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Toxins 2012, 4(2), 139-156; doi:10.3390/toxins4020139

Host-Defense Activities of Cyclotides

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
Received: 22 November 2011 / Revised: 25 January 2012 / Accepted: 31 January 2012 / Published: 15 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins)
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Abstract

Cyclotides are plant mini-proteins whose natural function is thought to be to protect plants from pest or pathogens, particularly insect pests. They are approximately 30 amino acids in size and are characterized by a cyclic peptide backbone and a cystine knot arrangement of three conserved disulfide bonds. This article provides an overview of the reported pesticidal or toxic activities of cyclotides, discusses a possible common mechanism of action involving disruption of biological membranes in pest species, and describes methods that can be used to produce cyclotides for potential applications as novel pesticidal agents.
Keywords: circular protein; cyclic peptide; cyclotide; cystine knot; insecticide; kalata B1 circular protein; cyclic peptide; cyclotide; cystine knot; insecticide; kalata B1
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Craik, D.J. Host-Defense Activities of Cyclotides. Toxins 2012, 4, 139-156.

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