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Special Issue "Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science"

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A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Christine M. Egger

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: anesthesiology (all species); pain management; acupuncture; Chinese herbal therapy
Guest Editor
Dr. Bonnie D. Wright

Veterinary Emergency and Rehabilitation Hospital, 816 South Lemay Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: veterinary anesthesiology; pain management; acupuncture

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasingly, alternative or complementary medicine modalities are incorporated into the practice of "western" veterinary medicine and the practice of integrated veterinary medicine is becoming more common. At the same time, the practice of evidence-based medicine is encouraged and expected of scientists and clinicians. While there is value in anecdotal evidence and expert opinion, data from peer reviewed basic research and double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluating integrative medicine is accumulating. The publication of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in veterinary patients will soon be possible. This scientific evidence will aid us in understanding alternative modalities, assessing their value, and making rational clinical decisions for our patients.

The integration of acupuncture therapy into the treatment ofveterinary patients is meant to complement the "western" medicine modalities, resulting in a better outcome for the patient with fewer adverse affects. Acupuncture is a modality that is used to treat numerous conditions in both human and veterinary medicine. Modern rehabilitation medicine commonly uses acupuncture and myofascial trigger point therapy to reduce pain, promote healing, and hasten recovery.

The motivation for this special issue of Animals is to explore the evidence for the value of integration of acupuncture in the treatment of disease or trauma in veterinary patients. Manuscripts of original research and review articles will be peer-reviewed and should assess the value of integrating acupuncture into the treatment of pain, trauma, gastrointestinal, neurological, cardiovascular, or renal disease in veterinary patients.

Prof. Dr. Christine M. Egger
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • horses
  • companion animals
  • food animals
  • neurological disease
  • gastrointestinal disease
  • renal disease
  • cardiovascular disease
  • trauma
  • acupuncture
  • herbal therapy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Acupuncture Points of the Horse’s Distal Thoracic Limb: A Neuroanatomic Approach to the Transposition of Traditional Points
Animals 2012, 2(3), 455-471; doi:10.3390/ani2030455
Received: 30 July 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 17 September 2012
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Abstract
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse’s coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest
[...] Read more.
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse’s coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible. To date there is no published research on the effect of acupuncture treatment of the equine distal limb points. This paper presents a modified approach to equine distal limb point selection based on what is known from research on other species about the neuroanatomic method of acupuncture. A rationale is presented for modification of traditional equine ting points as well as additional points around the hoof and distal limb that do not appear in the standard textbooks of equine acupuncture. The anatomy and physiology of the equine foot likely to be affected by acupuncture are briefly reviewed. Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points. As an example of clinical application, a neuroanatomic approach to acupuncture treatment of equine laminitis is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)
Open AccessArticle Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects
Animals 2012, 2(3), 426-436; doi:10.3390/ani2030426
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 24 August 2012 / Accepted: 29 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip
[...] Read more.
Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs) showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effect of Time (Within and Between Days), and Dairy Production Factors on the Impedance Value at 24 Acupuncture Points in Dairy Cows
Animals 2012, 2(3), 415-425; doi:10.3390/ani2030415
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 15 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 30 August 2012
PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of hour and day of measurement, and of production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at 24 acupuncture points (APs). This is a first step in assessing whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming.
[...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of hour and day of measurement, and of production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at 24 acupuncture points (APs). This is a first step in assessing whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming. The APs studied were left (L) and right (R) points of the bladder (BL) and stomach (ST) meridians. The effect of time was measured in a 3x3 Latin square on six cows in one herd. The effect of production factors was analyzed using 108 cows from three herds for two months. The effect of time excludes BL 14R, 16R, 21R, 22R, 30R, 46-02R, 43-01L and 30L, and ST18 bilaterally for diagnostic use. The contribution of parity, age or lactation period to monthly models of BL21R, 18R and 15R, and ST18R exclude these for diagnostic use. Of the remaining APs, BL19R, BL20R and BL46-02L showed stable IVs and are recommended for reference measurements. APs BL14L, BL16L and BL17L are recommended for diagnostics, and BL 16R, 17R, 18R, 23R, 30R, 15L, 20L, 22L and 29L need further study. Factors contributing to the variation in the IV of several APs were: milk robot, number of inseminations, body condition score, days of the preceding lactation, kg milk and kg milk fat of current and preceding month and preceding year, and milk cell count and urea content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Gastrointestinal Pain, Inflammation and Diarrhea in Africa: Future Perspectives for Integration into Modern Medicine
Animals 2013, 3(1), 158-227; doi:10.3390/ani3010158
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 February 2013 / Published: 4 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a growing need to find the most appropriate and effective treatment options for a variety of painful syndromes, including conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, for treating both veterinary and human patients. The most successful regimen may come through integrated therapies including
[...] Read more.
There is a growing need to find the most appropriate and effective treatment options for a variety of painful syndromes, including conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, for treating both veterinary and human patients. The most successful regimen may come through integrated therapies including combining current and novel western drugs with acupuncture and botanical therapies or their derivatives. There is an extensive history and use of plants in African traditional medicine. In this review, we have highlighted botanical remedies used for treatment of pain, diarrheas and inflammation in traditional veterinary and human health care in Africa. These preparations are promising sources of new compounds comprised of flavonoids, bioflavanones, xanthones, terpenoids, sterols and glycosides as well as compound formulas and supplements for future use in multimodal treatment approaches to chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammation. The advancement of plant therapies and their derivative compounds will require the identification and validation of compounds having specific anti-nociceptive neuromodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory effects. In particular, there is need for the identification of the presence of compounds that affect purinergic, GABA, glutamate, TRP, opioid and cannabinoid receptors, serotonergic and chloride channel systems through bioactivity-guided, high-throughput screening and biotesting. This will create new frontiers for obtaining novel compounds and herbal supplements to relieve pain and gastrointestinal disorders, and suppress inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)
Open AccessReview One Medicine, One Acupuncture
Animals 2012, 2(3), 395-414; doi:10.3390/ani2030395
Received: 4 July 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
PDF Full-text (1846 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
“One Acupuncture”, like “One Medicine”, has the potential to improve research quality and clinical outcomes. However, while human acupuncture point locations have remained largely consistent over time, the veterinary versions remain imprecise and variable. Establishing anatomical criteria for veterinary acupuncture atlases in keeping
[...] Read more.
“One Acupuncture”, like “One Medicine”, has the potential to improve research quality and clinical outcomes. However, while human acupuncture point locations have remained largely consistent over time, the veterinary versions remain imprecise and variable. Establishing anatomical criteria for veterinary acupuncture atlases in keeping with the human template will create congruence across species, benefiting both research and practice. Anatomic criteria for points based on objectively verifiable structures will facilitate translational research. Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation. If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur. Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species. This paper reveals incongruities that remain between human and veterinary acupuncture points, illustrating the need to analyze anatomical characteristics of each point to assure accuracy in selecting transpositional acupuncture locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combination of Western and Chinese Medicine in Veterinary Science)

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