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Water, Volume 9, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Reliable modelling of urban floods depends on realistic representation of flows on the surface, in [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Potential Economic Viability of Precision Irrigation: A Theoretical Analysis and Pilot Empirical Evaluation
Water 2017, 9(12), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120990
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
The present study explores the value generated by the use of information to rationalize the use of water resources in agriculture. The study introduces the value of information concept in the field of irrigation developing a theoretical assessment framework to evaluate whether the
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The present study explores the value generated by the use of information to rationalize the use of water resources in agriculture. The study introduces the value of information concept in the field of irrigation developing a theoretical assessment framework to evaluate whether the introduction of “Precision Irrigation” (PI) practices can improve expectations on income. This is supported by a Stakeholders consultation and by a numerical example, using secondary data and crop growth models. The study reveals that the value generated with the transition to PI varies with pedo-climate, economic, technological and other conditions, and it depends on the initial status of the farmer’s information environment. These factors affect the prerequisite needed to make viable PI. To foster the adoption of PI, stakeholders envisaged the need to set up free meteorological information and advisory service that supports farmers in using PI, as well as other type of instruments. The paper concludes that the profitability of adoption and the relevant impact on the environment cannot be considered as generally given, but must be evaluated case by case justifying (or not) the activation of specific agricultural policy measures supporting PI practices to target regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digitalisation of Water Management in Agriculture)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Preference Handling Techniques in Multi-Objective Optimisation for Water Distribution Systems
Water 2017, 9(12), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120996
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Dealing with real world engineering problems, often comes with facing multiple and conflicting objectives and requirements. Water distributions systems (WDS) are not exempt from this: while cost and hydraulic performance are usually conflicting objectives, several requirements related with environmental issues in water sources
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Dealing with real world engineering problems, often comes with facing multiple and conflicting objectives and requirements. Water distributions systems (WDS) are not exempt from this: while cost and hydraulic performance are usually conflicting objectives, several requirements related with environmental issues in water sources might be in conflict as well. Commonly, optimisation statements are defined in order to address the WDS design, management and/or control. Multi-objective optimisation can handle such conflicting objectives, by means of a simultaneous optimisation of the design objectives, in order to approximate the so-called Pareto front. In such algorithms it is possible to embed preference handling mechanisms, with the aim of improving the pertinency of the approximation. In this paper we propose two mechanisms to handle such preferences based on the TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organisation METHod for Enrichment of Evaluations) methods. Performance evaluation on two benchmarks validates the usefulness of such approaches according to the degree of flexibility to capture designers’ preferences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An NDVI-Based Statistical ET Downscaling Method
Water 2017, 9(12), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120995
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
This study proposes a new method for downscaling ETWatch 1-km actual evapotranspiration (ET) products to a spatial resolution of 30 m using Landsat8 normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. The NDVI is employed as an indicator of land-surface vegetation, which displays periodic spatial
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This study proposes a new method for downscaling ETWatch 1-km actual evapotranspiration (ET) products to a spatial resolution of 30 m using Landsat8 normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. The NDVI is employed as an indicator of land-surface vegetation, which displays periodic spatial patterns on the land surface. A 30-m-resolution ten-day ET dataset is then calculated primarily using the NDVI and the historical ratio of coarse NDVI and ET that considers different land cover types. Good agreement and correlations were obtained between the downscaled data and observations from three flux sites in two study areas. The mean bias (MB) per ten-day period ranges from 4.21 mm in Guantao to 1.55 mm in Huazhaizi, and the coefficient of determination (R2) varies from 0.87 to 0.95. The downscaling results show good consistency with the original ETWatch 1-km data over both temporal and spatial scales for different land cover types, with R2 values ranging from 0.82 to 0.98. In addition, the downscaled results capture the progression of vegetation growth well. This study demonstrates the applicability of the new “de-pixelation” downscaling method in the management of water resources. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Removal of Arsenic Using Acid/Metal-Tolerant Sulfate Reducing Bacteria: A New Approach for Bioremediation of High-Arsenic Acid Mine Waters
Water 2017, 9(12), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120994
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Fluvial sediments, soils, and natural waters in northern Chile are characterized by high arsenic (As) content. Mining operations in this area are potential sources of As and other metal contaminants, due to acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) has been
