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Water, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Univariate, bivariate statistical methods and fractal analysis were applied to assess piezometric [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Pollution Removal Performance of Laboratory Simulations of Sydney’s Street Stormwater Biofilters
Water 2017, 9(11), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110907
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
The City of Sydney is constructing more than 21,000 square metres of street biofilter units (raingardens) in terms of their Decentralised Water Master Plan (DWMP), for improving the quality of stormwater runoff to Port Jackson, the Cooks River, and the historical Botany Bay.
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The City of Sydney is constructing more than 21,000 square metres of street biofilter units (raingardens) in terms of their Decentralised Water Master Plan (DWMP), for improving the quality of stormwater runoff to Port Jackson, the Cooks River, and the historical Botany Bay. Recharge of the Botany Sand Beds aquifer, currently undergoing remediation by extraction of industrial chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants, is also envisaged. To anticipate the pollution removal efficiency of field biofilter designs, laboratory soil-column simulations were developed by Western Sydney University partnered with the City. Synthetic stormwater containing stoichiometric amounts of high-solubility pollutant salts in deionised water was passed through 104 mm columns that were layered to simulate monophasic and biphasic field designs. Both designs met the City’s improvement targets for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), with >65% median removal efficiency. Prolonged release of total suspended solids (SS) on startup emphasised the need for specifications and testing of proprietary fills. Median removal efficiency for selected heavy metal ecotoxicants was >75%. The researchers suggested that Zinc be added to the targets as proxy for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and oils/greases co-generated during road use. Simulation results suggested that field units will play an important role in meeting regional stormwater improvement targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Combined Sewer Overflow on Wastewater Treatment and Microbiological Quality of Rivers for Recreation
Water 2017, 9(11), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110906
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Within the framework of a one-year study the treatment capacity of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated, with regard to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and to their influence on the recipient. The logarithmic reduction rates for fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli
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Within the framework of a one-year study the treatment capacity of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated, with regard to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and to their influence on the recipient. The logarithmic reduction rates for fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli (EC) and intestinal enterococci (IE) were 2.84, 2.90 and 2.93. In the investigated period of time, the tested treatment plant released 4.3% of the total annual load flow volume as combined sewer overflow (CSO), that is, when the influent into the combined sewer exceeds the capacity of the treatment plant and coarsely cleaned wastewater arrives at the recipient. This CSO discharge increased the number of FIB significantly by 1.2 × 102 MPN/100 mL for EC, and by 1.8 × 101 MPN/100 mL for IE. For the Styrian part of the Mur River (1.6 million inhabitants), a calculation of FIB of all sewage treatment plants estimating the same ratio of CSO (4.3%) and a given mean flow rate (QM) results in a significant increase of the FIB load in the recipient: 3.8 × 103 MPN/100 mL for EC and 5.8 × 102 MPN/100 mL for IE. On the basis of these values the standards of water quality for recreational purposes cannot be met. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Biomass and Physiological Responses of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to Epiphytic Algae and Different Nitrate-N Concentrations in the Water Column
Water 2017, 9(11), 863; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110863
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Increasing N concentration and the high density of epiphytic algae are both key factors leading to the decline of submerged macrophytes in many eutrophic lakes. In order to investigate the impacts of increased nitrate-N concentration and the growth of epiphytic algae on the
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Increasing N concentration and the high density of epiphytic algae are both key factors leading to the decline of submerged macrophytes in many eutrophic lakes. In order to investigate the impacts of increased nitrate-N concentration and the growth of epiphytic algae on the decline of submerged vegetation, we conducted a 2 × 4 factorial experiment with the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara by measuring the biomass of plants and some physiological indexes in leaves of V. natans under four nitrate-N concentrations in the water column (0.5, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L) and two epiphytic groups (epiphytic algae group and no epiphytic algae group). The results suggested that epiphytic algae could impose adverse effects on the biomass accumulation of V. natans, while the increasing nitrate-N concentration (0.5–10 mg/L) could oppositely promote this process and counteract the adverse effect of epiphytic algae. When nitrate-N concentration was 5 mg/L, the total chlorophyll content in leaves of V. natans in the epiphytic algae group was prominently lower compared with the no epiphytic algae group, while MDA, free proline, and anti-oxidant enzyme (SOD, POD, CAT) activities were significantly higher. Overhigh nitrate-N concentration in the water column also directly imposed adverse effects on the physiology of V. natans. When nitrate-N concentration was over 5 mg/L, the total chlorophyll content and free proline decreased in the no epiphytic algae group, while soluble carbohydrates and soluble proteins decreased when nitrate-N was over 2.5 mg/L. Meanwhile, epiphytic algae and nitrate-N content imposed a synergetic effect on the anti-oxidant enzyme activities of V. natans. When nitrate-N concentration was over 5 mg/L, SOD, POD, and CAT activities kept constant or decreased, which indicated that the oxidation resistance of V. natans was inhibited by stress. Our results indicate that epiphytic algae and increasing nitrate-N concentration in the water column could severally or synergistically impose adverse effects on the physiology of submerged macrophytes and are both key factors leading to the decline of submerged macrophytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eutrophication of Waterways: An Old Problem with Modern Consequences)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Climate Change on 2-Methylisoborneol Production in Two Cyanobacterial Species
Water 2017, 9(11), 859; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110859
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) is a common off-flavor metabolite, and it has a very low odor threshold value. 2-MIB is produced by a variety of cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, Dolichospermum spiroides (Anabaena spiroides, FACHB 498) and Planktothrix sp. (FACHB 1371)
