Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Future Internet, Volume 9, Issue 3 (September 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-31
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

Open AccessEditorial Future Intelligent Systems and Networks
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 49; doi:10.3390/fi9030049
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
PDF Full-text (151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Intelligent Systems and Networks)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Security Enhancement for Data Migration in the Cloud
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 23; doi:10.3390/fi9030023
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
PDF Full-text (367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In today’s society, cloud computing has significantly impacted nearly every section of our lives and business structures. Cloud computing is, without any doubt, one of the strategic directions for many companies and the most dominating infrastructure for enterprises as long as end users.
[...] Read more.
In today’s society, cloud computing has significantly impacted nearly every section of our lives and business structures. Cloud computing is, without any doubt, one of the strategic directions for many companies and the most dominating infrastructure for enterprises as long as end users. Instead of buying IT equipment (hardware and/or software) and managing it themselves, many organizations today prefer to buy services from IT service providers. The number of service providers increase dramatically and the cloud is becoming the tools of choice for more cloud storage services. However, as more personal information and data are moved to the cloud, into social media sites, DropBox, Baidu WangPan, etc., data security and privacy issues are questioned. Daily, academia and industry seek to find an efficient way to secure data migration in the cloud. Various solution approaches and encryption techniques have been implemented. In this work, we will discuss some of these approaches and evaluate the popular ones in order to find the elements that affect system performance. Finally, we will propose a model that enhances data security and privacy by combining Advanced Encryption Standard-256, Information Dispersal Algorithms and Secure Hash Algorithm-512. Our protocol achieves provable security assessments and fast execution times for medium thresholds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Systems Security)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Iterative Thresholding Algorithm Based on Plug-and-Play Priors for Compressive Sampling
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 24; doi:10.3390/fi9030024
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
PDF Full-text (2295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose a novel fast iterative thresholding algorithm for image compressive sampling (CS) recovery using three existing denoisers—i.e., TV (total variation), wavelet, and BM3D (block-matching and 3D filtering) denoisers. Through the use of the recently introduced plug-and-play prior approach, we turn these denoisers
[...] Read more.
We propose a novel fast iterative thresholding algorithm for image compressive sampling (CS) recovery using three existing denoisers—i.e., TV (total variation), wavelet, and BM3D (block-matching and 3D filtering) denoisers. Through the use of the recently introduced plug-and-play prior approach, we turn these denoisers into CS solvers. Thus, our method can jointly utilize the global and nonlocal sparsity of images. The former is captured by TV and wavelet denoisers for maintaining the entire consistency; while the latter is characterized by the BM3D denoiser to preserve details by exploiting image self-similarity. This composite constraint problem is then solved with the fast composite splitting technique. Experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms several excellent CS techniques. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Banking on Blockchain: Costs Savings Thanks to the Blockchain Technology
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 25; doi:10.3390/fi9030025
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
PDF Full-text (732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper looks at the challenges and opportunities of implementing blockchain technology across banking, providing food for thought about the potentialities of this disruptive technology. The blockchain technology can optimize the global financial infrastructure, achieving sustainable development, using more efficient systems than at
[...] Read more.
This paper looks at the challenges and opportunities of implementing blockchain technology across banking, providing food for thought about the potentialities of this disruptive technology. The blockchain technology can optimize the global financial infrastructure, achieving sustainable development, using more efficient systems than at present. In fact, many banks are currently focusing on blockchain technology to promote economic growth and accelerate the development of green technologies. In order to understand the potential of blockchain technology to support the financial system, we studied the actual performance of the Bitcoin system, also highlighting its major limitations, such as the significant energy consumption due to the high computing power required, and the high cost of hardware. We estimated the electrical power and the hash rate of the Bitcoin network, over time, and, in order to evaluate the efficiency of the Bitcoin system in its actual operation, we defined three quantities: “economic efficiency”, “operational efficiency”, and “efficient service”. The obtained results show that by overcoming the disadvantages of the Bitcoin system, and therefore of blockchain technology, we could be able to handle financial processes in a more efficient way than under the current system. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cryptographic Key Management in Delay Tolerant Networks: A Survey
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 26; doi:10.3390/fi9030026
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
PDF Full-text (768 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since their appearance at the dawn of the second millennium, Delay or Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have gradually evolved, spurring the development of a variety of methods and protocols for making them more secure and resilient. In this context, perhaps, the most challenging
[...] Read more.
