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Animals, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2012), Pages 316-506

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review, Other

Open AccessEditorial Humans and Other Animals—Future Friends or Foe?
Animals 2012, 2(3), 361-362; doi:10.3390/ani2030361
Received: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 10 August 2012
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Abstract
Since the opening editorial, Animals has got off to an excellent start. Thirty articles were published in 2011, which comprise 446 pages of volume 1, and already 25 articles have been published this year in 360 pages of volume 2. Meanwhile the impact
[...] Read more.
Since the opening editorial, Animals has got off to an excellent start. Thirty articles were published in 2011, which comprise 446 pages of volume 1, and already 25 articles have been published this year in 360 pages of volume 2. Meanwhile the impact of other MDPI journals continues to grow; mean impact factor of the ten journals that have been in existence long enough to be assessed was 1.9, an increase of 0.3 from the previous year. Open access internet-based journals are proving ever popular and we eagerly await our first impact factor next year. There was a broad spread of topics, which can be roughly classified as follows (and the number of articles): greenhouse gas emissions from animals and climate change (10), animal ethics (9), veterinary medicine (8), animal nutrition (7), animal welfare (7), biodiversity (4) and animals in art and literature (4). Several book reviews have been published and replies by the authors. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Whole Farm Net Greenhouse Gas Abatement from Establishing Kikuyu-Based Perennial Pastures in South-Western Australia
Animals 2012, 2(3), 316-330; doi:10.3390/ani2030316
Received: 1 July 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On-farm activities that reduce GHG emissions or sequester carbon from the atmosphere to compensate for anthropogenic emissions are currently being evaluated by the Australian Government as carbon offset opportunities. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of establishing and grazing
[...] Read more.
On-farm activities that reduce GHG emissions or sequester carbon from the atmosphere to compensate for anthropogenic emissions are currently being evaluated by the Australian Government as carbon offset opportunities. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of establishing and grazing Kikuyu pastures, integrated as part of a mixed Merino sheep and cropping system, as a carbon offset mechanism. For the assessment of changes in net greenhouse gas emissions, results from a combination of whole farm economic and livestock models were used (MIDAS and GrassGro). Net GHG emissions were determined by deducting increased emissions from introducing this practice change (increased methane and nitrous oxide emissions due to higher stocking rates) from the soil carbon sequestered from growing the Kikuyu pasture. Our results indicate that livestock systems using perennial pastures may have substantially lower net GHG emissions, and reduced GHG intensity of production, compared with annual plant-based production systems. Soil carbon accumulation by converting 45% of arable land within a farm enterprise to Kikuyu-based pasture was determined to be 0.80 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1 and increased GHG emissions (leakage) was 0.19 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1. The net benefit of this practice change was 0.61 t CO2-e farm ha−1 yr−1 while the rate of soil carbon accumulation remains constant. The use of perennial pastures improved the efficiency of animal production almost eight fold when expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per unit of animal product. The strategy of using perennial pasture to improve production levels and store additional carbon in the soil demonstrates how livestock should be considered in farming systems as both sources and sinks for GHG abatement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Livestock Management)
Open AccessArticle Preliminary Investigation of Food Guarding Behavior in Shelter Dogs in the United States
Animals 2012, 2(3), 331-346; doi:10.3390/ani2030331
Received: 17 April 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 24 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (95 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A survey given to animal shelters across the US reported food bowl guarding as one of the most common reasons for euthanasia and only 34% attempted to modify this guarding behavior. This study identified 96 dogs that guarded their food bowl during an
[...] Read more.