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2-Methylisoborneol (2-MIB) is a common off-flavor metabolite, and it has a very low odor threshold value. 2-MIB is produced by a variety of cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, Dolichospermum spiroides (Anabaena spiroides, FACHB 498) and Planktothrix sp. (FACHB 1371) were investigated. The influence of high temperature (27, 35, and 40 °C) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, 18.4, 27.5, and 36.7 mg/L) on the two 2-MIB-producing cyanobacteria were simulated to study the effect of climate change on 2-MIB production. DIC had an effect on 2-MIB production by Planktothrix sp. The results showed that the highest DIC concentration (36.7 mg/L) led to the fastest algal growth, which increased 2-MIB production by Planktothrix sp. However, 40 °C killed all the cyanobacteria. The higher temperature (35 °C) shortened the lifecycle of the two cyanobacteria because it moved forward their logarithmic phase compared to 27 °C. The 2-MIB-producing potential of Dolichospermum spiroides may increase at 35 °C. The Dolichospermum spiroides results showed that the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of extracellular 2-MIB were highly correlated (r2 ≥ 0.90). At 35 °C, there was a stronger correlation between extracellular dissolved organic matters’ (DOMs, fulvic acid (P3 (r2 = 0.90)), humic acid (P4 (r2 = 0.92)) and the soluble microbial metabolites’ (P5 (r2 = 0.71)) fluorescence peak intensities and 2-MIB concentration. The Dolichospermum sproides 2-MIB-producing potential was affected by extracellular humus. The Planktothrix sp. 2-MIB-producing potential declined in general over the growth period. In addition, temperature had no significant effect on the Planktothrix sp. 2-MIB-producing potential and the extracellular 2-MIB component. Full article
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Open AccessTechnical Note An Improved Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST) Distributed Hydrological Model and Its Verification in Ganjiang River Basin, China
Water 2017, 9(11), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110904
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
The coupled routing and excess storage (CREST) distributed hydrological model has been applied regionally and globally for years. With the development of remote sensing, requirements for data assimilation and integration have become new challenges for the CREST model. In this paper, an improved
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The coupled routing and excess storage (CREST) distributed hydrological model has been applied regionally and globally for years. With the development of remote sensing, requirements for data assimilation and integration have become new challenges for the CREST model. In this paper, an improved CREST model version 3.0 (Tsinghua University and China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China) is proposed to enable the use of remotely-sensed data and to further improve model performance. Version 3.0 model’s runoff generation, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration based on three soil layers to make the CREST model friendly to remote sensing products such as soil moisture. A free water reservoir-based module which separates three runoff components and a four mechanism-based cell-to-cell routing module are also developed. Traditional CREST and CREST 3.0 are applied in the Ganjiang River basin, China to compare their simulation capability and applicability. Research results indicate that CREST 3.0 outperforms the traditional model and has good application prospects in data assimilation, flood forecasting, and water resources planning and management applications. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Detailed Sponge City Planning Based on Hierarchical Fuzzy Decision-Making: A Case Study on Yangchen Lake
Water 2017, 9(11), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110903
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
We proposed a Hierarchical Fuzzy Inference System (HFIS) framework to offer better decision supports with fewer user-defined data (uncertainty). The framework consists two parts: a fuzzified Geographic Information System (GIS) and a HFIS system. The former provides comprehensive information on the criterion unit
[...] Read more.
We proposed a Hierarchical Fuzzy Inference System (HFIS) framework to offer better decision supports with fewer user-defined data (uncertainty). The framework consists two parts: a fuzzified Geographic Information System (GIS) and a HFIS system. The former provides comprehensive information on the criterion unit and the latter helps in making more robust decisions. The HFIS and the traditional Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) method were applied to a case study and compared. The fuzzified GIS maps maintained a majority of the dominant characteristics of the criterion unit but also revealed some non-significant information according to the surrounding environment. The urban planning map generated by the two methods shares similar strategy choices (6% difference), while the spatial distribution of strategies shares 69.7% in common. The HFIS required fewer subjective decisions than the MCDM (34 user-defined decision rules vs. 141 manual evaluations). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle On the Dominant Factor Controlling Seasonal Hydrological Forecast Skill in China
Water 2017, 9(11), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110902
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Initial conditions (ICs) and climate forecasts (CFs) are the two primary sources of seasonal hydrological forecast skill. However, their relative contribution to predictive skill remains unclear in China. In this study, we investigate the relative roles of ICs and CFs in cumulative runoff
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Initial conditions (ICs) and climate forecasts (CFs) are the two primary sources of seasonal hydrological forecast skill. However, their relative contribution to predictive skill remains unclear in China. In this study, we investigate the relative roles of ICs and CFs in cumulative runoff (CR) and soil moisture (SM) forecasts using 31-year (1980–2010) ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) and reverse-ESP (revESP) simulations with the Variable Capacity Infiltration (VIC) hydrologic model. The results show that the relative importance of ICs and CFs largely depends on climate regimes. The influence of ICs is stronger in a dry or wet-to-dry climate regime that covers the northern and western interior regions during the late fall to early summer. In particular, ICs may dominate the forecast skill for up to three months or even six months during late fall and winter months, probably due to the low precipitation value and variability in the dry period. In contrast, CFs become more important for most of southern China or during summer months. The impact of ICs on SM forecasts tends to cover larger domains than on CR forecasts. These findings will greatly benefit future work that will target efforts towards improving current forecast levels for the particular regions and forecast periods. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Zeolite-Anammox Treatment Process for Nitrogen Removal from Wastewater—A Review
Water 2017, 9(11), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110901
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Water quality in San Francisco Bay has been adversely affected by nitrogen loading from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging around the periphery of the Bay. While there is documented use of zeolites and anammox bacteria in removing ammonia and possibly nitrate during wastewater