Since their appearance at the dawn of the second millennium, Delay or Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have gradually evolved, spurring the development of a variety of methods and protocols for making them more secure and resilient. In this context, perhaps, the most challenging problem to deal with is that of cryptographic key management. To the best of our knowledge, the work at hand is the first to survey the relevant literature and classify the various so far proposed key management approaches in such a restricted and harsh environment. Towards this goal, we have grouped the surveyed key management methods into three major categories depending on whether the particular method copes with (a) security initialization, (b) key establishment, and (c) key revocation. We have attempted to provide a concise but fairly complete evaluation of the proposed up-to-date methods in a generalized way with the aim of offering a central reference point for future research. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Security Framework for the Internet of Things in the Future Internet Architecture
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 27; doi:10.3390/fi9030027
Received: 5 June 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 28 June 2017
PDF Full-text (2528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a recent trend that extends the boundary of the Internet to include a wide variety of computing devices. Connecting many stand-alone IoT systems through the Internet introduces many challenges, with security being front-and-center since much of the
[...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a recent trend that extends the boundary of the Internet to include a wide variety of computing devices. Connecting many stand-alone IoT systems through the Internet introduces many challenges, with security being front-and-center since much of the collected information will be exposed to a wide and often unknown audience. Unfortunately, due to the intrinsic capability limits of low-end IoT devices, which account for a majority of the IoT end hosts, many traditional security methods cannot be applied to secure IoT systems, which open a door for attacks and exploits directed both against IoT services and the broader Internet. This paper addresses this issue by introducing a unified IoT framework based on the MobilityFirst future Internet architecture that explicitly focuses on supporting security for the IoT. Our design integrates local IoT systems into the global Internet without losing usability, interoperability and security protection. Specifically, we introduced an IoT middleware layer that connects heterogeneous hardware in local IoT systems to the global MobilityFirst network. We propose an IoT name resolution service (IoT-NRS) as a core component of the middleware layer, and develop a lightweight keying protocol that establishes trust between an IoT device and the IoT-NRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Security and Privacy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design and Development of a Real-Time Monitoring System for Multiple Lead–Acid Batteries Based on Internet of Things
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 28; doi:10.3390/fi9030028
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 24 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
PDF Full-text (2702 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, real-time monitoring of multiple lead-acid batteries based on Internet of things is proposed and evaluated. Our proposed system monitors and stores parameters that provide an indication of the lead acid battery’s acid level, state of charge, voltage, current, and the
[...] Read more.
In this paper, real-time monitoring of multiple lead-acid batteries based on Internet of things is proposed and evaluated. Our proposed system monitors and stores parameters that provide an indication of the lead acid battery’s acid level, state of charge, voltage, current, and the remaining charge capacity in a real-time scenario. To monitor these lead–acid battery parameters, we have developed a data acquisition system by building an embedded system, i.e., dedicated hardware and software. The wireless local area network is used as the backbone network. The information collected from all the connected battery clients in the system is analyzed in an asynchronous transmission control protocol/user datagram protocol-based C♯ server program running on a personal computer (server) to determine important parameters like the state of charge of the individual battery, and if required, appropriate action can be taken in advance to prevent excessive impairment to the battery. Further, data are also displayed on an Android mobile device and are stored in an SQL server database. We have developed a real prototype to devise an end product for our proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Internet of Thing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 29; doi:10.3390/fi9030029
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter
[...] Read more.
The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting the results in a natural language. The framework allows a fast exploration and integration of a variety of machine learning algorithms combined with data recovery mechanisms for improving the recognition’s accuracy. Consequently, the framework generates natural language reports of the user’s behavior from the recognized home appliances. The framework uses open standard interfaces for exchanging data. The framework has been validated through comprehensive experiments that are related to an European Smart Grid project. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Feasibility Study of a Socially Assistive Humanoid Robot for Guiding Elderly Individuals during Walking
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 30; doi:10.3390/fi9030030
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The impact of the world-wide ageing population has commenced with respect to society in developed countries. Several researchers focused on exploring new methods to improve the quality of life of elderly individuals by allowing them to remain independent and healthy to the maximum
[...] Read more.
The impact of the world-wide ageing population has commenced with respect to society in developed countries. Several researchers focused on exploring new methods to improve the quality of life of elderly individuals by allowing them to remain independent and healthy to the maximum possible extent. For example, new walking aids are designed to allow elderly individuals to remain mobile in a safe manner because the importance of walking is well-known. The aim of the present study involves designing a humanoid robot guide as a walking trainer for elderly individuals. It is hypothesized that the same service robot provides an assistive and social contribution with respect to interaction between elderly users by motivating them to walk more and simultaneously provides assistance, such as physical assistance and gait monitoring, while walking. This study includes a detailed statement of the research problem as well as a literature review of existing studies related to walking companion robots. A user-centred design approach is adopted to report the results of the current first feasibility study by using a commercially available humanoid robot known as Pepper developed by Softbank-Aldebaran. A quantitative questionnaire was used to investigate all elements that assess intrinsic motivation in users while performing a given activity. Conversely, basic gait data were acquired through a video analysis to test the capability of the robot to modify the gait of human users. The results in terms of the feedback received from elderly subjects and the literature review improve the design of the walking trainer for elderly individuals. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle NB-IoT for D2D-Enhanced Content Uploading with Social Trustworthiness in 5G Systems
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 31; doi:10.3390/fi9030031
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 8 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Future fifth-generation (5G) cellular systems are set to give a strong boost to the large-scale deployment of Internet of things (IoT). In the view of a future converged 5G-IoT infrastructure, cellular IoT solutions such as narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) and device-to-device (D2D) communications are
[...] Read more.
