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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 2 (February 2012), Pages 68-150

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Evidence of Associations Between Feto-Maternal Vitamin D Status, Cord Parathyroid Hormone and Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase, and Newborn Whole Body Bone Mineral Content
Nutrients 2012, 4(2), 68-77; doi:10.3390/nu4020068
Received: 24 November 2011 / Revised: 19 January 2012 / Accepted: 30 January 2012 / Published: 6 February 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In spite of a high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy in pregnant women and neonates, relationships among vitamin D status (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC) in the newborn are poorly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between maternal and cord 25(OH)D, PTH, BALP, and WBBMC in newborns in a multiethnic population in Oakland, California and to evaluate the predictive value of the biochemical indices as indicators of WBBMC. Maternal and cord blood were collected from 80 mother-infant pairs and infant WBBMC was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry 8–21 days post-birth. Cord PTH and BALP were each inversely correlated with infant WBBMC (r = −0.28, p = 0.01 and r = −0.26, p = 0.02) and with cord 25(OH)D (r = −0.24, p = 0.03 and r = −0.34, p = 0.002), while cord 25(OH)D and unadjusted or weight-adjusted WBBMC were not significantly correlated with one other. In multivariate regression modeling, infant WBBMC was most strongly predicted by infant weight ( p < 0.0001), while either PTH or BALP contributed modestly but significantly to the model (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03 respectively). Cord 25(OH)D was not a significant predictor of infant WBBMC. This study provides evidence of associations between feto-maternal 25(OH)D, cord PTH and BALP, and early infant WBBMC, though neither feto-maternal 25(OH)D nor the measured biochemical indices were suitable indicators of WBBMC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D)
Open AccessArticle Antiapoptotic and Antiautophagic Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Cardiac Myoblasts Exposed to Palmitic Acid
Nutrients 2012, 4(2), 78-90; doi:10.3390/nu4020078
Received: 3 November 2011 / Revised: 30 January 2012 / Accepted: 30 January 2012 / Published: 7 February 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that plays a critical role in cell homeostasis. In particular, apoptosis in cardiomyocytes is involved in several cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Recently autophagy has emerged as an important modulator of programmed cell death pathway. Recent [...] Read more.
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that plays a critical role in cell homeostasis. In particular, apoptosis in cardiomyocytes is involved in several cardiovascular diseases including heart failure. Recently autophagy has emerged as an important modulator of programmed cell death pathway. Recent evidence indicates that saturated fatty acids induce cell death through apoptosis and this effect is specific for palmitate. On the other hand, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been implicated in the protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiac ischemic damage and myocardial dysfunction. In the present study we show that n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) treatment to culture medium of H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts protects cells against palmitate-induced apoptosis, as well as counteracts palmitate-mediated increase of autophagy. Further investigation is required to establish whether the antiautophagic effect of EPA may be involved in its cytoprotective outcome and to explore the underlying biochemical mechanisms through which palmitate and EPA control the fate of cardiac cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Effect of High or Low Protein Diet on the Human Urine Metabolome as Measured by NMR
Nutrients 2012, 4(2), 112-131; doi:10.3390/nu4020112
Received: 30 January 2012 / Revised: 11 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 20 February 2012
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (4836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to identify urinary metabolite profiles that discriminate between high and low intake of dietary protein during a dietary intervention. Seventy-seven overweight, non-diabetic subjects followed an 8-week low-calorie diet (LCD) and were then randomly assigned to a [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to identify urinary metabolite profiles that discriminate between high and low intake of dietary protein during a dietary intervention. Seventy-seven overweight, non-diabetic subjects followed an 8-week low-calorie diet (LCD) and were then randomly assigned to a high (HP) or low (LP) protein diet for 6 months. Twenty-four hours urine samples were collected at baseline (prior to the 8-week LCD) and after dietary intervention; at months 1, 3 and 6, respectively. Metabolite profiling was performed by 1H NMR and chemometrics. Using partial least squares regression (PLS), it was possible to develop excellent prediction models for urinary nitrogen (root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) = 1.63 mmol/L; r = 0.89) and urinary creatinine (RMSECV = 0.66 mmol/L; r = 0.98). The obtained high correlations firmly establish the validity of the metabolomic approach since urinary nitrogen is a well established biomarker for daily protein consumption. The models showed that trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is correlated to urinary nitrogen. Furthermore, urinary creatine was found to be increased by the HP diet whereas citric acid was increased by the LP diet. Despite large variations in individual dietary intake, differentiated metabolite profiles were observed at the dietary group-level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Current Challenges in Detecting Food Allergens by Shotgun and Targeted Proteomic Approaches: A Case Study on Traces of Peanut Allergens in Baked Cookies
Nutrients 2012, 4(2), 132-150; doi:10.3390/nu4020132
Received: 25 December 2011 / Revised: 8 February 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered [...] Read more.
There is a need for selective and sensitive methods to detect the presence of food allergens at trace levels in highly processed food products. In this work, a combination of non-targeted and targeted proteomics approaches are used to illustrate the difficulties encountered in the detection of the major peanut allergens Ara h 1, Ara h 2 and Ara h 3 from a representative processed food matrix. Shotgun proteomics was employed for selection of the proteotypic peptides for targeted approaches via selective reaction monitoring. Peanut presence through detection of the proteotypic Ara h 3/4 peptides AHVQVVDSNGNR (m/z 432.5, 3+) and SPDIYNPQAGSLK (m/z 695.4, 2+) was confirmed and the developed method was able to detect peanut presence at trace levels (≥10 μg peanut g−1 matrix) in baked cookies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2011)

Review

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Open AccessReview Pro- and Synbiotics to Prevent Sepsis in Major Surgery and Severe Emergencies
Nutrients 2012, 4(2), 91-111; doi:10.3390/nu4020091
Received: 5 December 2011 / Revised: 10 January 2012 / Accepted: 18 January 2012 / Published: 17 February 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Septic morbidity associated with advanced surgical and medical treatments is unacceptably high, and so is the incidence of complications occurring in connection with acute emergencies such as severe trauma and severe acute pancreatitis. Only considering the US, it will annually affect approximately [...] Read more.
Septic morbidity associated with advanced surgical and medical treatments is unacceptably high, and so is the incidence of complications occurring in connection with acute emergencies such as severe trauma and severe acute pancreatitis. Only considering the US, it will annually affect approximately (app) 300 million (mill) of a population of almost one million inhabitants and cause the death of more than 200,000 patients, making sepsis the tenth most common cause of death in the US. Two major factors affect this, the lifestyle-associated increased weakness of the immune defense systems, but more than this the artificial environment associated with modern treatments such as mechanical ventilation, use of tubes, drains, intravascular lines, artificial nutrition and extensive use of synthetic chemical drugs, methods all known to reduce or eliminate the human microbiota and impair immune functions and increase systemic inflammation. Attempts to recondition the gut by the supply of microorganisms have sometimes shown remarkably good results, but too often failed. Many factors contribute to the lack of success: unsuitable choice of probiotic species, too low dose, but most importantly, this bio-ecological treatment has never been given the opportunity to be tried as an alternative treatment. Instead it has most often been applied as complementary to all the other treatments mentioned above, including antibiotic treatment. The supplemented lactic acid bacteria have most often been killed already before they have reached their targeted organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotics and Nutrition)

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