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Water quality in San Francisco Bay has been adversely affected by nitrogen loading from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging around the periphery of the Bay. While there is documented use of zeolites and anammox bacteria in removing ammonia and possibly nitrate during wastewater treatment, there is little information available about the combined process. Though relatively large, zeolite beds have a finite ammonium adsorption potential and require periodic re-generation depending on the wastewater nitrogen loading. Use of anammox bacteria reactors for wastewater treatment have shown that ammonium (and to some degree, nitrate) can be successfully removed from the wastewater, but the reactors require careful attention to loading rates and internal redox conditions. Generally, their application has been limited to treatment of high-ammonia strength wastewater at relatively warm temperatures. Moreover, few studies are available describing commercial or full-scale application of these reactors. We briefly review the literature considering use of zeolites or anammox bacteria in wastewater treatment to set the stage for description of an integrated zeolite-anammox process used to remove both ammonium and nitrate without substrate regeneration from mainstream WWTP effluent or anaerobic digester filtrate at ambient temperatures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of Free-Flow Sediment Flushing to Increase the Flushing Efficiency: A Case-Study Reservoir in Japan
Water 2017, 9(11), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110900
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
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Abstract
The catchment of the Dashidaira reservoir located on the Kurobe River has high sediment yield. Because of the sufficient available amount of water in the catchment during flood events, the free-flow sediment flushing operation with full water-level drawdown is employed every year to
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The catchment of the Dashidaira reservoir located on the Kurobe River has high sediment yield. Because of the sufficient available amount of water in the catchment during flood events, the free-flow sediment flushing operation with full water-level drawdown is employed every year to preserve the effective storage capacity of the Dashidaira reservoir. This paper focuses first on the numerical simulation of a previously conducted free-flow flushing operation in the Dashidaira reservoir using the available in situ obtained data. Afterwards, to improve the flushing efficiency, the effects of water and discharge manipulation and the construction of an auxiliary channel on the total volume of the flushed sediment were studied. A fully 3D numerical model using the finite volume approach in combination with a wetting/drying algorithm was utilized to reproduce the flow velocity field and simulate the movable bed variations. The outcomes revealed that increasing the average free-flow discharge during the free-flow stage by approximately 56%, in the form of multiple discharge pulses, can enhance the flushing efficiency by up to 13%, and the construction of an auxiliary channel in the wide midstream of the reservoir can locally increase the sediment erosion from this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptive Catchment Management and Reservoir Operation)
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Open AccessArticle Winter Snow Level Rise in the Northern Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2017
Water 2017, 9(11), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110899
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
The partitioning of precipitation into frozen and liquid components influences snow-derived water resources and flood hazards in mountain environments. We used a 915-MHz Doppler radar wind profiler upstream of the northern Sierra Nevada to estimate the hourly elevation where snow melts to rain,
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The partitioning of precipitation into frozen and liquid components influences snow-derived water resources and flood hazards in mountain environments. We used a 915-MHz Doppler radar wind profiler upstream of the northern Sierra Nevada to estimate the hourly elevation where snow melts to rain, or the snow level, during winter (December–February) precipitation events spanning water years (WY) 2008–2017. During this ten-year period, a Mann-Kendall test indicated a significant (p < 0.001) positive trend in snow level with a Thiel-Sen slope of 72 m year−1. We estimated total precipitation falling as snow (snow fraction) between WY1951 and 2017 using nine daily mid-elevation (1200–2000 m) climate stations and two hourly stations spanning WY2008–2017. The climate-station-based snow fraction estimates agreed well with snow-level radar values (R2 = 0.95, p < 0.01), indicating that snow fractions represent a reasonable method to estimate changes in frozen precipitation. Snow fraction significantly (p < 0.001) declined during WY2008–2017 at a rate of 0.035 (3.5%) year−1. Single-point correlations between detrended snow fraction and sea-surface temperatures (SST) suggested that positive SST anomalies along the California coast favor liquid phase precipitation during winter. Reanalysis-derived integrated moisture transported upstream of the northern Sierra Nevada was negatively correlated with snow fraction (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.01), with atmospheric rivers representing the likely circulation mechanism producing low-snow-fraction storms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Predictive Tool to Support Environmentally Sustainable Management in Port Basins
Water 2017, 9(11), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110898
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
According to the Water Framework Directive, harbours that are classified as heavily modified water bodies must either reach or maintain good ecological potential. Moreover, following the marine spatial planning principles, the effects of port structure changes on water quality must also be considered.
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According to the Water Framework Directive, harbours that are classified as heavily modified water bodies must either reach or maintain good ecological potential. Moreover, following the marine spatial planning principles, the effects of port structure changes on water quality must also be considered. To support the sustainable management of harbour waters, we calculated flushing time (FT) through the use of a numerical model within the Civitavecchia port under different scenarios. To assess the effects of the realization of new infrastructure that will significantly alter the port configuration in the coming years, we also developed the flushing efficiency index (FEI). The increase in the harbour basin size due to the embankment extension result in high values of FT, particularly in the inner part of the port, in accordance with the highest values of the enrichment factor of the trace metals found in the sediment. The deterioration of water quality is confirmed by negative FEI values. Otherwise, the index assumes positive values after the realization of a second entrance in the southern part of Civitavecchia port, highlighting a drastic improvement in harbour water renewal. This study provides a low-cost and predictive tool to correctly address environmentally sustainable management of port activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Permafrost Degradation on the Hydrological Regime in the Source Regions of the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, China
Water 2017, 9(11), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110897
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Climate warming has intensified permafrost degradation, which could have a variety of implications on the hydrological regime in permafrost regions. In this study, we analyzed the effects of permafrost degradation on the hydrological regime via four hydrological variables for 10 unregulated catchments in
[...] Read more.