Future fifth-generation (5G) cellular systems are set to give a strong boost to the large-scale deployment of Internet of things (IoT). In the view of a future converged 5G-IoT infrastructure, cellular IoT solutions such as narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) and device-to-device (D2D) communications are key technologies for supporting IoT scenarios and applications. However, some open issues still need careful investigation. An example is the risk of threats to privacy and security when IoT mobile services rely on D2D communications. To guarantee efficient and secure connections to IoT services involving exchange of sensitive data, reputation-based mechanisms to identify and avoid malicious devices are fast gaining ground. In order to tackle the presence of malicious nodes in the network, this paper introduces reliability and reputation notions to model the level of trust among devices engaged in an opportunistic hop-by-hop D2D-based content uploading scheme. To this end, social awareness of devices is considered as a means to enhance the identification of trustworthy nodes. A performance evaluation study shows that the negative effects due to malicious nodes can be drastically reduced by adopting the proposed solution. The performance metrics that proved to benefit from the proposed solution are data loss, energy consumption, and content uploading time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle User Modelling Validation over the Security Awareness of Digital Natives
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 32; doi:10.3390/fi9030032
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
PDF Full-text (2205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Young generations make extensive use of mobile devices, such as smart-phones, tablets and laptops, for a variety of daily tasks with potentially critical impact, while the number of security breaches via portable devices increases exponentially. A plethora of security risks associated with these
[...] Read more.
Young generations make extensive use of mobile devices, such as smart-phones, tablets and laptops, for a variety of daily tasks with potentially critical impact, while the number of security breaches via portable devices increases exponentially. A plethora of security risks associated with these devices are induced by design shortcomings and vulnerabilities related to user behavior. Therefore, deploying suitable risk treatments requires the investigation of how security experts perceive the digital natives (young people, born in the digital era), when utilizing their user behavior models in the design and analysis of related systems. In this article, we present the results of a survey performed across a multinational sample of security professionals, in comparison to our earlier study over the security awareness of digital natives. Through this study, we seek to identify divergences between user behavior and the conceptual user-models that security experts utilise in their professional tasks. Our results indicate that the experts understanding over the user behaviour does not follow a solidified user-model, while influences from personal perceptions and randomness are also noticeable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Robust Image Embedded Watermarking Using DCT and Listless SPIHT
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 33; doi:10.3390/fi9030033
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
PDF Full-text (6689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a DCT-based (DCT: discrete cosine transform) listless set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) digital watermarking technique that is robust against several common attacks such as cropping, filtering, sharpening, noise, inversion, contrast manipulation, and compression. The proposed technique is made further
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a DCT-based (DCT: discrete cosine transform) listless set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) digital watermarking technique that is robust against several common attacks such as cropping, filtering, sharpening, noise, inversion, contrast manipulation, and compression. The proposed technique is made further robust by the incorporation of the Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) encryption technique. Our scheme is compared with the recently proposed CRT-based DCT technique, CRT-based spatial domain watermarking, and DCT-based inter block correlation techniques. Extensive simulation experiments show better robustness in common image manipulations and, at the same time, the proposed technique successfully makes the watermark perceptually invisible. A better Tamper Assessment Function (TAF) value of 2–15% and a better Normalized Correlation (NC) is achieved compared to some of the above techniques. In particular, the proposed technique shows better robustness on compression attacks at moderate to higher compression ratios. It is possible to maintain the imperceptibility and low TAF for various values by doubling the capacity of the watermark. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle G-Networks with Adders
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 34; doi:10.3390/fi9030034
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Abstract: Queueing networks are used to model the performance of the Internet, of manufacturing and job-shop systems, supply chains, and other networked systems in transportation or emergency management. Composed of service stations where customers receive service, and then move to another service station
[...] Read more.
