participant in the study. In a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants consumed either a placebo, a low dose (70 mL per day) of BWJ, or a high dose (140 mL per day) of BWJ for 7-days. Experimental exercise consisted of a standard maximal oxygen uptake test until volitional fatigue. DNA damage, as assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis comet assay, increased following high intensity exercise across all groups (time × group; p < 0.05, Effect Size (ES) = 0.7), although there was no selective difference for intervention (p > 0.05). There was a main effect for time in lipid hydroperoxide concentration (pooled-group data, pre- vs. post-exercise, p < 0.05, ES = 0.2) demonstrating that exercise increased lipid peroxidation. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) increased by 44.7% following BWJ supplementation (pooled group data, pre- vs. post). The ascorbyl free radical (p < 0.05, ES = 0.26), α-tocopherol (p = 0.007, ES = 0.2), and xanthophyll (p = 0.000, ES = 0.5), increased between the pre- and post-exercise time points indicating a main effect of time. This study illustrates that a 7-day supplementation period of a novel plant-derived nutraceutical product is insufficient at attenuating exercise-induced oxidative damage. It is possible that with a larger sample size, and longer supplementation period, this novel plant-based nutraceutical could potentially offer effective prophylaxis against exercise-induced oxidative stress; as such, this justifies the need for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Inflammation)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Mulberry Fruit (Morus alba L.) Consumption on Health Outcomes: A Mini-Review
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050069
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Mulberry (Morus alba L.) belongs to the Moraceae family and is widely planted in Asia. Mulberry fruits are generally consumed as fresh fruits, jams and juices. They contain considerable amounts of biologically active ingredients that might be associated with some potential pharmacological
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Mulberry (Morus alba L.) belongs to the Moraceae family and is widely planted in Asia. Mulberry fruits are generally consumed as fresh fruits, jams and juices. They contain considerable amounts of biologically active ingredients that might be associated with some potential pharmacological activities that are beneficial for health. Therefore, they have been traditionally used in traditional medicine. Studies have reported that the presence of bioactive components in mulberry fruits, including alkaloids and flavonoid, are associated with bioactivities such as antioxidant. One of the most important compounds in mulberry fruits is anthocyanins which are water-soluble bioactive ingredients of the polyphenol class. Studies have shown that mulberry fruits possess several potential pharmacological health benefits including anti-cholesterol, anti-obesity and hepatoprotective effects which might be associated with the presence of some of these bioactive compounds. However, human intervention studies on the pharmacological activities of mulberry fruits are limited. Therefore, future studies should explore the effect of mulberry fruit consumption on human health and elucidate the detailed compounds. This paper provides an overview of the pharmacological activities of mulberry fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle No Reported Renal Stones with Intravenous Vitamin C Administration: A Prospective Case Series Study
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050068
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
A few cases associating high dose intravenous vitamin C (IVC) administration with renal stone formation have been reported in the literature, however, no long-term studies investigating IVC administration and reported renal stones have been carried out. Our aim was to measure the frequency
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A few cases associating high dose intravenous vitamin C (IVC) administration with renal stone formation have been reported in the literature, however, no long-term studies investigating IVC administration and reported renal stones have been carried out. Our aim was to measure the frequency of reported renal stones in patients receiving IVC therapy. We carried out a prospective case series study of 157 adult patients who commenced IVC therapy at Integrated Health Options clinic between 1 September 2011 and 31 August 2012, with follow-up for 12 months. Inquiries into the occurrence of renal stones were conducted at enrolment, 6 and 12 months, and renal function blood tests were conducted at enrolment, 4 weeks and every 12 weeks thereafter in a subgroup of patients. No renal stones were reported by any patients in the study, despite 8% of the patients having a history of renal stones. In addition, the majority of patients investigated had stable renal function during the study period as evidenced by little change in serum creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) following IVC. In conclusion, IVC therapy was not associated with patient-reported renal stones. Although not the primary focus of this study, it was also observed that there was no significant change in mean serum creatinine or eGFR for those who had follow-up renal function blood tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C: Current Concepts in Human Physiology)
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Open AccessCommunication Antioxidant Capacity of Rigenase®, a Specific Aqueous Extract of Triticum vulgare
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050067
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
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Abstract
Reactive species of oxygen (ROS), responsible for oxidative stress, accumulate in various tissues damaged by burns, decubitus ulcers, and vascular lesions. Antioxidants play an important and well-documented role in healing of chronic and acute wounds. Rigenase®, a specific extract of Triticum
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Reactive species of oxygen (ROS), responsible for oxidative stress, accumulate in various tissues damaged by burns, decubitus ulcers, and vascular lesions. Antioxidants play an important and well-documented role in healing of chronic and acute wounds. Rigenase®, a specific extract of Triticum vulgare manufactured by Farmaceutici Damor, is employed in products used for the regeneration of tissue injuries. In this work, we show that Rigenase® exhibits a scavenging effect toward free radicals, thus pointing to its relevant antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessReview Selenium-Dependent Antioxidant Enzymes: Actions and Properties of Selenoproteins
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050066
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 7 May 2018 / Accepted: 9 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
Unlike other essential trace elements that interact with proteins in the form of cofactors, selenium (Se) becomes co-translationally incorporated into the polypeptide chain as part of 21st naturally occurring amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the UGA codon. Any protein that includes Sec
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Unlike other essential trace elements that interact with proteins in the form of cofactors, selenium (Se) becomes co-translationally incorporated into the polypeptide chain as part of 21st naturally occurring amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), encoded by the UGA codon. Any protein that includes Sec in its polypeptide chain is defined as selenoprotein. Members of the selenoproteins family exert various functions and their synthesis depends on specific cofactors and on dietary Se. The Se intake in productive animals such as chickens affect nutrient utilization, production performances, antioxidative status and responses of the immune system. Although several functions of selenoproteins are unknown, many disorders are related to alterations in selenoprotein expression or activity. Selenium insufficiency and polymorphisms or mutations in selenoproteins’ genes and synthesis cofactors are involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, immune dysfunctions, cancer, muscle and bone disorders, endocrine functions and neurological disorders. Finally, heavy metal poisoning decreases mRNA levels of selenoproteins and increases mRNA levels of inflammatory factors, underlying the antagonistic effect of Se. This review is an update on Se dependent antioxidant enzymes, presenting the current state of the art and is focusing on results obtained mainly in chicken. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Uncaria tomentosa Bark and Leaves