Climate warming has intensified permafrost degradation, which could have a variety of implications on the hydrological regime in permafrost regions. In this study, we analyzed the effects of permafrost degradation on the hydrological regime via four hydrological variables for 10 unregulated catchments in the source regions of the Yangtze and Yellow rivers. The results demonstrate that catchments with high permafrost coverage are expected to have an increased winter discharge ratio (proportion of winter discharge contribution to total annual flow), a decreased recession coefficient and a decreased ratio of Qmax/Qmin due to permafrost degradation. However, the great storage effects of lakes and wetlands, which could contribute to more groundwater instead of direct surface discharge, may affect the hydrological effects of permafrost degradation and result in the abnormal performance at catchment scale. The correlation analysis between summer precipitation (July–September) and the following winter discharge (December–February) indicates that permafrost degradation may affect the redistribution of summer precipitation towards the following winter discharge via increasing the soil storage capacity and delaying the release of water into streams in permafrost regions. However, unlike the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, no significant changes for the hydrological regime (four hydrological variables) are detected over the individual periods of records for each catchment. Decreased precipitation in summer seems to reduce the water infiltration to supply the groundwater, which weakens the effects of permafrost degradation on the hydrological regime. This study implies that the storage effects of lakes and wetlands and the changes of summer precipitation patterns should be considered in future permafrost hydrological simulations, which have suggested that a large increase in groundwater discharge to streams will likely occur in response to permafrost degradation due to the warming climate in the ideal scenario. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quality of Roof-Harvested Rainwater as a Function of Environmental and Air Pollution Factors in a Coastal Mediterranean City (Haifa, Israel)
Water 2017, 9(11), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110896
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
The quality of roof-harvested rainwater in a Mediterranean climate, which is characterised by dry summers and erratic wet winters, was studied. The effects of environmental factors (rain depth, length of dry period between consecutive rain events, time since the beginning of the rainy
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The quality of roof-harvested rainwater in a Mediterranean climate, which is characterised by dry summers and erratic wet winters, was studied. The effects of environmental factors (rain depth, length of dry period between consecutive rain events, time since the beginning of the rainy season, roof type, wind speed, and wind direction) and air pollution parameters (O3, SO2, NO2, NO, PM2.5, and PM2.5–10) on roof runoff quality were studied. Three roofs of three common types (concrete, steel sheets, and tiles) were constructed. Roof-generated runoff was collected over two rainy seasons (>50 rain events) and were analysed for presence of metals, chemical and physical constituents, and faecal coliforms (a total of 23 parameters). Rain depth and runoff volume from each roof were recorded for each rain event. Most parameters examined complied with the Israeli potable water regulations. A stepwise multivariate linear regression established a significant effect of roof type on runoff pollutant concentrations, especially for ones generated by the roof material itself (e.g., Ca from the concrete roof and Zn from roof tiles). A significant effect of various air pollutants on the quality of roof-runoff water was found, as explained by rain washing off pollutants that accumulated in the atmosphere during the antecedent dry period. Both O3 and PM2.5–10 affected 17 quality parameters each. Rain depth affected only four out of the 23 water quality variables. In contrast, the length of the dry period between consecutive rain events was an important factor, affecting 12 roof-runoff quality variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Urban Stormwater Harvesting Strategies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of Water Quality Sampling Approaches on Nitrate Load Predictions of a Prominent Regression-Based Model
Water 2017, 9(11), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110895
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
High frequency in-situ measurements of nitrate can greatly reduce uncertainty in nitrate flux estimates. Water quality databases maintained by various federal and state agencies often consist of pollutant concentration data obtained from periodic grab samples collected from gauged reaches of a stream. Regression
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High frequency in-situ measurements of nitrate can greatly reduce uncertainty in nitrate flux estimates. Water quality databases maintained by various federal and state agencies often consist of pollutant concentration data obtained from periodic grab samples collected from gauged reaches of a stream. Regression models, such as the LOAD ESTimator (LOADEST), are frequently used to model variations in concentrations associated with changes in water discharge to provide integrated solute flux measurements. However, uncertainty in the relationships between nutrient concentration and flow may lead to errors in the corresponding flux estimates. In this study, a high frequency, in-situ measurement of nitrate concentration was implemented to ascertain uncertainty in the concentration/discharge relationship caused by nitrate hysteresis. It was found that observed nitrate hysteresis, as influenced by complex storm/watershed interactions, was not readily predictable. Therefore, it can lead to substantial nitrate flux uncertainty, based on periodic grab sample monitoring approaches. Scientists and engineers should take advantage of the proposed findings in future studies to enhance the quality of the associated decision making processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Contamination Event Detection Method Using Multi-Stations Temporal-Spatial Information Based on Bayesian Network in Water Distribution Systems
Water 2017, 9(11), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110894
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
As a core part of protecting water quality safety in water distribution systems, contamination event detection requires high accuracy. Previously, temporal analysis-based methods for single sensor stations have shown limited performance as they fail to consider spatial information. Besides, abundant historical data from
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As a core part of protecting water quality safety in water distribution systems, contamination event detection requires high accuracy. Previously, temporal analysis-based methods for single sensor stations have shown limited performance as they fail to consider spatial information. Besides, abundant historical data from multiple stations are still underexploited in causal relationship modelling. In this paper, a contamination event detection method is proposed, in which both temporal and spatial information from multi-stations in water distribution systems are used. The causal relationship between upstream and downstream stations is modelled by Bayesian Network, using the historical water quality data and hydraulic data. Then, the spatial abnormal probability for one station is obtained by comparing its current causal relationship with the established model. Meanwhile, temporal abnormal probability is obtained by conventional methods, such as an Autoregressive (AR) or threshold model for the same station. The integrated probability that is calculated employed temporal and spatial probabilities using Logistic Regression to determine the final detection result. The proposed method is tested over two networks and its detection performance is evaluated against results obtained from traditional methods using only temporal analysis. Results indicate that the proposed method shows higher accuracy due to its increased information from both temporal and spatial dimensions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Invariants of Turbulence Reynolds Stress and of Dissipation Tensors in Regular Breaking Waves