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Fluvial sediments, soils, and natural waters in northern Chile are characterized by high arsenic (As) content. Mining operations in this area are potential sources of As and other metal contaminants, due to acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) has been used for the treatment of AMD, as they allow for the reduction of sulfate, the generation of alkalinity, and the removal of dissolved heavy metals and metalloids by precipitation as insoluble metal sulfides. Thus, SRB could be used to remove As and other heavy metals from AMD, however the tolerance of SRB to high metal concentrations and low pH is limited. The present study aimed to quantify the impact of SRB in As removal under acidic and As-Fe-rich conditions. Our results show that SRB tolerate low pH (up to 3.5) and high concentrations of As (~3.6 mg·L−1). Batch experiments showed As removal of up to 73%, Iron (Fe) removal higher than 78% and a neutralization of pH from acidic to circum-neutral conditions (pH 6–8). In addition, XRD analysis showed the dominance of amorphous minerals, while Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analysis showed associations between As, Fe, and sulfur, indicating the presence of Fe-S-As compounds or interaction of As species with amorphous and/or nanocrystalline phases by sorption processes. These results indicate that the As removal was mediated by acid/metal-tolerant SRB and open the potential for the application of new strains of acid/metal-tolerant SRB for the remediation of high-As acid mine waters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Interspecific Relationship and Ecological Requirements of Two Potentially Harmful Cyanobacteria in a Deep South-Alpine Lake (L. Iseo, I)
Water 2017, 9(12), 993; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120993
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
In Lake Iseo (Lombardia, Italy), the predominant species in the cyanobacterial taxa was Planktothrix rubescens. However, since 2014, the presence of an allochthonous Cyanobacteria, Tychonema bourrellyi, able to produce consistent biomasses and harmful toxins, was detected. The causes of this expansion
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In Lake Iseo (Lombardia, Italy), the predominant species in the cyanobacterial taxa was Planktothrix rubescens. However, since 2014, the presence of an allochthonous Cyanobacteria, Tychonema bourrellyi, able to produce consistent biomasses and harmful toxins, was detected. The causes of this expansion are poorly understood. Many studies have linked the development of allochthonous Cyanobacteria populations with climate change. This study shows the spatio-temporal dynamics, the ecological requirements, and the interspecific relationship of P. rubescens and T. bourrellyi. Samples were collected monthly in 2016 at six different depths in the water column; 20 chemico-physical characteristics were measured; and Cyanobacteria density, morphology, and biovolume were evaluated. The results allowed a comparison of the spatial pattern of the two species, which showed a greater distribution at a depth of 10–20 m, and their seasonal dynamics. Both Cyanobacteria were present throughout the year, with the greatest abundance during the period from March to May. A temporal shift was observed in their development, linked to different capacities for overcoming winter and mixing periods. Principal Component Analysis, performed on 20 observations (4 months × 5 depths), highlighted the important role of the stability of the water column in determining T. bourrellyi settlement in Lake Iseo and the role of solar radiation in spring population development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle System Dynamics Modeling of Water Level Variations of Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan
Water 2017, 9(12), 989; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120989
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 13 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Lake Issyk-Kul is an important endorheic lake in arid Central Asia. Climate change, anthropogenic water consumption and a complex basin hydrology with interlocked driving forces have led to a high variability of the water balance and an overall trend of decreasing lake water
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Lake Issyk-Kul is an important endorheic lake in arid Central Asia. Climate change, anthropogenic water consumption and a complex basin hydrology with interlocked driving forces have led to a high variability of the water balance and an overall trend of decreasing lake water levels. The main objective of this study was to investigate these main driving forces and their interactions with the lake’s water level. Hydro-meteorological and socioeconomic data from 1980 to 2012 were used for a dynamic simulation model, based on the system dynamics (SD) method. After the model calibration and validation with historical data, the model provides accurate simulation results of the water level of Lake Issyk-Kul. The main factors impacting the lake’s water level were evaluated via sensitivity analysis and water resource scenarios. Results based on the sensitivity analysis indicated that socio-hydrologic factors had different influences on the lake water level change, with the main influence coming from the water inflow dynamic, namely, the increasing and decreasing water withdrawal from lake tributaries. Land use changes, population increase, and water demand decrease were also important factors for the lake water level variations. Results of four scenario analyses demonstrated that changes in the water cycle components as evaporation and precipitation and the variability of river runoff into the lake are essential parameters for the dynamic of the lake water level. In the future, this SD model can help to better manage basins with water availability uncertainties and can guide policymakers to take necessary measures to restore lake basin ecosystems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use and Utility: Exploring the Diversity and Design of Water Models at the Science-Policy Interface