A survey given to animal shelters across the US reported food bowl guarding as one of the most common reasons for euthanasia and only 34% attempted to modify this guarding behavior. This study identified 96 dogs that guarded their food bowl during an assessment, and then placed them into a home on a modification program. Food guarding behavior was identified as stiffening, gulping, growling, freezing, and/or biting a fake hand during the SAFER® food bowl assessment. Dogs that exhibited guarding behavior over toys were excluded. Follow-up was done at 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months post adoption to measure all guarding behavior in the home. Six adopters reported at least one incident involving guarding in the first three weeks, of which only one was around the food bowl. By three months, those adopters reported no guarding behavior except one new occurrence of a dog guarding a rawhide was reported in the third month. For dog identified with food guarding, the return rate to the shelter was 5% and 9% for adult dogs not identified with guarding behavior. Adopters did not comply with at least one aspect of the program, so it is unclear why so little guarding was reported. The key finding is that dogs that guarded their food bowl in the shelter were not guarding their food in their new homes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in Habitat Structure May Explain Decrease in Reintroduced Mohor Gazelle Population in the Guembeul Fauna Reserve, Senegal
Animals 2012, 2(3), 347-360; doi:10.3390/ani2030347
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 8 August 2012
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Abstract
Reintroduction is a widespread method for saving populations of endangered species from extinction. In spite of recent reviews, it is difficult to reach general conclusions about its value as a conservation tool, as authors are reluctant to publish unsuccessful results. The Mohor gazelle
[...] Read more.
Reintroduction is a widespread method for saving populations of endangered species from extinction. In spite of recent reviews, it is difficult to reach general conclusions about its value as a conservation tool, as authors are reluctant to publish unsuccessful results. The Mohor gazelle is a North African gazelle, extinct in the wild. Eight individuals were reintroduced in Senegal in 1984. The population grew progressively, albeit slowly, during the first 20 years after release, but then declined dramatically, until the population in 2009 was estimated at no more than 13–15 individuals. This study attempts to determine the likelihood of gazelle-habitat relationships to explain why the size of the gazelle population has diminished. Our results show that the Mohor gazelle in Guembeul is found in open habitats with less developed canopy where the grass is shorter, suggesting the possibility that changes in habitat structure have taken place during the time the gazelles have been in the Reserve, reducing the amount of suitable habitat. Reintroduction design usually concentrates on short-term factors that may affect survival of the released animals and their descendants (short-term achievement), while the key factors for assessing its success may be those that affect the long-term evolution of the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Rehabilitation)
Open AccessArticle Hunting Activity Among Naturalistically Housed Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at the Fundació Mona (Girona, Spain). Predation, Occasional Consumption and Strategies in Rehabilitated Animals
Animals 2012, 2(3), 363-376; doi:10.3390/ani2030363
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 2 August 2012 / Accepted: 9 August 2012 / Published: 14 August 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Predatory behavior in wild chimpanzees and other primates has been well documented over the last 30 years. However, as it is an opportunistic behavior, conditions which may promote such behavior are left up to chance. Until now, predatory behavior among captive chimpanzees has
[...] Read more.
Predatory behavior in wild chimpanzees and other primates has been well documented over the last 30 years. However, as it is an opportunistic behavior, conditions which may promote such behavior are left up to chance. Until now, predatory behavior among captive chimpanzees has been poorly documented. In this paper, we present five instances providing evidence of predatory behavior: four performed by isolated individuals and one carried out in cooperation. The evidence of group predation involved the chimpanzees adopting different roles as pursuers and ambushers. Prey was partially eaten in some cases, but not in the social episode. This study confirms that naturalistic environments allow chimpanzees to enhance species-typical behavioral patterns. Full article
Open AccessArticle Companion Animals, Natural Disasters and the Law: An Australian Perspective
Animals 2012, 2(3), 380-394; doi:10.3390/ani2030380
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (87 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to
[...] Read more.
This article examines the regulation of companion animal welfare during disasters, with some context provided by two recent major disaster events in Australia. Important general lessons for improved disaster management were identified in subsequent inquiries. However, the interests of companion animals continue to be inadequately addressed. This is because key assumptions underpinning disaster planning for companion animals—the primacy of human interests over animal interests and that individuals will properly address companion animal needs during times of disaster—are open to question. In particular these assumptions fail to recognise the inherent value of companion animals, underestimate the strong bond shared by some owners and their animals and, at the same time, overestimate the capacity of some owners to adequately meet the needs of their animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Management Following Natural Disasters)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Time (Within and Between Days), and Dairy Production Factors on the Impedance Value at 24 Acupuncture Points in Dairy Cows
