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Toxins 2012, 4(2), 68-82; doi:10.3390/toxins4020068
Article

Biocontrol of Penicillium nordicum Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Native Yeasts of Dry Cured Ham

1,* , 1
,
1
,
2
,
2
 and
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1 Stazione Sperimentale per l’Industria delle Conserve Alimentari, V.le F. Tanara, 31/A, Parma 43121, Italy 2 Institute of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, Piacenza I29100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2011 / Revised: 18 January 2012 / Accepted: 20 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins 2011-2012)
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Abstract

Twelve yeast strains isolated from the surface of Italian typical dry-cured hams, belonging to D. hansenii, D. maramus, C. famata, C. zeylanoides and H. burtonii species, and previously selected for their ability to grow in dry-cured ham-like substrates, were screened for antagonistic activity against a toxigenic strain of P. nordicum and inhibition of ochratoxin A (OTA) biosynthesis. On average, yeast inhibitory activity was lowered by increasing fungal inoculum and enhanced by NaCl presence. In the assay conditions, H. burtonii and C. zeylanoides were the most effective, both in inhibiting P. nordicum growth and OTA production. D. hansenii was the species with the lowest inhibitory activity, especially in the absence of salt. OTA production dropped from the range < LOD − 5000 ppb in P. nordicum control plates to the range < LOD − 200 ppb in yeast-added plates. OTA production increased in the presence of NaCl in P. nordicum control plates, while salt enhanced inhibition against OTA production in yeast-added plates.
Keywords: antagonistic yeasts; Penicillium nordicum; ochratoxin A; NaCl; dry-cured meat product antagonistic yeasts; Penicillium nordicum; ochratoxin A; NaCl; dry-cured meat product
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Virgili, R.; Simoncini, N.; Toscani, T.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Formenti, S.; Battilani, P. Biocontrol of Penicillium nordicum Growth and Ochratoxin A Production by Native Yeasts of Dry Cured Ham. Toxins 2012, 4, 68-82.

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