Abstract: Queueing networks are used to model the performance of the Internet, of manufacturing and job-shop systems, supply chains, and other networked systems in transportation or emergency management. Composed of service stations where customers receive service, and then move to another service station till they leave the network, queueing networks are based on probabilistic assumptions concerning service times and customer movement that represent the variability of system workloads. Subject to restrictive assumptions regarding external arrivals, Markovian movement of customers, and service time distributions, such networks can be solved efficiently with “product form solutions” that reduce the need for software simulators requiring lengthy computations. G-networks generalise these models to include the effect of “signals” that re-route customer traffic, or negative customers that reject service requests, and also have a convenient product form solution. This paper extends G-networks by including a new type of signal, that we call an “Adder”, which probabilistically changes the queue length at the service center that it visits, acting as a load regulator. We show that this generalisation of G-networks has a product form solution. Full article
Open AccessArticle Combining Adaptive Holonic Control and ISA-95 Architectures to Self-Organize the Interaction in a Worker-Industrial Robot Cooperative Workcell
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 35; doi:10.3390/fi9030035
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 10 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self-Organization is a spontaneous trend which exists in nature among different organisms. Self-organization refers to the process where some form of an overall order arises in a group due to the local interaction among the members of this group. In manufacturing, a similar
[...] Read more.
Self-Organization is a spontaneous trend which exists in nature among different organisms. Self-organization refers to the process where some form of an overall order arises in a group due to the local interaction among the members of this group. In manufacturing, a similar definition of a Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) can be found. RMS is a system where the production components and functions can be modified, rearranged and/or interchanged in a timely and cost-effective manner to quickly respond to the production requirements. The definition of the RMS concept implies that the self-organization is an important key factor to fulfil that concept. A case study where a cooperation among a variable number of Industrial Robots (IRs) and workers is studied to show the importance of the research problem. The goal of the paper is to offer a suitable generic control and interaction architecture solution model, which obtains the self-organization from the RMS point of view. Ultimately, applying the proposed solution concept to the case study. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Extended Framework for Recovering From Trust Breakdowns in Online Community Settings
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 36; doi:10.3390/fi9030036
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 17 July 2017
PDF Full-text (6038 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The violation of trust as a result of interactions that do not proceed as expected gives rise to the question as to whether broken trust can possibly be recovered. Clearly, trust recovery is more complex than trust initialization and maintenance. Trust recovery requires
[...] Read more.
The violation of trust as a result of interactions that do not proceed as expected gives rise to the question as to whether broken trust can possibly be recovered. Clearly, trust recovery is more complex than trust initialization and maintenance. Trust recovery requires a more complex mechanism to explore different factors that cause the decline of trust and identify the affected individuals of trust violation both directly and indirectly. In this study, an extended framework for recovering trust is presented. Aside from evaluating whether there is potential for recovery based on the outcome of a forgiveness mechanism after a trust violation, encouraging cooperation between interacting parties after a trust violation through incentive mechanisms is also important. Furthermore, a number of experiments are conducted to validate the applicability of the framework and the findings show that the e-marketplace incorporating our proposed framework results in improved efficiency of trading, especially in long-term interactions. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Hybrid-Copy Algorithm for Live Migration of Virtual Machine
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 37; doi:10.3390/fi9030037
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 9 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Live migration of virtual machines is an important approach for dynamic resource scheduling in cloud environment. The hybrid-copy algorithm is an excellent algorithm that combines the pre-copy algorithm with the post-copy algorithm to remedy the defects of the pre-copy algorithm and the post-copy
[...] Read more.
Live migration of virtual machines is an important approach for dynamic resource scheduling in cloud environment. The hybrid-copy algorithm is an excellent algorithm that combines the pre-copy algorithm with the post-copy algorithm to remedy the defects of the pre-copy algorithm and the post-copy algorithm. Currently, the hybrid-copy algorithm only copies all memory pages once in advance. In a write-intensive workload, copy memory pages once may be enough. However, more iterative copy rounds can significantly reduce the page faults in a read-intensive workload. In this paper, we propose a new parameter to decide the appropriate time to stop the iterative copy phase based on real-time situation. We use a Markov model to forecast the memory access pattern. Based on the predicted results and the analysis of the actual situation, the memory page transfer order would be adjusted to reduce the invalid transfers. The novel hybrid-copy algorithm is implemented on the Xen platform. The experimental results demonstrate that our mechanism has good performance both on read-intensive workloads and write-intensive workloads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Computing for Real Time Intelligent Systems)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Interference-Aware Opportunistic Dynamic Energy Saving Mechanism for Wi-Fi Enabled IoTs
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 38; doi:10.3390/fi9030038
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The wireless local area network (WLAN) is one of the most popular wireless technologies offering connectivity today, and one of the candidates for the internet of things (IoTs). However, WLAN’s inefficiency in terms of complexity and relatively large power consumption compared with other
[...] Read more.