Animals 2012, 2(3), 415-425; doi:10.3390/ani2030415
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 30 August 2012
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Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of hour and day of measurement, and of production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at 24 acupuncture points (APs). This is a first step in assessing whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming.
[...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of hour and day of measurement, and of production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at 24 acupuncture points (APs). This is a first step in assessing whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming. The APs studied were left (L) and right (R) points of the bladder (BL) and stomach (ST) meridians. The effect of time was measured in a 3x3 Latin square on six cows in one herd. The effect of production factors was analyzed using 108 cows from three herds for two months. The effect of time excludes BL 14R, 16R, 21R, 22R, 30R, 46-02R, 43-01L and 30L, and ST18 bilaterally for diagnostic use. The contribution of parity, age or lactation period to monthly models of BL21R, 18R and 15R, and ST18R exclude these for diagnostic use. Of the remaining APs, BL19R, BL20R and BL46-02L showed stable IVs and are recommended for reference measurements. APs BL14L, BL16L and BL17L are recommended for diagnostics, and BL 16R, 17R, 18R, 23R, 30R, 15L, 20L, 22L and 29L need further study. Factors contributing to the variation in the IV of several APs were: milk robot, number of inseminations, body condition score, days of the preceding lactation, kg milk and kg milk fat of current and preceding month and preceding year, and milk cell count and urea content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)
Open AccessArticle Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects
Animals 2012, 2(3), 426-436; doi:10.3390/ani2030426
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 24 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip
[...] Read more.
Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs) showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Greenhouse Gas and Soil Carbon Model for Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Livestock Production in Canada
Animals 2012, 2(3), 437-454; doi:10.3390/ani2030437
Received: 12 June 2012 / Revised: 21 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To assess tradeoffs between environmental sustainability and changes in food production on agricultural land in Canada the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES) was developed. It incorporates four livestock specific GHG assessments in a single model. To demonstrate the application
[...] Read more.
To assess tradeoffs between environmental sustainability and changes in food production on agricultural land in Canada the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES) was developed. It incorporates four livestock specific GHG assessments in a single model. To demonstrate the application of ULICEES, 10% of beef cattle protein production was assumed to be displaced with an equivalent amount of pork protein. Without accounting for the loss of soil carbon, this 10% shift reduced GHG emissions by 2.5 TgCO2e y−1. The payback period was defined as the number of years required for a GHG reduction to equal soil carbon lost from the associated land use shift. A payback period that is shorter than 40 years represents a net long term decrease in GHG emissions. Displacing beef cattle with hogs resulted in a surplus area of forage. When this residual land was left in ungrazed perennial forage, the payback periods were less than 4 years and when it was reseeded to annual crops, they were equal to or less than 40 years. They were generally greater than 40 years when this land was used to raise cattle. Agricultural GHG mitigation policies will inevitably involve a trade-off between production, land use and GHG emission reduction. ULICEES is a model that can objectively assess these trade-offs for Canadian agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Livestock Management)
Open AccessArticle Acupuncture Points of the Horse’s Distal Thoracic Limb: A Neuroanatomic Approach to the Transposition of Traditional Points
Animals 2012, 2(3), 455-471; doi:10.3390/ani2030455
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
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Abstract
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse’s coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest
[...] Read more.
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse’s coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible. To date there is no published research on the effect of acupuncture treatment of the equine distal limb points. This paper presents a modified approach to equine distal limb point selection based on what is known from research on other species about the neuroanatomic method of acupuncture. A rationale is presented for modification of traditional equine ting points as well as additional points around the hoof and distal limb that do not appear in the standard textbooks of equine acupuncture. The anatomy and physiology of the equine foot likely to be affected by acupuncture are briefly reviewed. Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points. As an example of clinical application, a neuroanatomic approach to acupuncture treatment of equine laminitis is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)

