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Water 2017, 9(12), 981; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9120981

Effect of Biological Contact Filters (BCFs) on Membrane Fouling in Drinking Water Treatment Systems

1
Center for Membrane and Film Technology, Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan
2
Research and Development Planning Department, Technical Development Division, Technical Research Center, Kobelco Eco-Solutions Co., Ltd., 1-1-4 Murotani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2241, Japan
3
Kobe City Waterworks Bureau, 37-1 Kusudani-cho, Kobe 652-0004, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofilm Formation on Membranes in Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

Membrane fouling is a serious problem in drinking water treatment systems. Biological contact filters (BCFs) are often used as a pretreatment to remove ammonia, dissolved organic matter (DOM), and metal ions such as iron and manganese. In this study, the effect of BCF as a pretreatment for membrane fouling was evaluated using a laboratory-scale mini module consisting of a mini BCF column and a mini MF column. Initially, it was confirmed that the main foulant was a biopolymer (at low concentration) in the raw water. Subsequently, the biopolymer concentrations in the BCF influent and effluent were measured with the excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the liquid chromatograph organic carbon detector (LC-OCD). The fouling potential of the BCF influent and effluent was also measured to evaluate MF membrane fouling rate. The results demonstrate that application of the BCF reduced the biopolymer concentration of the effluent and reduced membrane fouling. The effect of BCF was also established in an actual drinking water treatment plant. It was found that optimizing the contact time of raw water with the BCF was crucial to reduce membrane fouling. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological contact filter (BCF); membrane fouling; water treatment; foulant; biopolymer; excitation emission matrix (EEM); liquid chromatograph organic carbon detector (LC-OCD) biological contact filter (BCF); membrane fouling; water treatment; foulant; biopolymer; excitation emission matrix (EEM); liquid chromatograph organic carbon detector (LC-OCD)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Hasegawa, S.; Iwamoto, T.; Miyoshi, T.; Onoda, S.; Morita, K.; Takagi, R.; Matsuyama, H. Effect of Biological Contact Filters (BCFs) on Membrane Fouling in Drinking Water Treatment Systems. Water 2017, 9, 981.

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