The wireless local area network (WLAN) is one of the most popular wireless technologies offering connectivity today, and one of the candidates for the internet of things (IoTs). However, WLAN’s inefficiency in terms of complexity and relatively large power consumption compared with other wireless standards has been reported as a major barrier for IoTs applications. This paper proposes an interference-aware opportunistic dynamic energy saving mechanism to improve energy efficiency for Wi-Fi enabled IoTs. The proposed scheme optimizes operating clock frequencies adaptively for signal processing when the mobile station transmits packets in partial sub-channels. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme improves energy efficiency by approximately 34%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Internet of Thing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Azure-Based Smart Monitoring System for Anemia-Like Pallor
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 39; doi:10.3390/fi9030039
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 23 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
PDF Full-text (3319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing costs of diagnostic healthcare have necessitated the development of hardware independent non-invasive Point of Care (POC) systems. Although anemia prevalence rates in global populations vary between 10% and 60% in various demographic groups, smart monitoring systems have not yet been developed for
[...] Read more.
Increasing costs of diagnostic healthcare have necessitated the development of hardware independent non-invasive Point of Care (POC) systems. Although anemia prevalence rates in global populations vary between 10% and 60% in various demographic groups, smart monitoring systems have not yet been developed for screening and tracking anemia-like pallor. In this work, we present two cloud platform-hosted POC applications that are directed towards smart monitoring of anemia-like pallor through eye and tongue pallor site images. The applications consist of a front-end graphical user interface (GUI) module and two different back-end image processing and machine learning modules. Both applications are hosted on a browser accessible tomcat server ported to an Azure Virtual Machine (VM). We observe that the first application spatially segments regions of interest from pallor site images with higher pallor classification accuracy and relatively longer processing times when compared to the lesser accurate yet faster second application. Also, both applications achieve 65%–98% accuracy in separating normal images from images with pallor or abnormalities. The optimized front-end module is significantly light-weight with a run-through time ratio of 10−5 with respect to the back-end modules. Thus, the proposed applications are portable and hardware independent, allowing for their use in pallor monitoring and screening tasks. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Visual Interface Evaluation for Wearables Datasets: Predicting the Subjective Augmented Vision Image QoE and QoS
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 40; doi:10.3390/fi9030040
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
PDF Full-text (1987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As Augmented Reality (AR) applications become commonplace, the determination of a device operator’s subjective Quality of Experience (QoE) in addition to objective Quality of Service (QoS) metrics gains importance. Human subject experimentation is common for QoE relationship determinations due to the subjective nature
[...] Read more.
As Augmented Reality (AR) applications become commonplace, the determination of a device operator’s subjective Quality of Experience (QoE) in addition to objective Quality of Service (QoS) metrics gains importance. Human subject experimentation is common for QoE relationship determinations due to the subjective nature of the QoE. In AR scenarios, the overlay of displayed content with the real world adds to the complexity. We employ Electroencephalography (EEG) measurements as the solution to the inherent subjectivity and situationality of AR content display overlaid with the real world. Specifically, we evaluate prediction performance for traditional image display (AR) and spherical/immersive image display (SAR) for the QoE and underlying QoS levels. Our approach utilizing a four-position EEG wearable achieves high levels of accuracy. Our detailed evaluation of the available data indicates that less sensors would perform almost as well and could be integrated into future wearable devices. Additionally, we make our Visual Interface Evaluation for Wearables (VIEW) datasets from human subject experimentation publicly available and describe their utilization. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Study on a Quality Evaluation Method for College English Classroom Teaching
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 41; doi:10.3390/fi9030041
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 23 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 30 July 2017
PDF Full-text (521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A quality evaluation method is an important means and the main basis on which to evaluate the college English classroom teaching quality of teachers. To overcome the one-sided subjectivity and resulting imprecision of the traditional classroom teaching quality evaluation method, a scientific and
[...] Read more.
A quality evaluation method is an important means and the main basis on which to evaluate the college English classroom teaching quality of teachers. To overcome the one-sided subjectivity and resulting imprecision of the traditional classroom teaching quality evaluation method, a scientific and reasonable quality evaluation index system for college English classroom teaching is constructed. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and the analytic hierarchy process method are combined to propose an improved multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model for obtaining a new college English classroom teaching quality evaluation method. In the proposed method, according to the fuzzy characteristics of a college English classroom teaching quality evaluation, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to transform the qualitative evaluation indexes into limited quantitative evaluation indexes, then a judgment matrix is constructed to determine the weights among different levels by using the analytic hierarchy process method. Additionally, the college English classroom teaching quality is evaluated in detail. Finally, an actual case of college English classroom teaching is used to verify the effectiveness of the college English classroom teaching quality evaluation method. The results show that the proposed college English classroom teaching method can overcome the subjectivity and randomness shortcomings of the traditional classroom teaching quality evaluation methods, and improve the reliability, accuracy, and objectivity of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. It is an effective method to evaluate college English classroom teaching quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue u- and e- Service, Science and Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Multimodal Perception Framework for Users Emotional State Assessment in Social Robotics
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 42; doi:10.3390/fi9030042
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
PDF Full-text (10100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, we present an unobtrusive and non-invasive perception framework based on the synergy between two main acquisition systems: the Touch-Me Pad, consisting of two electronic patches for physiological signal extraction and processing; and the Scene Analyzer, a visual-auditory perception system specifically
[...] Read more.
