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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 3 (March 2012), Pages 151-242

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgment of Reviewers
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 151-153; doi:10.3390/nu4030151
Received: 21 February 2012 / Accepted: 22 February 2012 / Published: 23 February 2012
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Abstract It is with great appreciation that we acknowledge the following reviewers who have served our research community by reviewing manuscripts for Nutrients in 2011. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Binge Eating and Weight-Related Quality of Life in Obese Adolescents
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 167-180; doi:10.3390/nu4030167
Received: 23 November 2011 / Revised: 25 February 2012 / Accepted: 28 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Limited data exist regarding the association between binge eating and quality of life (QOL) in obese adolescent girls and boys. We, therefore, studied binge eating and QOL in 158 obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) adolescents (14.5 ± 1.4 years, 68.0% female, 59% African-American)
[...] Read more.
Limited data exist regarding the association between binge eating and quality of life (QOL) in obese adolescent girls and boys. We, therefore, studied binge eating and QOL in 158 obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) adolescents (14.5 ± 1.4 years, 68.0% female, 59% African-American) prior to weight-loss treatment. Youth completed an interview to assess binge eating and a questionnaire measure of QOL. Controlling for body composition, binge eating youth (n = 35), overall, reported poorer QOL in domains of health, mobility, and self-esteem compared to those without binge eating ( ps < 0.05). Also, girls, overall, reported poorer QOL than boys in activities of daily-living, mobility, self-esteem, and social/interpersonal functioning (ps < 0.05). Girls with binge eating reported the greatest impairments in activities of daily living, mobility, self-esteem, social/interpersonal functioning, and work/school QOL (ps < 0.05). Among treatment-seeking obese adolescents, binge eating appears to be a marker of QOL impairment, especially among girls. Prospective and treatment designs are needed to explore the directional relationship between binge eating and QOL and their impact on weight outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maladaptive Eating Attitudes in Youth)
Open AccessArticle Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Among Boston Trainee Doctors in Winter
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 197-207; doi:10.3390/nu4030197
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As indoor workers, trainee doctors may be at risk for inadequate vitamin D. All trainee doctors (residents) in a Boston pediatric training program (residency) were invited to complete a survey, and undergo testing for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, and calcium during a
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As indoor workers, trainee doctors may be at risk for inadequate vitamin D. All trainee doctors (residents) in a Boston pediatric training program (residency) were invited to complete a survey, and undergo testing for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, and calcium during a 3-week period in March 2010. We examined the association between resident characteristics and serum 25(OH)D using Chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariable linear and logistic regression. Of the 119 residents, 102 (86%) participated. Although the mean serum 25(OH)D level was 67 nmol/L (±26), 25 (25%) had a level < 50 nmol/L and 3 (3%) residents had levels < 25 nmol/L. In the multivariable model, factors associated with 25(OH)D levels were: female sex (β 12.7, 95% CI 3.6, 21.7), white race (β 21.7, 95% CI 11.7, 31.7), travel to more equatorial latitudes during the past 3 months (β 6.3, 95% CI 2.0, 10.5) and higher daily intake of vitamin D (β 1.1, 95% CI 0.04, 2.1). Although one in four residents in our study had a serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L, all of them would have been missed using current Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) screening guidelines. The use of traditional risk factors appears insufficient to identify low vitamin D in indoor workers at northern latitudes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessArticle Gender Different Response to Immunonutrition in Liver Cirrhosis with Sepsis in Rats
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 231-242; doi:10.3390/nu4030231
Received: 9 February 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 22 March 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Females with sepsis have a better prognosis than males, while those of both genders with cirrhosis have a high mortality. Impaired immunity accompanies liver cirrhosis. The potential association between sex and immunologic response of cirrhotic rats in sepsis following immunonutrition was investigated. One
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Females with sepsis have a better prognosis than males, while those of both genders with cirrhosis have a high mortality. Impaired immunity accompanies liver cirrhosis. The potential association between sex and immunologic response of cirrhotic rats in sepsis following immunonutrition was investigated. One hundred and forty-three rats were randomly divided into groups. Liver cirrhosis was produced by weekly feeding of CCl4 for 8 weeks. Among them, 24 male and 19 female underwent castration one month before studying. The rats were fed with either immune enhancing diet or control diet for five days, then sepsis was induced with cecal ligation and two holes puncture. Main outcomes included mortality and serum cytokines (IL-1β, 6, and 10). Comparisons were made both within and between genders. Cirrhotic non-castrated male rats showed a significant decrease in mortality (64.1% vs. 32.1%, p = 0.032) with better survival than control diet following immune enhancing diet. Lower mortality of cirrhotic non-castrated female rats was found after immune enhancing diet (69.6% vs. 52.1%, p = 0.365). Cirrhotic castrated male rats showed a lower mortality (44.4%) following immune enhancing diet, and cirrhotic castrated female rats also showed significantly lower mortality and better survival than control diet after immune enhancing diet (87.5% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.004). Plasma concentrations of IL-1β were higher in non-oophorectomized female rats fed with control diet compared to immune enhancing diet. Non-orchidectomized males and non-oophorectomized females exhibited similar increases in IL-10 after immune enhancing diet. Our results demonstrated that immunonutrition was more beneficial for male than female cirrhotic rats following sepsis. Though orchidectomy was not found to be more advantageous for the normal male rats in sepsis, immunonutrition seemed to be as important as sex hormone for female rats in sepsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Immunology)

