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Adm. Sci., Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2014), Pages 173-399

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Research

Open AccessArticle Value and Wastes in Manufacturing. An Overview and a New Perspective Based on Eco-Efficiency
Adm. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 173-191; doi:10.3390/admsci4030173
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 26 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (376 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last century, the evolution of manufacturing was characterized by several innovations, concerning technologies, processes, but also entire production systems, with radical changes in strategies, product design, and management of organizations. Cost, time, and quality are the pillars on which was [...] Read more.
In the last century, the evolution of manufacturing was characterized by several innovations, concerning technologies, processes, but also entire production systems, with radical changes in strategies, product design, and management of organizations. Cost, time, and quality are the pillars on which was based the industrial competitiveness during that era. In the most recent years, a renewed interest in environmental issues and socio-ethical values has gradually promoted the transition towards the so-called low impact economies. Producers are then required to pursue a more rational and eco-efficient use of resources and reduce production wastes to survive; also the concept of value chain has been often associated with the terms environmental/green or sustainable. Various studies have been carried out to encourage companies in including the environment in their strategic and operational decisions making. Industrial Ecology (IE) represents the latest and most ambitious attempt to reach this goal; however, a great deal of work remains to be done to achieve this goal. As a result, enhancing companies to integrate efficiency and sustainable practices still has a long way to go. This study presents an overview on the evolutionary dynamics of manufacturing in the industrial age, and offers a discussion about the potential synergies in integrating IE approaches and tools in Lean Manufacturing, by introducing the environmental load as a further type of Muda; the systematic actions to reduce this waste can build up the basis for improving competitiveness through the eco-efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Management)
Open AccessArticle Competition in a New Industrial Economy: Toward an Agent-Based Economic Model of Modularity
Adm. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 192-218; doi:10.3390/admsci4030192
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
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Abstract
When firms (conglomerates) are competing, not only for the present, with a given population of customers and a fixed set of commodities or service, but also for the future, in which products are constantly evolving, what will be their competitive strategies and [...] Read more.
When firms (conglomerates) are competing, not only for the present, with a given population of customers and a fixed set of commodities or service, but also for the future, in which products are constantly evolving, what will be their competitive strategies and what will be the emerging ecology of the market? In this paper, we use the agent-based modeling of a modular economy to study the markup rate dynamics in a duopolistic setting. We find that there are multiple equilibria in the market, characterized by either a fixed point or a limit cycle. In the former case, both firms compete with the same markup rate, which is a situation similar to the familiar classic Bertrand model, except that the rate is not necessarily zero. In the latter case, both firms survive by maintaining different markup rates and different market shares. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Organization Theory)
Open AccessArticle How do Companies Invest in Corporate Social Responsibility? An Ordonomic Contribution for Empirical CSR Research
Adm. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 219-241; doi:10.3390/admsci4030219
Received: 12 May 2014 / Revised: 25 June 2014 / Accepted: 26 June 2014 / Published: 21 July 2014
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Abstract
This paper takes both a conceptual and an empirical approach to answer the question as to how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can be connected to the company’s role as an agent of social value creation when it operates within an imperfect institutional [...] Read more.
This paper takes both a conceptual and an empirical approach to answer the question as to how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can be connected to the company’s role as an agent of social value creation when it operates within an imperfect institutional framework of market competition. To develop a functional design for an empirical study, we draw on the concept of ordonomics, which provides a heuristics for responsible business activities in society. Drawing on ordonomics, we devise three questions: Referring to action responsibility we ask in which CSR activities companies do invest in their day-to-day business. Referring to governance responsibility we ask as to how companies realize win-win solutions through strategic commitments. In addition, with regard to discourse responsibility we ask in which stakeholder dialogues companies engage in order to discuss and find functional rules for organizing win-win solutions. In our empirical study, we reveal insights into the micro-level analysis of the CSP-CFP link and generate several new questions to be the subject of future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Management)
Open AccessArticle Eco-innovative Practices for Sustainable Consumption and Production: What are the Possible Benefits for Companies?