In this work, we present an unobtrusive and non-invasive perception framework based on the synergy between two main acquisition systems: the Touch-Me Pad, consisting of two electronic patches for physiological signal extraction and processing; and the Scene Analyzer, a visual-auditory perception system specifically designed for the detection of social and emotional cues. It will be explained how the information extracted by this specific kind of framework is particularly suitable for social robotics applications and how the system has been conceived in order to be used in human-robot interaction scenarios. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Survey of Denial-of-Service and Distributed Denial of Service Attacks and Defenses in Cloud Computing
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 43; doi:10.3390/fi9030043
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
PDF Full-text (278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cloud Computing is a computing model that allows ubiquitous, convenient and on-demand access to a shared pool of highly configurable resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services). Denial-of-Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks are serious threats to the Cloud services’ availability
[...] Read more.
Cloud Computing is a computing model that allows ubiquitous, convenient and on-demand access to a shared pool of highly configurable resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services). Denial-of-Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks are serious threats to the Cloud services’ availability due to numerous new vulnerabilities introduced by the nature of the Cloud, such as multi-tenancy and resource sharing. In this paper, new types of DoS and DDoS attacks in Cloud Computing are explored, especially the XML-DoS and HTTP-DoS attacks, and some possible detection and mitigation techniques are examined. This survey also provides an overview of the existing defense solutions and investigates the experiments and metrics that are usually designed and used to evaluate their performance, which is helpful for the future research in the domain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Systems Security)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Multicell Interference Management in Device to Device Underlay Cellular Networks
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 44; doi:10.3390/fi9030044
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the problem of interference mitigation in a multicell Device to Device (D2D) underlay cellular network is addressed. In this type of network architectures, cellular users and D2D users share common Resource Blocks (RBs). Though such paradigms allow potential increase in
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the problem of interference mitigation in a multicell Device to Device (D2D) underlay cellular network is addressed. In this type of network architectures, cellular users and D2D users share common Resource Blocks (RBs). Though such paradigms allow potential increase in the number of supported users, the latter comes at the cost of interference increase that in turn calls for the design of efficient interference mitigation methodologies. To treat this problem efficiently, we propose a two step approach, where the first step concerns the efficient RB allocation to the users and the second one the transmission power allocation. Specifically, the RB allocation problem is formulated as a bilateral symmetric interaction game. This assures the existence of a Nash Equilibrium (NE) point of the game, while a distributed algorithm, which converges to it, is devised. The power allocation problem is formulated as a linear programming problem per RB, and the equivalency between this problem and the total power minimization problem is shown. Finally, the operational effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated via numerical simulations, while its superiority against state of the art approaches existing in the recent literature is shown in terms of increased number of supported users, interference reduction and power minimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Robust Image Watermarking Scheme Based on SVD in the Spatial Domain
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 45; doi:10.3390/fi9030045
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
PDF Full-text (8758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the development of image processing technology, the copyright protection of digital images has become an urgent problem to be solved. As an effective method, the robust digital watermarking technique emerges at a historic moment. Currently, most robust watermarking schemes are performed in
[...] Read more.
With the development of image processing technology, the copyright protection of digital images has become an urgent problem to be solved. As an effective method, the robust digital watermarking technique emerges at a historic moment. Currently, most robust watermarking schemes are performed in the transform domains, such as the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Compared with spatial domain watermarking schemes, these methods have achieved good performance, such as better robustness and higher security. However, the computational complexity increases with the use of forward and reverse transforms. In this paper, we analyze the SVD-based watermarking scheme and its impact on the spatial domain. Based on this analysis and the mathematical characteristics of SVD, we present a robust image watermarking scheme where a binary watermark is embedded into the largest singular value of each image block in the spatial domain. Several experiments are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed watermarking scheme. The experimental results show that compared with the existing SVD domain watermarking schemes, our proposed method has maintained good robustness against various attacks. Moreover, it avoids the false positive problem existing in traditional SVD-based watermarking schemes and has lower computational complexity. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Digital Pre-Distortion of Carrier Frequency Offset for Reliable Wi-Fi Enabled IoTs
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 46; doi:10.3390/fi9030046
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoTs) will change the requirements for wireless connectivity significantly, mainly with regard to service coverage, data rate, and energy efficiency. Therefore, to improve robustness and reliability, WiFi-enabled IoT devices have been developed to use narrowband communication. However, narrowband transmission
[...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoTs) will change the requirements for wireless connectivity significantly, mainly with regard to service coverage, data rate, and energy efficiency. Therefore, to improve robustness and reliability, WiFi-enabled IoT devices have been developed to use narrowband communication. However, narrowband transmission in WiFi such as IEEE 802.11ah causes relatively higher frequency error due to the reduced subcarrier space, which is larger than legacy wireless local area networks (WLANs) in 2.4/5 GHz frequencies. In a direct conversion receiver, this error degrades the signal quality due to the presence of direct current (DC) offset cancellation circuits. In this paper, a digital carrier frequency offset (CFO) predistortion scheme is proposed for a reliable communication link in dense networks. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve received signal quality in terms of packet error rate and error vector magnitude. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Internet of Thing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cost-Aware IoT Extension of DISSECT-CF
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 47; doi:10.3390/fi9030047
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
PDF Full-text (727 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the age of the Internet of Things (IoT), more and more sensors, actuators and smart devices get connected to the network. Application providers often combine this connectivity with novel scenarios involving cloud computing. Before implementing changes in these large-scale systems, an in-depth
[...] Read more.