Review

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Open AccessReview Immunological Function of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate in the Intestine
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 154-166; doi:10.3390/nu4030154
Received: 17 January 2012 / Revised: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 23 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It has been shown that dietary materials are involved in immune regulation in the intestine. Lipids mediate immune regulation through a complex metabolic network that produces many kinds of lipid mediators. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator that controls cell trafficking and activation.
[...] Read more.
It has been shown that dietary materials are involved in immune regulation in the intestine. Lipids mediate immune regulation through a complex metabolic network that produces many kinds of lipid mediators. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator that controls cell trafficking and activation. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of S1P in the regulation of intestinal immune responses such as immunoglobulin A production and unique T cell trafficking, and its role in the development of intestinal immune diseases such as food allergies and intestinal inflammation, and also discuss the relationship between dietary materials and S1P metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Immunology)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D Signaling in the Bovine Immune System: A Model for Understanding Human Vitamin D Requirements
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 181-196; doi:10.3390/nu4030181
Received: 1 December 2011 / Revised: 29 February 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 15 March 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D
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The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocrinology. The current debate regarding vitamin D requirements is centered on the requirements for proper intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling. Studies in adult and young cattle can provide valuable insight for understanding vitamin D requirements as they relate to innate and adaptive immune responses during infectious disease. In cattle, toll-like receptor recognition activates intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in the immune system that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the presence of adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Furthermore, experiments with mastitis in dairy cattle have provided in vivo evidence for the intracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in macrophages as well as vitamin D mediated suppression of infection. Epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating concentrations above 32 ng/mL of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are necessary for optimal vitamin D signaling in the immune system, but experimental evidence is lacking for that value. Experiments in cattle can provide that evidence as circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations can be experimentally manipulated within ranges that are normal for humans and cattle. Additionally, young and adult cattle can be experimentally infected with bacteria and viruses associated with significant diseases in both cattle and humans. Utilizing the bovine model to further delineate the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D will provide potentially valuable insights into the vitamin D requirements of both humans and cattle, especially as they relate to immune response capacity and infectious disease resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Its Role During Pregnancy in Attaining Optimal Health of Mother and Fetus
Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 208-230; doi:10.3390/nu4030208
Received: 27 February 2012 / Revised: 2 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 March 2012 / Published: 21 March 2012
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite its discovery a hundred years ago, vitamin D has emerged as one of the most controversial nutrients and prohormones of the 21st century. Its role in calcium metabolism and bone health is undisputed but its role in immune function and long-term health
[...] Read more.
Despite its discovery a hundred years ago, vitamin D has emerged as one of the most controversial nutrients and prohormones of the 21st century. Its role in calcium metabolism and bone health is undisputed but its role in immune function and long-term health is debated. There are clear indicators from in vitro and animal in vivo studies that point to vitamin D’s indisputable role in both innate and adaptive immunity; however, the translation of these findings to clinical practice, including the care of the pregnant woman, has not occurred. Until recently, there has been a paucity of data from randomized controlled trials to establish clear cut beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. An overview of vitamin metabolism, states of deficiency, and the results of recent clinical trials conducted in the U.S. are presented with an emphasis on what is known and what questions remain to be answered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)

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