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Nutrients 2012, 4(3), 154-166; doi:10.3390/nu4030154
Review

Immunological Function of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate in the Intestine

1,2,*  and 1,2,3,4,*
1 Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan 2 Department of Medical Genome Science, Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8562, Japan 3 Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan 4 Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076, Japan
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2012 / Revised: 14 February 2012 / Accepted: 23 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Immunology)
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Abstract

It has been shown that dietary materials are involved in immune regulation in the intestine. Lipids mediate immune regulation through a complex metabolic network that produces many kinds of lipid mediators. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid mediator that controls cell trafficking and activation. In this review, we focus on the immunological functions of S1P in the regulation of intestinal immune responses such as immunoglobulin A production and unique T cell trafficking, and its role in the development of intestinal immune diseases such as food allergies and intestinal inflammation, and also discuss the relationship between dietary materials and S1P metabolism.
Keywords: intestinal immunity; lipid; IgA antibody; intraepithelial T lymphocytes; food allergy intestinal immunity; lipid; IgA antibody; intraepithelial T lymphocytes; food allergy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kunisawa, J.; Kiyono, H. Immunological Function of Sphingosine 1-Phosphate in the Intestine. Nutrients 2012, 4, 154-166.

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