In the age of the Internet of Things (IoT), more and more sensors, actuators and smart devices get connected to the network. Application providers often combine this connectivity with novel scenarios involving cloud computing. Before implementing changes in these large-scale systems, an in-depth analysis is often required to identify governance models, bottleneck situations, costs and unexpected behaviours. Distributed systems simulators help in such analysis, but they are often problematic to apply in this newly emerging domain. For example, most simulators are either too detailed (e.g., need extensive knowledge on networking), or not extensible enough to support the new scenarios. To overcome these issues, we discuss our IoT cost analysis oriented extension of DIScrete event baSed Energy Consumption simulaTor for Clouds and Federations (DISSECT-CF). Thus, we present an in-depth analysis of IoT and cloud related pricing models of the most widely used commercial providers. Then, we show how the fundamental properties (e.g., data production frequency) of IoT entities could be linked to the identified pricing models. To allow the adoption of unforeseen scenarios and pricing schemes, we present a declarative modelling language to describe these links. Finally, we validate our extensions by analysing the effects of various identified pricing models through five scenarios coming from the field of weather forecasting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Internet of Thing)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Flow Shop Scheduling Problem and Solution in Cooperative Robotics—Case-Study: One Cobot in Cooperation with One Worker
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 48; doi:10.3390/fi9030048
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
PDF Full-text (1962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research combines between two different manufacturing concepts. On the one hand, flow shop scheduling is a well-known problem in production systems. The problem appears when a group of jobs shares the same processing sequence on two or more machines sequentially. Flow shop
[...] Read more.
This research combines between two different manufacturing concepts. On the one hand, flow shop scheduling is a well-known problem in production systems. The problem appears when a group of jobs shares the same processing sequence on two or more machines sequentially. Flow shop scheduling tries to find the appropriate solution to optimize the sequence order of this group of jobs over the existing machines. The goal of flow shop scheduling is to obtain the continuity of the flow of the jobs over the machines. This can be obtained by minimizing the delays between two consequent jobs, therefore the overall makespan can be minimized. On the other hand, collaborative robotics is a relatively recent approach in production where a collaborative robot (cobot) is capable of a close proximity cooperation with the human worker to increase the manufacturing agility and flexibility. The simplest case-study of a collaborative workcell is one cobot in cooperation with one worker. This collaborative workcell can be seen as a special case of the shop flow scheduling problem, where the required time from the worker to perform a specific job is unknown and variable. Therefore, during this research, we implement an intelligent control solution which can optimize the flow shop scheduling problem over the previously mentioned case-study. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle ARAAC: A Rational Allocation Approach in Cloud Data Center Networks
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 50; doi:10.3390/fi9030050
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
PDF Full-text (1245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The expansion of telecommunication technologies touches almost all aspects life that we are living nowadays. Indeed, such technologies have emerged as a fourth essential utility alongside the traditional utilities of electricity, water, and gas. In this context, Cloud Data Center Networks (cloud-DCNs) have
[...] Read more.