Water 2017, 9(12), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120983
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Effort to narrow the gap between the production and use of scientific knowledge for environmental decision-making is gaining traction, yet in practice, supply and demand remains largely unbalanced. A qualitative study based on empirical analysis offers a novel approach to exploring key factors,
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Effort to narrow the gap between the production and use of scientific knowledge for environmental decision-making is gaining traction, yet in practice, supply and demand remains largely unbalanced. A qualitative study based on empirical analysis offers a novel approach to exploring key factors, focussing on seven water models in the context of two organisations at the science-policy interface: the PIREN-Seine in France and the CRC for Water Sensitive Cities in Australia. Tentative linkages drawn from these examples identify: (1) objective and expertise; (2) knowledge and tools; and (3) support structures as main drivers influencing the production of scientific knowledge which, in turn, affect the use and utility of modelling tools. Further insight is gained by highlighting the wide spectrum of uses and utilities existing in practice, suggesting that such ‘boundary organisations’ facilitate interactions and exchanges that give added value to scientific knowledge. Coordinated strategies that integrate inter-, extra-, and intra-boundary activities, framed through collaborative scenario building and the use of interactive modelling platforms, may offer ways to enhance the use and utility of scientific knowledge (and its tools) to better support water resources management, policy and planning decisions, thus promoting a more cohesive relationship between science and policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management)
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Open AccessArticle Ancient to Recent-Past Runoff Harvesting Agriculture in Recharge Playas of the Hyper-Arid Southern Israel
Water 2017, 9(12), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120991
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Recharge playas are prevalent throughout the hyper-arid southern Negev and Arava Valley of Israel. While some of these playas are terminal, others were found to be not absolutely terminal, allowing, under extreme floods, the outlet of water from their beds to a draining,
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Recharge playas are prevalent throughout the hyper-arid southern Negev and Arava Valley of Israel. While some of these playas are terminal, others were found to be not absolutely terminal, allowing, under extreme floods, the outlet of water from their beds to a draining, ephemeral channel. Indicators for ancient to recent-past agricultural practicing were recorded for two playas. In one of them, this included the archaeological remains of seven Byzantine-Age stone terraces across the playa bed, indicating ancient runoff harvesting agriculture. In another playa, the agricultural indicator included observations by key informants who reported the cropping of barley and wheat by Bedouin populations until the mid-1990s. This was supported by rare bibliographic sources, reporting the cropping of cereals at this site by Bedouins during the 1930s and 1940s. Agro-hydrological assessments of seven playas and their catchments were conducted, revealing a marginal agronomic potential under the current climatic conditions and only for a small number of them. The results highlight the profound environmental know-how of local populations that inhabited this harsh region. Furthermore, the results coincide with previous studies, which have reported drier climatic conditions at present compared to those in ancient times, and even compared to those during the mid-1990s. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Factors Influencing Stormwater Mitigation in Permeable Pavement
Water 2017, 9(12), 988; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120988
Received: 6 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Permeable pavement (PP) is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance
[...] Read more.
Permeable pavement (PP) is used worldwide to mitigate surface runoff in urban areas. Various studies have examined the factors governing the hydrologic performance of PP. However, relatively little is known about the relative importance of these governing factors and the long-term hydrologic performance of PP. This study applied numerical models—calibrated and validated using existing experimental results—to simulate hundreds of event-based and two long-term rainfall scenarios for two designs of PP. Based on the event-based simulation results, rainfall intensity, rainfall volume, thickness of the storage layer and the hydraulic conductivity of the subgrade were identified as the most influential factors in PP runoff reduction. Over the long term, PP performed significantly better in a relatively drier climate (e.g., New York), reducing nearly 90% of runoff volume compared to 70% in a relatively wetter climate (e.g., Hong Kong). The two designs of PP examined performed differently, and the difference was more apparent in the relatively wetter climate. This study generated insights that will help the design and implementation of PP to mitigate stormwater worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle Quantifying the Effects of Near-Bed Concentration on the Sediment Flux after the Operation of the Three Gorges Dam, Yangtze River
Water 2017, 9(12), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120986
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
The regime of sediment transport in the Jingjiang Reach has significantly changed from quasi-equilibrium to sub-saturation since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), and vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) have changed accordingly. Vertical profiles of SSC data measured at
[...] Read more.
