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Biocontrol of Penicillium nordicum Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Native Yeasts of Dry Cured Ham
Stazione Sperimentale per l’Industria delle Conserve Alimentari, V.le F. Tanara, 31/A, Parma 43121, Italy
Institute of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, Piacenza I29100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2011; in revised form: 18 January 2012 / Accepted: 20 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
Abstract: Twelve yeast strains isolated from the surface of Italian typical dry-cured hams, belonging to D. hansenii, D. maramus, C. famata, C. zeylanoides and H. burtonii species, and previously selected for their ability to grow in dry-cured ham-like substrates, were screened for antagonistic activity against a toxigenic strain of P. nordicum and inhibition of ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis. On average, yeast inhibitory activity was lowered by increasing fungal inoculum and enhanced by NaCl presence. In the assay conditions, H. burtonii and C. zeylanoides were the most effective, both in inhibiting P. nordicum growth and OTA production. D. hansenii was the species with the lowest inhibitory activity, especially in the absence of salt. OTA production dropped from the range < LOD − 5000 ppb in P. nordicum control plates to the range < LOD − 200 ppb in yeast-added plates. OTA production increased in the presence of NaCl in P. nordicum control plates, while salt enhanced inhibition against OTA production in yeast-added plates.
Keywords: antagonistic yeasts; Penicillium nordicum; ochratoxin A; NaCl; dry-cured meat product
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Virgili, R.; Simoncini, N.; Toscani, T.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Formenti, S.; Battilani, P. Biocontrol of Penicillium nordicum Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Native Yeasts of Dry Cured Ham. Toxins 2012, 4, 68-82.
Virgili R, Simoncini N, Toscani T, Camardo Leggieri M, Formenti S, Battilani P. Biocontrol of Penicillium nordicum Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Native Yeasts of Dry Cured Ham. Toxins. 2012; 4(2):68-82.
Virgili, Roberta; Simoncini, Nicoletta; Toscani, Tania; Camardo Leggieri, Marco; Formenti, Silvia; Battilani, Paola. 2012. "Biocontrol of Penicillium nordicum Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Native Yeasts of Dry Cured Ham." Toxins 4, no. 2: 68-82.