Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Toxins, Volume 4, Issue 2 (February 2012), Pages 42-156

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-7
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Ochratoxigenic Black Species of Aspergilli in Grape Fruits of Northern Italy Identified by an Improved PCR-RFLP Procedure
Toxins 2012, 4(2), 42-54; doi:10.3390/toxins4020042
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 16 January 2012 / Accepted: 17 January 2012 / Published: 30 January 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A collection of 356 isolates of Aspergillus spp. collected during 2006 and 2007 from grapevines in northern Italy were identified through Internal Transcribed Spacer based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) and tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Restriction endonuclease digestion of the ITS
[...] Read more.
A collection of 356 isolates of Aspergillus spp. collected during 2006 and 2007 from grapevines in northern Italy were identified through Internal Transcribed Spacer based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) and tested for ochratoxin A (OTA) production. Restriction endonuclease digestion of the ITS products using the endonucleases HhaI, HinfI and RsaI, distinguished five different RFLPs. From each pattern, three samples were sequenced and the nucleotide sequences showed different species corresponding to Aspergillus niger, A. carbonarius, A. tubingensis, A. japonicus and A. aculeatus. By comparing the sequences of the ITS regions, also the uniseriate species A. japonicus and A. aculeatus could be differentiated by HinfI digestion of the ITS products. Among the aspergilli, A. niger was the major species associated with grapes during 2006 (57.4%), while A. carbonarius was the major species during 2007 (46.6%). All the strains of Aspergillus were tested for their ability to produce OTA on Yeast extract sucrose medium (YES), as it was tested as an optimal substrate for the evaluation of OTA production by black aspergilli. Out of 356 isolates, 63 (17.7%) isolates produced OTA ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 µg mL−1. Most of the ochratoxigenic isolates were A. carbonarius (46) in both years, but also some strains of A. tubingensis (11) and A. japonicus (6) produced lower amounts of OTA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins 2011-2012)
Open AccessArticle Biocontrol of Penicillium nordicum Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Native Yeasts of Dry Cured Ham
Toxins 2012, 4(2), 68-82; doi:10.3390/toxins4020068
Received: 28 December 2011 / Revised: 18 January 2012 / Accepted: 20 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Twelve yeast strains isolated from the surface of Italian typical dry-cured hams, belonging to D. hansenii, D. maramus, C. famata, C. zeylanoides and H. burtonii species, and previously selected for their ability to grow in dry-cured ham-like substrates, were screened
[...] Read more.
Twelve yeast strains isolated from the surface of Italian typical dry-cured hams, belonging to D. hansenii, D. maramus, C. famata, C. zeylanoides and H. burtonii species, and previously selected for their ability to grow in dry-cured ham-like substrates, were screened for antagonistic activity against a toxigenic strain of P. nordicum and inhibition of ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis. On average, yeast inhibitory activity was lowered by increasing fungal inoculum and enhanced by NaCl presence. In the assay conditions, H. burtonii and C. zeylanoides were the most effective, both in inhibiting P. nordicum growth and OTA production. D. hansenii was the species with the lowest inhibitory activity, especially in the absence of salt. OTA production dropped from the range < LOD − 5000 ppb in P. nordicum control plates to the range < LOD − 200 ppb in yeast-added plates. OTA production increased in the presence of NaCl in P. nordicum control plates, while salt enhanced inhibition against OTA production in yeast-added plates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins 2011-2012)
Open AccessCommunication Sorption of Ochratoxin A from Aqueous Solutions Using β-Cyclodextrin-Polyurethane Polymer
Toxins 2012, 4(2), 98-109; doi:10.3390/toxins4020098
Received: 14 November 2011 / Revised: 14 December 2011 / Accepted: 31 January 2012 / Published: 6 February 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of a cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer to remove ochratoxin A from aqueous solutions was examined by batch rebinding assays. The results from the aqueous binding studies were fit to two parameter models to gain insight into the interaction of ochratoxin A with the
[...] Read more.
The ability of a cyclodextrin-polyurethane polymer to remove ochratoxin A from aqueous solutions was examined by batch rebinding assays. The results from the aqueous binding studies were fit to two parameter models to gain insight into the interaction of ochratoxin A with the nanosponge material. The ochratoxin A sorption data fit well to the heterogeneous Freundlich isotherm model. The polymer was less effective at binding ochratoxin A in high pH buffer (9.5) under conditions where ochratoxin A exists predominantly in the dianionic state. Batch rebinding assays in red wine indicate the polymer is able to remove significant levels of ochratoxin A from spiked solutions between 1–10 μg·L−1. These results suggest cyclodextrin nanosponge materials are suitable to reduce levels of ochratoxin A from spiked aqueous solutions and red wine samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins 2011-2012)
Open AccessArticle Developing a Comparative Docking Protocol for the Prediction of Peptide Selectivity Profiles: Investigation of Potassium Channel Toxins
Toxins 2012, 4(2), 110-138; doi:10.3390/toxins4020110
Received: 16 December 2011 / Revised: 6 January 2012 / Accepted: 14 January 2012 / Published: 6 February 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (14527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During the development of selective peptides against highly homologous targets, a reliable tool is sought that can predict information on both mechanisms of binding and relative affinities. These tools must first be tested on known profiles before application on novel therapeutic candidates. We
[...] Read more.
