Animals 2012, 2(3), 415-425; doi:10.3390/ani2030415
Article

Effect of Time (Within and Between Days), and Dairy Production Factors on the Impedance Value at 24 Acupuncture Points in Dairy Cows

1 Department of Animal Science, Wageningen University, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands 2 Animal Production Systems Group, Wageningen University, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands 3 i-HEALTH bv, Apeldoornseweg 47, 6814 BJ Arnhem, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2012; in revised form: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 30 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)
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Simple Summary: Whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming depends, among other things, on effects of time and production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at acupuncture points (APs). We measured the IV at 24 APs located left (L) and right (R) of the bladder (BL) and stomach (ST) meridians. The effect of time of measurement (assessed on six cows in one herd) was confirmed for seven APs, and of production factors (analyzed using 108 cows in three herds) for seven APs. We recommend BL19R, BL20R and BL46-02L as reference values, and BL14L, BL16L and BL17L for diagnostics, and ten other APs for further study.
Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of hour and day of measurement, and of production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at 24 acupuncture points (APs). This is a first step in assessing whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming. The APs studied were left (L) and right (R) points of the bladder (BL) and stomach (ST) meridians. The effect of time was measured in a 3x3 Latin square on six cows in one herd. The effect of production factors was analyzed using 108 cows from three herds for two months. The effect of time excludes BL 14R, 16R, 21R, 22R, 30R, 46-02R, 43-01L and 30L, and ST18 bilaterally for diagnostic use. The contribution of parity, age or lactation period to monthly models of BL21R, 18R and 15R, and ST18R exclude these for diagnostic use. Of the remaining APs, BL19R, BL20R and BL46-02L showed stable IVs and are recommended for reference measurements. APs BL14L, BL16L and BL17L are recommended for diagnostics, and BL 16R, 17R, 18R, 23R, 30R, 15L, 20L, 22L and 29L need further study. Factors contributing to the variation in the IV of several APs were: milk robot, number of inseminations, body condition score, days of the preceding lactation, kg milk and kg milk fat of current and preceding month and preceding year, and milk cell count and urea content.
Keywords: dairy; electro-acupuncture; acupuncture points; diagnostics; diurnal; lactation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bosma, R.H.; Kalkers-van de Ven, S.C.G.; den Boer, M.M.J. Effect of Time (Within and Between Days), and Dairy Production Factors on the Impedance Value at 24 Acupuncture Points in Dairy Cows. Animals 2012, 2, 415-425.

AMA Style

Bosma RH, Kalkers-van de Ven SCG, den Boer MMJ. Effect of Time (Within and Between Days), and Dairy Production Factors on the Impedance Value at 24 Acupuncture Points in Dairy Cows. Animals. 2012; 2(3):415-425.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bosma, Roel H.; Kalkers-van de Ven, Shirley C. G.; den Boer, Mauk M. J. 2012. "Effect of Time (Within and Between Days), and Dairy Production Factors on the Impedance Value at 24 Acupuncture Points in Dairy Cows." Animals 2, no. 3: 415-425.

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