Water 2017, 9(11), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110893
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
A series of measurements in a flume with a particle-tracking system in three dimensions applied to breaking waves is used to analyse the structure of turbulence with a full set of variables that usually are available only in numerical simulations. After extracting turbulence,
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A series of measurements in a flume with a particle-tracking system in three dimensions applied to breaking waves is used to analyse the structure of turbulence with a full set of variables that usually are available only in numerical simulations. After extracting turbulence, in addition to the standard analysis aiming to quantify the fluxes, i.e., the time-average and the phase-average levels of turbulence and vorticity (details are given in two former papers), a more in-depth description of the structure of turbulence Reynolds stress tensor is given, focussing on the invariants evolution in time and in the vertical. A relation between the components of the Reynolds stress tensor and of the dissipation tensor is depicted. This relation is finalised to possible models of turbulence in breaking waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence in River and Maritime Hydraulics)
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Open AccessTechnical Note Development of a Hydrologic Connectivity Dataset for SWAT Assessments in the US
Water 2017, 9(11), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110892
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
Model-based water quality assessments are an important informer of conservation and environmental policy in the U.S. The recently completed national scale Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is being replicated using an improved model populated with new and higher resolution data. National assessments are
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Model-based water quality assessments are an important informer of conservation and environmental policy in the U.S. The recently completed national scale Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) is being replicated using an improved model populated with new and higher resolution data. National assessments are particularly difficult as models must operate with both a very large spatial extent (the contiguous U.S.) while maintaining a level of granularity required to capture important small scale processes. In this research, we developed datasets to describe the hydrologic connectivity at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC-12) level. Connectivity between 86,000 HUC-12s as provided by the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) was evaluated and corrected. We also detailed a method to resolve the highly detailed National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) stream segments within each HUC-12 into vastly simplified representative channel schemes suitable for use in the recently developed Soil and Water Assessment Tool + (SWAT+) model. This representative channel approach strikes a balance between computational complexity and accurate representation of the hydrologic system. These data will be tested in the upcoming CEAP II national assessment. Until then, all the WBD corrections and NHDPlus representative channel data are provided via the web for other researchers to evaluate and utilize. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Composition of Groundwater Bacterial Communities before and after Air Surging in a Groundwater Heat Pump System According to a Pyrosequencing Assay
Water 2017, 9(11), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110891
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
The geothermal energy of groundwater has aroused increasing interest as a solution to climate change. The groundwater heat pumps (GWHP) system using groundwater is the most environmentally friendly system to date and has been examined in several studies. However, biological clogging by microorganisms
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The geothermal energy of groundwater has aroused increasing interest as a solution to climate change. The groundwater heat pumps (GWHP) system using groundwater is the most environmentally friendly system to date and has been examined in several studies. However, biological clogging by microorganisms negatively affects the thermal efficiency of the GWHP system. In this study, we employed air surging, the most popular among well management methods, and pyrosequencing to analyze the genetic diversity in bacteria before and after air surging in a geothermal well. Furthermore, the diversity of dominant bacterial genera and those related to clogging were evaluated. The bacterial diversity of the groundwater well increased after air surging. Nevertheless, the proportion of bacterial genera thought to be related to microbiological clogging decreased. In cooling and heating systems based on the geothermal energy of groundwater, the wells should be maintained regularly by air surging to reduce efficiency problems caused by microbiological clogging and to prevent secondary damage to human health, e.g., pneumonia due to human pathogenic bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reactive Transport Modeling for Mobilization of Arsenic in a Sediment Downgradient from an Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier
Water 2017, 9(11), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110890
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 11 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Arsenic (As) can be naturally present in the native aquifer materials and can be released to groundwater through reduction dissolution of iron oxides containing As. While granular iron permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) can be effective for the treatment of arsenic in groundwater, the
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Arsenic (As) can be naturally present in the native aquifer materials and can be released to groundwater through reduction dissolution of iron oxides containing As. While granular iron permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) can be effective for the treatment of arsenic in groundwater, the mobilization of arsenic in the sediment downgradient of the PRB might be an issue due to the reduced geochemical conditions generated by reactions in the PRB. The release of arsenic in the sediment downgradient from a proposed iron PRB was studied through laboratory column experiments and reactive transport modeling. The laboratory column experiments showed a significant removal of arsenic from the groundwater by granular iron (from the influent concentration of about 0.7 mg L−1 to less than 0.006 mg L−1 at the effluent); however, arsenic can be flushed out from the aquifer sediments (up to 0.09 mg L−1). The reactive transport modeling based on the geochemical reactions as suggested from the experiments, i.e., reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite, was successful to reproduce the observed geochemical trends in the column experiments. This study can provide implications regarding the installation of iron PRBs to treat arsenic in groundwater and also be useful to understand geochemical behavior of arsenic under reduced conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Water)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle BRISENT: An Entropy-Based Model for Bridge-Pier Scour Estimation under Complex Hydraulic Scenarios