During the development of selective peptides against highly homologous targets, a reliable tool is sought that can predict information on both mechanisms of binding and relative affinities. These tools must first be tested on known profiles before application on novel therapeutic candidates. We therefore present a comparative docking protocol in HADDOCK using critical motifs, and use it to “predict” the various selectivity profiles of several major αKTX scorpion toxin families versus Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.3. By correlating results across toxins of similar profiles, a comprehensive set of functional residues can be identified. Reasonable models of channel-toxin interactions can be then drawn that are consistent with known affinity and mutagenesis. Without biological information on the interaction, HADDOCK reproduces mechanisms underlying the universal binding of αKTX-2 toxins, and Kv1.3 selectivity of αKTX-3 toxins. The addition of constraints encouraging the critical lysine insertion confirms these findings, and gives analogous explanations for other families, including models of partial pore-block in αKTX-6. While qualitatively informative, the HADDOCK scoring function is not yet sufficient for accurate affinity-ranking. False minima in low-affinity complexes often resemble true binding in high-affinity complexes, despite steric/conformational penalties apparent from visual inspection. This contamination significantly complicates energetic analysis, although it is usually possible to obtain correct ranking via careful interpretation of binding-well characteristics and elimination of false positives. Aside from adaptations to the broader potassium channel family, we suggest that this strategy of comparative docking can be extended to other channels of interest with known structure, especially in cases where a critical motif exists to improve docking effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Toxins Targeting Ion Channels Involved in Pain)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Plant Ureases and Related Peptides: Understanding Their Entomotoxic Properties
Toxins 2012, 4(2), 55-67; doi:10.3390/toxins4020055
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, ureases were included in the arsenal of plant defense proteins, alongside many other proteins with biotechnological potential such as insecticides. Isoforms of Canavalia ensiformis urease (canatoxin—CNTX and jack bean urease—JBURE-I) are toxic to insects of different orders. This toxicity is due in
[...] Read more.
Recently, ureases were included in the arsenal of plant defense proteins, alongside many other proteins with biotechnological potential such as insecticides. Isoforms of Canavalia ensiformis urease (canatoxin—CNTX and jack bean urease—JBURE-I) are toxic to insects of different orders. This toxicity is due in part to the release of a 10 kDa peptide from the native protein, by cathepsin-like enzymes present in the insect digestive tract. The entomotoxic peptide, Jaburetox-2Ec, exhibits potent insecticidal activity against several insects, including many resistant to the native ureases. JBURE-I and Jaburetox-2Ec cause major alterations of post-feeding physiological processes in insects, which contribute to, or can be the cause of, their entomotoxic effect. An overview of the current knowledge on plant urease processing and mechanisms of action in insects is presented in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins)
Open AccessReview Cytoskeleton as an Emerging Target of Anthrax Toxins
Toxins 2012, 4(2), 83-97; doi:10.3390/toxins4020083
Received: 10 January 2012 / Revised: 21 January 2012 / Accepted: 26 January 2012 / Published: 6 February 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacillus anthracis, the agent of anthrax, has gained virulence through its exotoxins produced by vegetative bacilli and is composed of three components forming lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). So far, little is known about the effects of these toxins on
[...] Read more.
Bacillus anthracis, the agent of anthrax, has gained virulence through its exotoxins produced by vegetative bacilli and is composed of three components forming lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). So far, little is known about the effects of these toxins on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Here, we provide an overview on the general effects of toxin upon the cytoskeleton architecture. Thus, we shall discuss how anthrax toxins interact with their receptors and may disrupt the interface between extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. We then analyze what toxin molecular effects on cytoskeleton have been described, before discussing how the cytoskeleton may help the pathogen to corrupt general cell processes such as phagocytosis or vascular integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthrax Toxin)
Open AccessReview Host-Defense Activities of Cyclotides
Toxins 2012, 4(2), 139-156; doi:10.3390/toxins4020139
Received: 22 November 2011 / Revised: 25 January 2012 / Accepted: 31 January 2012 / Published: 15 February 2012
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (1267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyclotides are plant mini-proteins whose natural function is thought to be to protect plants from pest or pathogens, particularly insect pests. They are approximately 30 amino acids in size and are characterized by a cyclic peptide backbone and a cystine knot arrangement of
[...] Read more.
Cyclotides are plant mini-proteins whose natural function is thought to be to protect plants from pest or pathogens, particularly insect pests. They are approximately 30 amino acids in size and are characterized by a cyclic peptide backbone and a cystine knot arrangement of three conserved disulfide bonds. This article provides an overview of the reported pesticidal or toxic activities of cyclotides, discusses a possible common mechanism of action involving disruption of biological membranes in pest species, and describes methods that can be used to produce cyclotides for potential applications as novel pesticidal agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Toxins Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
toxins@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Toxins
Back to Top