Adm. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 242-275; doi:10.3390/admsci4030242
Received: 13 May 2014 / Revised: 1 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 30 July 2014
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Abstract
The paper aims to present some eco-innovative practices regarding Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP). The study also focuses on potential benefits for the actors who implement these practices, mainly with reference to companies. After a literature review on the actual importance of [...] Read more.
The paper aims to present some eco-innovative practices regarding Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP). The study also focuses on potential benefits for the actors who implement these practices, mainly with reference to companies. After a literature review on the actual importance of SCP and on the effects of eco-innovation tools and policies on companies, authors present the developed eco-innovation practices in three focus areas related to sustainable consumption and production. The aim of the study is to contribute to literature studies on SCP with the development of eco-innovative practices resulting by the integration of existing tools, by pointing out and valorizing their potentials and synergies. These practices have been pointing out in the framework of the international European project. Three focus areas are involved by the practices: sustainability of products and services, sustainability of production processes and sustainable management of industrial areas. Authors developed four eco innovative practices resulting from the integration of 15 existing tools. These practices offer many opportunities to many actors, mainly companies and public authorities, in order to achieve environmental and competitive benefits and implement eco-innovation principles with a cooperative and shared approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Management)
Open AccessArticle Developing an Integrated Conceptual Framework of Pro-Environmental Behavior in the Workplace through Synthesis of the Current Literature
Adm. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 276-303; doi:10.3390/admsci4030276
Received: 20 April 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
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Abstract
Recent studies have begun to bridge the gap between general and workplace pro-environmental behavior by adapting specific existing behavioral models to the workplace environment. This conceptual article proposes a different approach by synthesizing the current general and workplace literature to develop a [...] Read more.
Recent studies have begun to bridge the gap between general and workplace pro-environmental behavior by adapting specific existing behavioral models to the workplace environment. This conceptual article proposes a different approach by synthesizing the current general and workplace literature to develop a new model of the antecedents to pro-environmental behavior. Guided by this approach, this paper combines the insights of the current general and workplace models to develop an integrated framework of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. In doing so, an overview of the current general and workplace literatures will be provided as well as their similarities and differences highlighted. The proposed framework will provide further insights into the antecedents of workplace pro-environmental behavior and identify common findings across the different existing workplace models. This theory can be the basis for further research in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the antecedents of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. Lastly, implications for specific interventions to develop targeted Human Resource Management practices and work towards achieving environmental sustainability will be discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of Policy Champions and Learning in Implementing Horizontal Environmental Policy Integration: Comparative Insights from European Structural Fund Programmes in the U.K.
Adm. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 304-330; doi:10.3390/admsci4030304
Received: 15 April 2014 / Revised: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines attempts to integrate environmental sustainability goals into the design and implementation of projects funded by the EU Structural Funds programmes in the U.K. between 2000 and 2006. It does so by comparing how the two “horizontal priorities” (environmental sustainability [...] Read more.
This paper examines attempts to integrate environmental sustainability goals into the design and implementation of projects funded by the EU Structural Funds programmes in the U.K. between 2000 and 2006. It does so by comparing how the two “horizontal priorities” (environmental sustainability and gender equality) fared in terms of understanding and acceptance by project applicants. It places this material within the wider context of literature on environmental policy integration and inter-agency cooperation. A “policy coordination” framework is used as a heuristic device to construct an account of the ways in which the two themes were handled through the interplay of the myriad of actors and organisations involved in the process. A key part in this involved the deployment of “policy champions” to work with external organisations bidding for funding to support projects that formed the core of programme implementation. The paper also examines the variable reactions on the part of project designers to the requirement to incorporate environmental and gender goals and the greater inter-professional networking that these implied. The comparison between the two priorities clearly demonstrates the difficulties inherent in the breadth and complexity of environmental issues and the need in the first instance to link them to relatively simple actions directly associated with economic development activity. The study concludes that this is essentially the first step in a more protracted “policy learning” process. Full article
Open AccessArticle Eco-Industrial Parks and Sustainable Spatial Planning: A Possible Contradiction?