Water 2017, 9(11), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110889
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
The goal of this paper is to introduce the first clear-water scour model based on both the informational entropy concept and the principle of maximum entropy, showing that a variational approach is ideal for describing erosional processes under complex situations. The proposed bridge–pier
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The goal of this paper is to introduce the first clear-water scour model based on both the informational entropy concept and the principle of maximum entropy, showing that a variational approach is ideal for describing erosional processes under complex situations. The proposed bridge–pier scour entropic (BRISENT) model is capable of reproducing the main dynamics of scour depth evolution under steady hydraulic conditions, step-wise hydrographs, and flood waves. For the calibration process, 266 clear-water scour experiments from 20 precedent studies were considered, where the dimensionless parameters varied widely. Simple formulations are proposed to estimate BRISENT’s fitting coefficients, in which the ratio between pier-diameter and sediment-size was the most critical physical characteristic controlling scour model parametrization. A validation process considering highly unsteady and multi-peaked hydrographs was carried out, showing that the proposed BRISENT model reproduces scour evolution with high accuracy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Linkage Analysis of Land Use/Cover Patterns and Hydro-Chemical Characteristics in Different Seasons in Ebinur Lake Watershed, China
Water 2017, 9(11), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110888
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Ebinur Lake Watershed, with its oases and deserts, is a typically arid and mountainous region on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains. Along with ever increasing human activities, agricultural and domestic wastes have been directly discharged into river systems around the Watershed, which
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Ebinur Lake Watershed, with its oases and deserts, is a typically arid and mountainous region on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains. Along with ever increasing human activities, agricultural and domestic wastes have been directly discharged into river systems around the Watershed, which consequently poses a grave threat to the sustainable development of Xinjiang. Through statistical and spatial analysis, we have determined the relationships between land use/cover (LULC) and hydro-chemical characteristics during rainy and dry seasons in 2014. Spatial patterns of hydro-chemical characteristics as demonstrated by mineralization, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and SO42−, HCO3, Cl, Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+ and K+ concentrations were examined in 113 sites. Since hydro-chemical characteristics were affected by LULC patterns, this study delineated six zones to analyze the distribution characteristics of hydro-chemical parameters and its relationship with LULC patterns. The results showed that, except for the pH, all variables demonstrated significant spatial differences during dry and rainy seasons. In addition, the relationships between water quality and LULC patterns indicated that the farmland, forest–grassland, water body and salinized land all affected hydro-chemical characteristics during both rainy and dry seasons. Especially, decreased rainfall, irrigation, surface runoff, the area of lake, etc. largely led to the increase in ion content, which had great influence on hydro-chemical characteristics parameters in dry season. Furthermore, we established several stepwise linear multiple regressions models. The results showed that pH, mineralization and Ca2+ were defined by forest-grassland, while the Cl and Mg2+ were defined by salinized land during the rainy season. The pH and Na+ were estimated based on farmland, whereas Cl and Ca2+ were estimated based on forest-grassland during the dry season. In conclusion, this research on the relationships between the spatial distribution of hydro-chemical characteristics in Ebinur Lake Watershed and LULC patterns will be significant for the sustainable management of the arid regions in northwest China. Full article
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Open AccessReview Overview, Comparative Assessment and Recommendations of Forecasting Models for Short-Term Water Demand Prediction
Water 2017, 9(11), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110887
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
The stochastic nature of water consumption patterns during the day and week varies. Therefore, to continually provide water to consumers with appropriate quality, quantity and pressure, water utilities require accurate and appropriate short-term water demand (STWD) forecasts. In view of this, an overview
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The stochastic nature of water consumption patterns during the day and week varies. Therefore, to continually provide water to consumers with appropriate quality, quantity and pressure, water utilities require accurate and appropriate short-term water demand (STWD) forecasts. In view of this, an overview of forecasting methods for STWD prediction is presented. Based on that, a comparative assessment of the performance of alternative forecasting models from the different methods is studied. Times series models (i.e., autoregressive (AR), moving average (MA), autoregressive-moving average (ARMA), and ARMA with exogenous variable (ARMAX)) introduced by Box and Jenkins (1970), feed-forward back-propagation neural network (FFBP-NN), and hybrid model (i.e., combined forecasts from ARMA and FFBP-NN) are compared with each other for a common set of data. Akaike information criterion (AIC), originally proposed by Akaike (1974) is used to estimate the quality of each short-term forecasting model. Furthermore, Nash–Sutcliffe (NS) model efficiency coefficient proposed by Nash–Sutcliffe (1970), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) are the forecasting statistical terms used to assess the predictive performance of the models. Lastly, as regards the selection of an accurate and appropriate STWD forecasting model, this paper provides recommendations and future work based on the forecasts generated by each of the predictive models considered. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Cadmium and Lead Sorption/Desorption on Non-Amended and By-Product-Amended Soil Samples and Pyritic Material
Water 2017, 9(11), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110886
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Batch-type experiments were used to study cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) sorption/desorption on forest soil, vineyard soil and pyritic material samples, on the by-products mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark and hemp waste, and on forest soil, vineyard soil and pyritic material amended