The regime of sediment transport in the Jingjiang Reach has significantly changed from quasi-equilibrium to sub-saturation since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), and vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) have changed accordingly. Vertical profiles of SSC data measured at three hydrological stations in the Jingjiang Reach (Zhicheng, Shaishi, and Jianli), before and after the impoundment of TGD, were collected and analyzed. Analytic results indicate a remarkably large concentration in the near-bed zone (within 10% of water depth from the river-bed) in a sub-saturated channel. The maximum measured concentration was up to 15 times the vertical average concentration, while the ratio in quasi-equilibrium channel was less than four times that. Concentrations normalized with reference concentration at the same height, and may decrease with increasing values of suspension index (settling velocity over shear velocity). In addition, concentration near the water surface may be larger than concentration in the near-bed region when the suspension index is smaller than 0.01. Sediment flux transported in the near-bed zone may be up to 35% of the total sediment flux in unsaturated flows. The relationship between deviations of estimating sediment flux when ignoring the near-bed concentration and discharge in flood season and non-flood season are different in unsaturated and quasi-equilibrium channels. Analysis indicates that, in the quasi-equilibrium channel, more attention should be paid to near-bed concentration during non-flood season, the same as measurements during flood season with larger discharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Catchment Management and Reservoir Operation)
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Open AccessArticle Permafrost Boundary Shift in Western Siberia May Not Modify Dissolved Nutrient Concentrations in Rivers
Water 2017, 9(12), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120985
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 17 December 2017
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Abstract
Identifying the landscape and climate factors that control nutrient export by rivers in high latitude regions is one of the main challenges for understanding the Arctic Ocean response to ongoing climate change. This is especially true for Western Siberian rivers, which are responsible
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Identifying the landscape and climate factors that control nutrient export by rivers in high latitude regions is one of the main challenges for understanding the Arctic Ocean response to ongoing climate change. This is especially true for Western Siberian rivers, which are responsible for a significant part of freshwater and solutes delivery to the Arctic Ocean and are draining vast permafrost-affected areas most vulnerable to thaw. Forty-nine small- and medium-sized rivers (10–100,000 km2) were sampled along a 1700 km long N–S transect including both permafrost-affected and permafrost-free zones of the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL) in June and August 2015. The N, P, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively), particular organic carbon (POC), Si, Ca, K, Fe, and Mn were analyzed to assess the role of environmental parameters, such as temperature, runoff, latitude, permafrost, bogs, lake, and forest coverage on nutrient concentration. The size of the watershed had no influence on nutrient concentrations in the rivers. Bogs and lakes retained nutrients whereas forests supplied P, Si, K, Ca, DIC, and Mn to rivers. The river water temperature was negatively correlated with Si and positively correlated with Fe in permafrost-free rivers. In permafrost-bearing rivers, the decrease in T northward was coupled with significant increases in PO4, Ptot, NH4, pH, DIC, Si, Ca, and Mn. North of the permafrost boundary (61° N), there was no difference in nutrient concentrations among permafrost zones (isolated, sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous). The climate warming in Western Siberia may lead to a permafrost boundary shift northward. Using a substituting space for time scenario, this may decrease or maintain the current levels of N, P, Si, K, Ca, DIC, and DOC concentrations in rivers of continuous permafrost zones compared to the present state. As a result, the export flux of nutrients by the small- and medium-sized rivers of the Western Siberian subarctic to the Arctic Ocean coastal zone may remain constant, or even decrease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in River Biogeochemistry Research)
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Open AccessArticle Newspaper Coverage of Potable Water Recycling at Orange County Water District’s Groundwater Replenishment System, 2000–2016
Water 2017, 9(12), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120984
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
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Abstract
Water planners in water-strapped communities in the western United States and beyond increasingly consider potable water recycling an important water management strategy. Although potable water recycling can increase an otherwise limited urban water supply, the threat of public or political opposition often looms