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050065
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
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Abstract
Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa, using a multi-step process involving organic
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Uncaria tomentosa constitutes an important source of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities mainly attributed until recently to alkaloids and triterpenes. We have previously reported for the first-time the polyphenolic profile of extracts from U. tomentosa, using a multi-step process involving organic solvents, as well as their antioxidant capacity, antimicrobial activity on aerial bacteria, and cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines. These promising results prompted the present study using food grade solvents suitable for the elaboration of commercial extracts. We report a detailed study on the polyphenolic composition of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of U. tomentosa bark and leaves (n = 16), using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/TQ-ESI-MS). A total of 32 compounds were identified, including hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan-3-ols monomers, procyanidin dimers and trimers, flavalignans–cinchonains and propelargonidin dimers. Our findings showed that the leaves were the richest source of total phenolics and proanthocyanidins, in particular propelargonidin dimers. Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the contents of procyanidin and propelargonidin dimers were significantly different (p < 0.05) in function of the plant part, and leaves extracts showed higher contents. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) values indicated higher antioxidant capacity for the leaves (p < 0.05). Further, correlation between both methods and procyanidin dimers was found, particularly between ORAC and propelargonidin dimers. Finally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) analysis results clearly indicated that the leaves are the richest plant part in proanthocyanidins and a very homogenous material, regardless of their origin. Therefore, our findings revealed that both ethanol and water extraction processes are adequate for the elaboration of potential commercial extracts from U. tomentosa leaves rich in proanthocyanidins and exhibiting high antioxidant activity. Full article
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Duncan, K.R., Suzuki, Y.J. Vitamin E Nicotinate. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 20
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050064
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
In the original version of our article [1], three lines were omitted from the α-tocopherol and α-tocopheryl nicotinate structures in Figure 1 during the manuscript processing[...] Full article
Open AccessReview Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ketogenic Diet: New Perspectives for Neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s Disease
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050063
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 23 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
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Abstract
The ketogenic diet, originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy in non-responder children, is spreading to be used in the treatment of many diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. The main activity of the ketogenic diet has been related to improved mitochondrial function and decreased
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The ketogenic diet, originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy in non-responder children, is spreading to be used in the treatment of many diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. The main activity of the ketogenic diet has been related to improved mitochondrial function and decreased oxidative stress. B-Hydroxybutyrate, the most studied ketone body, has been shown to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), improving mitochondrial respiration: it stimulates the cellular endogenous antioxidant system with the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), it modulates the ratio between the oxidized and reduced forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and it increases the efficiency of electron transport chain through the expression of uncoupling proteins. Furthermore, the ketogenic diet performs anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) activation and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome as well as inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs), improving memory encoding. The underlying mechanisms and the perspectives for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Neuroprotection)
Open AccessReview Glutathione: Antioxidant Properties Dedicated to Nanotechnologies
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050062
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
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Abstract
Which scientist has never heard of glutathione (GSH)? This well-known low-molecular-weight tripeptide is perhaps the most famous natural antioxidant. However, the interest in GSH should not be restricted to its redox properties. This multidisciplinary review aims to bring out some lesser-known aspects of
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Which scientist has never heard of glutathione (GSH)? This well-known low-molecular-weight tripeptide is perhaps the most famous natural antioxidant. However, the interest in GSH should not be restricted to its redox properties. This multidisciplinary review aims to bring out some lesser-known aspects of GSH, for example, as an emerging tool in nanotechnologies to achieve targeted drug delivery. After recalling the biochemistry of GSH, including its metabolism pathways and redox properties, its involvement in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling is described. Analytical methods for the dosage and localization of GSH or glutathiolated proteins are also covered. Finally, the various therapeutic strategies to replenish GSH stocks are discussed, in parallel with its use as an addressing molecule in drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inspired by Nature: Antioxidants and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Fruit and Vegetable By-Products to Fortify Spreadable Cheese
Antioxidants 2018, 7(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7050061
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
In this work, spreadable cheese was enriched with flours from by-products (red and white grape pomace, tomato peel, broccoli, corn bran, and artichokes) as sources of fibres and antioxidant compounds. The physicochemical and the sensory properties of all the cheese samples were analysed.
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In this work, spreadable cheese was enriched with flours from by-products (red and white grape pomace, tomato peel, broccoli, corn bran, and artichokes) as sources of fibres and antioxidant compounds. The physicochemical and the sensory properties of all the cheese samples were analysed. Results revealed that total phenolic content, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of samples containing grape pomace significantly increased, followed by broccoli, artichoke, corn bran, and tomato peel by-products, compared to the control cheese. Specifically, cheeses containing white and red grape pomace recorded high phenolic content (2.74 ± 0.04 and 2.34 ± 0.15 mg GAEs/g dw, respectively) compared to the control (0.66 mg GAEs/g dw). Full article
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