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Batch-type experiments were used to study cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) sorption/desorption on forest soil, vineyard soil and pyritic material samples, on the by-products mussel shell, oak ash, pine bark and hemp waste, and on forest soil, vineyard soil and pyritic material amended with 48 t ha−1 of oak ash, mussel shell, and hemp waste. The main results were that the forest soil showed higher Cd and Pb retention than the vineyard soil and the pyritic material. Regarding the byproducts, sorption was in the following order: oak ash > mussel shell > hemp waste > pine bark, with desorption following an inverse sequence. The pH was the parameter that most influenced Cd and Pb sorption. Cd and Pb sorption curves showed better fitting to the Freundlich than to the Langmuir model, indicating the dominance of multilayer interactions. Oak ash and mussel shell were the amendments causing higher increase in Cd and Pb sorption on both soils and the pyritic material (close to 100% with the oak ash amendment), as well as more a pronounced decrease in desorption. These results could be used to favor an effective management of the by-products studied, which could retain Cd and Pb in soils and degraded areas, preventing water pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals and Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) in Water)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of Mixed Crop Field Water Demand and a Smart Irrigation System
Water 2017, 9(11), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110885
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Taiwan average annual rainfall is approximately 2500 mm. In particular, 80% of the rainfall occurs in summer, and most of the heavy rainfall is caused by typhoons. The situation is worsening as climate change results in uneven rainfall, both in spatial and temporal
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Taiwan average annual rainfall is approximately 2500 mm. In particular, 80% of the rainfall occurs in summer, and most of the heavy rainfall is caused by typhoons. The situation is worsening as climate change results in uneven rainfall, both in spatial and temporal terms. Moreover, climate change has resulted the variations in the seasonal rainfall pattern of Taiwan, thereby aggravating the problem of drought and flooding. The irrigation water distribution system is mostly manually operated, which produces difficulty with regard to the accurate calculation of conveyance losses of channels and fields. Therefore, making agricultural water usage more efficient in the fields and increasing operational accuracy by using modern irrigation systems can ensure appropriate irrigation and sufficient yield during droughts. If agricultural water, which accounts for 70% of the nation’s total water usage, can be allocated more precisely and efficiently, it can improve the efficacy of water resource allocation. In this study, a system dynamic model was used to establish an irrigation water management model for a companion and intercropping field in Central Taiwan. Rainfall and irrigation water were considered for the water supply, and the model simulated two scenarios by reducing 30% and 50% of the planned irrigation water in year 2015. Results indicated that the field storage in the end block of the study area was lower than the wilting point under the 50% reduced irrigation water scenario. The original irrigation plan can be reduced to be more efficient in water usage, and a 50% reduction of irrigation can be applied as a solution of water shortage when drought occurs. However, every block should be irrigated in rotation, by adjusting all water gates more frequently to ensure that the downstream blocks can receive the allocated water to get through the drought event. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal Water Exchanges between China’s Poyang Lake and Its Saucer-Shaped Depressions on River Deltas
Water 2017, 9(11), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110884
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
The saucer-shaped depressions located at the river deltas of Poyang Lake are typical floodplain shallow sub-lakes subject to river-lake connection or isolation. The hydrological connectivity between these depressions and the main lake has a major influence on the hydrologic function and ecological integrity
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The saucer-shaped depressions located at the river deltas of Poyang Lake are typical floodplain shallow sub-lakes subject to river-lake connection or isolation. The hydrological connectivity between these depressions and the main lake has a major influence on the hydrologic function and ecological integrity of the lake-floodplain and associated wetland habitats. This study explored the water level fluctuations and water exchange processes between the Poyang Lake and three typical saucer-shaped depressions, using a 30-min temporal resolution of water level observations during 2015–2016. Our results showed that the water level correlation and hydrological connectivity between the main lake and its depressions displayed a strong seasonal and spatial signal. Temporally, the rainfall significantly influences the seasonality and frequency of water level fluctuations both in the main lake and the depressions. The correlation coefficient of the water level ordered from high to low occurred during the high-water period, the rising-water period, the falling-water period and the low-water period, respectively. Spatially, depressions with a shorter connection duration to the main lake are located at higher local elevation and at larger geographical distance from the main lake. Finally, we also discussed the implications of these findings and possible factors that could have caused these particular water regime characteristics and water exchange processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Research on River Deltas)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Integrated Hydrological Model-Based Assessment of Stormwater Management Scenarios in Copenhagen’s First Climate Resilient Neighbourhood Using the Three Point Approach
Water 2017, 9(11), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110883
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
The city of Copenhagen currently pursues a very ambitious plan to make the city ‘cloudburst proof’ within the next 30 years. The cloudburst management plan has the potential to support the city’s aim to become more green, liveable, and sustainable. In this study,
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The city of Copenhagen currently pursues a very ambitious plan to make the city ‘cloudburst proof’ within the next 30 years. The cloudburst management plan has the potential to support the city’s aim to become more green, liveable, and sustainable. In this study, we assessed stormwater system designs using the Three Point Approach (3PA) as a framework, where an indicator value for each domain was calculated using state-of-the-art modelling techniques. We demonstrated the methodology on scenarios representing sequential enhancements of the cloudburst management plan for a district that has been appointed to become the first climate resilient neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The results show that if the cloudburst system is exploited to discharge runoff from selected areas that are disconnected from the combined sewer system, then the plan leads to multiple benefits. These include improved flood protection under a 100-years storm (i.e., compliance with the new demands in domain C of the 3PA), reduced surcharge to terrain under a 10-years storm (i.e., compliance with the service goal in domain B of the 3PA) and an improved yearly water balance (i.e., better performance in domain A of the 3PA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Cycle Modelling and Management) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Updated Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics for Simulating Bending and Compression Failure Progress of Ice