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Water planners in water-strapped communities in the western United States and beyond increasingly consider potable water recycling an important water management strategy. Although potable water recycling can increase an otherwise limited urban water supply, the threat of public or political opposition often looms large. This paper examines newspaper coverage of the most widely celebrated potable water reuse project in the world—the Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) in Orange County, California, USA. The case study examines the coverage of GWRS contained in local, national, and international newspapers during an era of significant investment and repeated expansion. Despite the potential controversy associated with drinking recycled wastewater, there was no negative newspaper coverage of GWRS from 2000–2016. Much of the coverage was mundane, however several articles embraced infrastructure and technology as key to developing new water resources while protecting public and environmental health. Although potable water recycling is presented as an innovative solution capable of solving several problems at once, a close analysis reveals that recycled water may not fulfill the promise of an uninterruptible urban water supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Alternative Water Sources in the Urban Sector)
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Open AccessArticle Contrasting Two Dimensions of Disaster-Induced Water-Shortage Experiences: Water Availability and Access
Water 2017, 9(12), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120982
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
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Abstract
The value of a good is contingent on an individual’s experience that reveals the nature of the good. This study investigates the effects of a water shortage due to the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster in 2011 on the voluntary management
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The value of a good is contingent on an individual’s experience that reveals the nature of the good. This study investigates the effects of a water shortage due to the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster in 2011 on the voluntary management of community wells in the water-rich town of Otsuchi, Japan. A questionnaire survey based on a choice experiment (CE) framework was conducted in 2015 in which a total of 127 residents participated. The responses were then analyzed using two types of logit models that consider preference heterogeneity across survey participants. The results revealed that the severity and duration of the water shortage had opposing effects on people’s attitudes toward the wells. More specifically, increasingly severe water shortages due to the unavailability of water rendered people less supportive of the wells, whereas water shortages of a longer duration caused by limited access to water resources made people more supportive. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Biological Contact Filters (BCFs) on Membrane Fouling in Drinking Water Treatment Systems
Water 2017, 9(12), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120981
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Membrane fouling is a serious problem in drinking water treatment systems. Biological contact filters (BCFs) are often used as a pretreatment to remove ammonia, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and metal ions such as iron and manganese. In this study, the effect of BCF
[...] Read more.
Membrane fouling is a serious problem in drinking water treatment systems. Biological contact filters (BCFs) are often used as a pretreatment to remove ammonia, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and metal ions such as iron and manganese. In this study, the effect of BCF as a pretreatment for membrane fouling was evaluated using a laboratory-scale mini module consisting of a mini BCF column and a mini MF column. Initially, it was confirmed that the main foulant was a biopolymer (at low concentration) in the raw water. Subsequently, the biopolymer concentrations in the BCF influent and effluent were measured with the excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the liquid chromatograph organic carbon detector (LC-OCD). The fouling potential of the BCF influent and effluent was also measured to evaluate MF membrane fouling rate. The results demonstrate that application of the BCF reduced the biopolymer concentration of the effluent and reduced membrane fouling. The effect of BCF was also established in an actual drinking water treatment plant. It was found that optimizing the contact time of raw water with the BCF was crucial to reduce membrane fouling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Formation on Membranes in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Sediment Accumulation on Best Management Practice (BMP) Stormwater Runoff Volume Reduction Performance for Roadways
Water 2017, 9(12), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120980
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
Best management practices (BMPs) are commonly used to reduce the adverse effects of post-construction runoff. BMP deterioration happens over time when these age and the infiltration rate decreases as a result of sediment accumulation. The objective of this paper was to investigate the
[...] Read more.
Best management practices (BMPs) are commonly used to reduce the adverse effects of post-construction runoff. BMP deterioration happens over time when these age and the infiltration rate decreases as a result of sediment accumulation. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of sediment accumulation on BMP stormwater runoff volume reduction performances. The BMPs studied included a bioswale and an infiltration trench. To undertake this research, both field tests and numerical simulations were conducted under five different and single rainfall events with a wide range of intensities and duration. The minimal sediment accumulation of 0.22 kg/m2·year was considered in this study. Three different sedimentation accumulation configurations (i.e., new, 2-year-old, and 10-year-old BMPs) were considered. According to the results, the infiltration trench had 100% runoff reduction efficiency in all conditions including high-intensity rain and 10-year-old BMP age. The performance of the bioswale for the first 2 and 10 years deteriorated by about 55% and 70%, respectively. Full article
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