The expansion of telecommunication technologies touches almost all aspects life that we are living nowadays. Indeed, such technologies have emerged as a fourth essential utility alongside the traditional utilities of electricity, water, and gas. In this context, Cloud Data Center Networks (cloud-DCNs) have been proposed as a promising way to cope with such a high-tech era and with any expected trends in future computing networks. Resources of cloud-DCNs are leased to the interested users in the form of services, such services come in different models that vary between software, platform, and infrastructure. The leasing process of any service model starts with the users (i.e., service tenants). A tenant asks for the service resources, and the cloud-provider allocates the resources with a charge that follows a predefined cost policy. Cloud resources are limited, and those cloud providers have profit objectives to be satisfied. Thus, to comply with the aforementioned promise, the limited resources need to be carefully allocated. Existing allocation proposals in the literature dealt with this problem in varying ways. However, none proposes a win-win allocation model that satisfies both the providers and tenants. This work proposes A Rational Allocation Approach in Cloud Data Center Networks (ARAAC) that efficiently allocates the available cloud resources, in a way that allows for a win-win environment to satisfy both parties: the providers and tenants. To do so, ARAAC deploys the Second Best-Price (SBP) mechanism along with a behavioral-based reputation model. The reputation is built according to the tenants’ utilization history throughout their previous service allocations. The reputation records along with the adoption of the SBP mechanism allows for a locally free-equilibrium approach that allocates the available cloud-DCN resources in an efficient and fair manner. In ARAAC, through an auction scenario, tenants with positive reputation records are awarded by having the required resources allocated at prices that are lower than what they have offered. Compared to other benchmark models, simulation results show that ARAAC can efficiently adapt the behavior of those rational service-tenants to provide for better use of the cloud resources, with an increase in the providers’ profits. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Local Path Planning of Driverless Car Navigation Based on Jump Point Search Method Under Urban Environment
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 51; doi:10.3390/fi9030051 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
PDF Full-text (4523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Jump Point Search (JPS) algorithm is adopted for local path planning of the driverless car under urban environment, and it is a fast search method applied in path planning. Firstly, a vector Geographic Information System (GIS) map, including Global Positioning System (GPS)
[...] Read more.
The Jump Point Search (JPS) algorithm is adopted for local path planning of the driverless car under urban environment, and it is a fast search method applied in path planning. Firstly, a vector Geographic Information System (GIS) map, including Global Positioning System (GPS) position, direction, and lane information, is built for global path planning. Secondly, the GIS map database is utilized in global path planning for the driverless car. Then, the JPS algorithm is adopted to avoid the front obstacle, and to find an optimal local path for the driverless car in the urban environment. Finally, 125 different simulation experiments in the urban environment demonstrate that JPS can search out the optimal and safety path successfully, and meanwhile, it has a lower time complexity compared with the Vector Field Histogram (VFH), the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT), A*, and the Probabilistic Roadmaps (PRM) algorithms. Furthermore, JPS is validated usefully in the structured urban environment. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design for Children’s Playful Learning with Robots
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 52; doi:10.3390/fi9030052
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
PDF Full-text (4312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents an investigation of the implications of designing for children’s playful learning with robots. This study was carried out by adopting a Research through Design approach that resulted in the development of a novel low-anthropomorphic robot called Shybo. The article reports
[...] Read more.
This article presents an investigation of the implications of designing for children’s playful learning with robots. This study was carried out by adopting a Research through Design approach that resulted in the development of a novel low-anthropomorphic robot called Shybo. The article reports the main phases of the project: the preliminary and exploratory research that was carried out to define a list of design requirements; the design of the robot and its supplementary materials for carrying out playful learning experiences; and the evaluation of the project that involved both parents and children. The robot, in fact, was finally tested as part of a two-hour experience that engaged children in activities related to the associations between sounds and colours. The article presents and discusses the results of this evaluation to point out positive aspects of the experience, emerging issues and hints for future works. These are documented to share lessons learned that might be supportive of the general development of children’s playful learning and cognitive experiences with robots. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Towards a New Digital Era: Observing Local E-Government Services Adoption in a Chinese Municipality
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 53; doi:10.3390/fi9030053 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
PDF Full-text (2675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As electronic government services (e-government) evolve, traditional applications such as online portals are encountering challenges in a new digital era in which people thirst for more convenient, diverse channels of communication with their government. Despite the efforts devoted to the promotion of Social
[...] Read more.
As electronic government services (e-government) evolve, traditional applications such as online portals are encountering challenges in a new digital era in which people thirst for more convenient, diverse channels of communication with their government. Despite the efforts devoted to the promotion of Social Networking Service (SNS) use in e-government for the past few years, empirical studies regarding this ongoing trend are still insufficient. In the local administration of China, a special collaboration between local governments and private Internet enterprises is happening: government services are imported into commercial SNS platforms known as WeChat and Weibo. This research conducts a case study of a Chinese municipality premised upon survey data (N = 605) collected in Chongqing. It examines the determinants of e-services adoption in four major local applications: two traditional government-led services “Government website portal” and “Government official app” (traditional government-led services), and two built-in government services on social networking applications “Weibo Government official account” “WeChat Public Services”. The paper aims to provide a closer understanding of current trends in local government e-services, or in this case, an innovative trial of Chinese e-government practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue u- and e- Service, Science and Technology)
Figures

Figure 1

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Future Internet Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Future Internet Edit a special issue Review for Future Internet
logo
loading...
Back to Top