Adm. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 331-349; doi:10.3390/admsci4030331
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 20 August 2014 / Published: 26 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The definition and the subsequent development of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) have been deeply based on the application of industrial ecology theory, which pays specific attention to metabolic exchanges within industrial processes to address a deep reduction of limited resource consumption and a [...] Read more.
The definition and the subsequent development of eco-industrial parks (EIPs) have been deeply based on the application of industrial ecology theory, which pays specific attention to metabolic exchanges within industrial processes to address a deep reduction of limited resource consumption and a minimization of waste production in the framework of a sustainable development approach. Despite the EIPs configurations being essentially based on the overall idea of sustainability, the problem of defining their proper location inside the territory and the consequent land use model, to minimize land consumption, have not always been central in the wide range of studies and practices concerning the EIPs. Nevertheless, the specific problem of a drastic reduction of land consumption at the EIP planning stage acquires a crucial role and, therefore, needs to be carefully assessed inside the perspective of sustainable urban development. In this framework, the paper firstly aims at facing the nontrivial relationship between the EIPs’ theorizations and implementations and the reduction of land consumption by referencing specific studies and shared tools, where new developments have been favored despite the conversion and redevelopment of existing industrial parks; secondly, it focus on an Italian case study and its emblematic EIP planning processes, in order to deepen the contradictions between sustainable spatial planning and eco-industrial parks. Finally, some final conclusions will be presented, in order to integrate some main issues concerning the reduction of land consumption inside the more traditional EIP design processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Management)
Open AccessArticle Factors Influencing U.S. Charitable Giving during the Great Recession: Implications for Nonprofit Administration
Adm. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 350-372; doi:10.3390/admsci4030350
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 7 August 2014 / Accepted: 23 August 2014 / Published: 28 August 2014
PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing U.S. charitable giving during the first full year of the Great Recession. Demand on the services of human service nonprofits typically escalates during periods of extreme economic downturn; thus donations to agencies [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing U.S. charitable giving during the first full year of the Great Recession. Demand on the services of human service nonprofits typically escalates during periods of extreme economic downturn; thus donations to agencies serving the most vulnerable groups—the young, the old, and the frail—become increasingly important. The study sample consisted of 8690 U.S. respondents. Results indicate the growing importance of computer ownership and the continuing importance of combined purpose agencies in assisting the needy in hard times. Suggestions for both future research and nonprofit administrative practice regarding charitable giving are provided. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Descriptive Account of an Inter-Professional Collaborative Leadership Project
Adm. Sci. 2014, 4(3), 373-399; doi:10.3390/admsci4030373
Received: 9 July 2014 / Revised: 9 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 17 September 2014
PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A collaborative project between an academic healthcare faculty and a professional development director resulted in the design, delivery and evaluation of an inter-professional collaborative leadership workshop with ongoing leadership development activities. The workshop attendees were five inter-professional teams from one large, urban [...] Read more.
A collaborative project between an academic healthcare faculty and a professional development director resulted in the design, delivery and evaluation of an inter-professional collaborative leadership workshop with ongoing leadership development activities. The workshop attendees were five inter-professional teams from one large, urban cancer care center in Taipei, Taiwan. The workshop included didactic instruction complemented with team discussions and interactive exercises. Continued practice was encouraged, such as appreciative inquiry exercises and rotated team leadership. Evaluation involved the use of a cross-culturally validated collaborative practice tool and follow-up interviews and focus groups. Although the formal workshop was a 1-day session, continued organizational support and systematic approaches to collaborative leadership practice in clinical settings were necessary components for transfer of learning from the workshop to real life. This paper will include an overview of the foundational leadership concepts covered in the workshop. The instructional strategies, evaluation methods and outcomes will be discussed. The limitations and strengths of this collaborative leadership project will be provided, as well as future plans for a collaborative leadership development program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Teamwork and Leadership in Organizations)
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