Review

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Open AccessReview One Medicine, One Acupuncture
Animals 2012, 2(3), 395-414; doi:10.3390/ani2030395
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
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Abstract
“One Acupuncture”, like “One Medicine”, has the potential to improve research quality and clinical outcomes. However, while human acupuncture point locations have remained largely consistent over time, the veterinary versions remain imprecise and variable. Establishing anatomical criteria for veterinary acupuncture atlases in keeping
[...] Read more.
“One Acupuncture”, like “One Medicine”, has the potential to improve research quality and clinical outcomes. However, while human acupuncture point locations have remained largely consistent over time, the veterinary versions remain imprecise and variable. Establishing anatomical criteria for veterinary acupuncture atlases in keeping with the human template will create congruence across species, benefiting both research and practice. Anatomic criteria for points based on objectively verifiable structures will facilitate translational research. Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation. If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur. Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species. This paper reveals incongruities that remain between human and veterinary acupuncture points, illustrating the need to analyze anatomical characteristics of each point to assure accuracy in selecting transpositional acupuncture locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)
Open AccessReview Double Muscling in Cattle: Genes, Husbandry, Carcasses and Meat
Animals 2012, 2(3), 472-506; doi:10.3390/ani2030472
Received: 9 July 2012 / Revised: 5 September 2012 / Accepted: 7 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle
[...] Read more.
Molecular biology has enabled the identification of the mechanisms whereby inactive myostatin increases skeletal muscle growth in double-muscled (DM) animals. Myostatin is a secreted growth differentiation factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Mutations make the myostatin gene inactive, resulting in muscle hypertrophy. The relationship between the different characteristics of DM cattle are defined with possible consequences for livestock husbandry. The extremely high carcass yield of DM animals coincides with a reduction in the size of most vital organs. As a consequence, DM animals may be more susceptible to respiratory disease, urolithiasis, lameness, nutritional stress, heat stress and dystocia, resulting in a lower robustness. Their feed intake capacity is reduced, necessitating a diet with a greater nutrient density. The modified myofiber type is responsible for a lower capillary density, and it induces a more glycolytic metabolism. There are associated changes for the living animal and post-mortem metabolism alterations, requiring appropriate slaughter conditions to maintain a high meat quality. Intramuscular fat content is low, and it is characterized by more unsaturated fatty acids, providing healthier meat for the consumer. It may not always be easy to find a balance between the different disciplines underlying the livestock husbandry of DM animals to realize a good performance and health and meat quality. Full article

Other

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Open AccessBook Review Considering Animals: Contemporary Studies in Human-Animal Relations. By Carol Freeman, Elizabeth Leane and Yvette Watt. Ashgate: Surrey, UK, 2011; Hardcover, 236 pp; ISBN 978-1-4094-0013-4
Animals 2012, 2(3), 377-379; doi:10.3390/ani2030377
Received: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
PDF Full-text (63 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 2005 a small group of academics gathered at the University of Western Australia for a modest yet highly significant interdisciplinary conference focused on scholarship in the emerging field of human-animal studies. A critical mass of academics from the University of Tasmania attended
[...] Read more.
In 2005 a small group of academics gathered at the University of Western Australia for a modest yet highly significant interdisciplinary conference focused on scholarship in the emerging field of human-animal studies. A critical mass of academics from the University of Tasmania attended that first conference and pledged to host a second human-animal studies conference two years later. True to their word a second human-animal studies conference was held in Hobart, Australia, in 2007. The organisers called the second conference “Considering Animals” and the book under review here is a compilation of papers presented at that conference. [...] Full article

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