Water 2017, 9(11), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110882
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, an updated Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method based on the Simplified Finite Difference Interpolation scheme (SPH_SFDI) is presented to simulate the failure process of ice. The Drucker–Prager model is embedded into the SPH code to simulate the four point bending
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In this paper, an updated Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method based on the Simplified Finite Difference Interpolation scheme (SPH_SFDI) is presented to simulate the failure process of ice. The Drucker–Prager model is embedded into the SPH code to simulate the four point bending and uniaxial compression failure of ice. The cohesion softening elastic–plastic model is also used in the SPH_SFDI framework. To validate the proposed modeling approach, the numerical results of SPH_SFDI are compared with the standard SPH and the experimental data. The good agreement demonstrated that the proposed SPH_SFDI method including the elastic–plastic cohesion softening Drucker–Prager failure model can provide a useful numerical tool for simulating failure progress of the ice in practical field. It is also shown that the SPH_SFDI can significantly improve the capability and accuracy for simulating ice bending and compression failures as compared with the original SPH scheme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Level Contact Oxidation Process Performance When Treating Automobile Painting Wastewater: Pollutant Removal Efficiency and Microbial Community Structures
Water 2017, 9(11), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110881
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
This study applied a multi-level contact oxidation process system in a pilot-scale experiment to treat automobile painting wastewater. The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD)
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This study applied a multi-level contact oxidation process system in a pilot-scale experiment to treat automobile painting wastewater. The experimental wastewater had been pre-treated through a series of physicochemical methods, but the water still contained a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and had poor biodegradability. After the biological treatment, the COD concentration of effluent could stay below 300 mg/L. The study analyzed the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT) on COD, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), and total nitrogen (TN). The optimal HRT was 8 h; at that time, removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were 83.8%, 86.3%, and 65%, respectively. The system also greatly reduced excess sludge production; the removal efficiency was 82.8% with a HRT of 8 h. The study applied high-throughput pyrosequencing technology to evaluate the microbial diversity and community structures in distinct stages of the biological reactor. The relevance between process performance and microbial community structure was analyzed at the phylum and class level. The abundant Firmicutes made a large contribution to improving the biodegradability of painting wastewater through hydrolysis acidification and reducing sludge production through fermentation in the biological reactor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Future Projection with an Extreme-Learning Machine and Support Vector Regression of Reference Evapotranspiration in a Mountainous Inland Watershed in North-West China
Water 2017, 9(11), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110880
Received: 14 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
This study aims to project future variability of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) using artificial intelligence methods, constructed with an extreme-learning machine (ELM) and support vector regression (SVR) in a mountainous inland watershed in north-west China. Eight global climate model (GCM) outputs retrieved
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This study aims to project future variability of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) using artificial intelligence methods, constructed with an extreme-learning machine (ELM) and support vector regression (SVR) in a mountainous inland watershed in north-west China. Eight global climate model (GCM) outputs retrieved from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) were employed to downscale monthly ET0 for the historical period 1960–2005 as a validation approach and for the future period 2010–2099 as a projection of ET0 under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The following conclusions can be drawn: the ELM and SVR methods demonstrate a very good performance in estimating Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-56 Penman–Monteith ET0. Variation in future ET0 mainly occurs in the spring and autumn seasons, while the summer and winter ET0 changes are moderately small. Annually, the ET0 values were shown to increase at a rate of approximately 7.5 mm, 7.5 mm, 0.0 mm (8.2 mm, 15.0 mm, 15.0 mm) decade−1, respectively, for the near-term projection (2010–2039), mid-term projection (2040–2069), and long-term projection (2070–2099) under the RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. Compared to the historical period, the relative changes in ET0 were found to be approximately 2%, 5% and 6% (2%, 7% and 13%), during the near, mid- and long-term periods, respectively, under the RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) warming scenarios. In accordance with the analyses, we aver that the opportunity to downscale monthly ET0 with artificial intelligence is useful in practice for water-management policies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Combined Hydrological and Hydraulic Model for Flood Prediction in Vietnam Applied to the Huong River Basin as a Test Case Study
Water 2017, 9(11), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9110879
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A combined hydrological and hydraulic model is presented for flood prediction in Vietnam. This model is applied to the Huong river basin as a test case study. Observed flood flows and water surface levels of the 2002–2005 flood seasons are used for model
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A combined hydrological and hydraulic model is presented for flood prediction in Vietnam. This model is applied to the Huong river basin as a test case study. Observed flood flows and water surface levels of the 2002–2005 flood seasons are used for model calibration, and those of the 2006–2007 flood seasons are used for validation of the model. The physically based distributed hydrologic model WetSpa is used for predicting the generation and propagation of flood flows in the mountainous upper sub-basins, and proves to predict flood flows accurately. The Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model is applied to simulate flood flows and inundation levels in the downstream floodplain, and also proves to predict water levels accurately. The predicted water profiles are used for mapping of inundations in the floodplain. The model may be useful in developing flood forecasting and early warning systems to mitigate losses due to flooding in Vietnam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Asia, with Focus on the Mekong Region)
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