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Future Internet, Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Energy-Aware Adaptive Weighted Grid Clustering Algorithm for Renewable Wireless Sensor Networks
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 54; doi:10.3390/fi9040054
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
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Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), built from many battery-operated sensor nodes are distributed in the environment for monitoring and data acquisition. Subsequent to the deployment of sensor nodes, the most challenging and daunting task is to enhance the energy resources for the lifetime performance
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), built from many battery-operated sensor nodes are distributed in the environment for monitoring and data acquisition. Subsequent to the deployment of sensor nodes, the most challenging and daunting task is to enhance the energy resources for the lifetime performance of the entire WSN. In this study, we have attempted an approach based on the shortest path algorithm and grid clustering to save and renew power in a way that minimizes energy consumption and prolongs the overall network lifetime of WSNs. Initially, a wireless portable charging device (WPCD) is assumed which periodically travels on our proposed routing path among the nodes of the WSN to decrease their charge cycle time and recharge them with the help of wireless power transfer (WPT). Further, a scheduling scheme is proposed which creates clusters of WSNs. These clusters elect a cluster head among them based on the residual energy, buffer size, and distance of the head from each node of the cluster. The cluster head performs all data routing duties for all its member nodes to conserve the energy supposed to be consumed by member nodes. Furthermore, we compare our technique with the available literature by simulation, and the results showed a significant increase in the vacation time of the nodes of WSNs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Botnet Detection Technology Based on DNS
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 55; doi:10.3390/fi9040055
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
With the help of botnets, intruders can implement a remote control on infected machines and perform various malicious actions. Domain Name System (DNS) is very famous for botnets to locate command and control (C and C) servers, which enormously strengthens a botnet’s survivability
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With the help of botnets, intruders can implement a remote control on infected machines and perform various malicious actions. Domain Name System (DNS) is very famous for botnets to locate command and control (C and C) servers, which enormously strengthens a botnet’s survivability to evade detection. This paper focuses on evasion and detection techniques of DNS-based botnets and gives a review of this field for a general summary of all these contributions. Some important topics, including technological background, evasion and detection, and alleviation of botnets, are discussed. We also point out the future research direction of detecting and mitigating DNS-based botnets. To the best of our knowledge, this topic gives a specialized and systematic study of the DNS-based botnet evading and detecting techniques in a new era and is useful for researchers in related fields. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle TSKT-ORAM: A Two-Server k-ary Tree Oblivious RAM without Homomorphic Encryption
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 57; doi:10.3390/fi9040057
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes TSKT-oblivious RAM (ORAM), an efficient multi-server ORAM construction, to protect a client’s access pattern to outsourced data. TSKT-ORAM organizes each of the server storages as a k-ary tree and adopts XOR-based private information retrieval (PIR) and a novel delayed
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This paper proposes TSKT-oblivious RAM (ORAM), an efficient multi-server ORAM construction, to protect a client’s access pattern to outsourced data. TSKT-ORAM organizes each of the server storages as a k-ary tree and adopts XOR-based private information retrieval (PIR) and a novel delayed eviction technique to optimize both the data query and data eviction process. TSKT-ORAM is proven to protect the data access pattern privacy with a failure probability of 2 - 80 when system parameter k 128 . Meanwhile, given a constant-size local storage, when N (i.e., the total number of outsourced data blocks) ranges from 2 16 2 34 , the communication cost of TSKT-ORAM is only 22–46 data blocks. Asymptotic analysis and practical comparisons are conducted to show that TSKT-ORAM incurs lower communication cost, storage cost and access delay in practical scenarios than the compared state-of-the-art ORAM schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Systems Security)
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Open AccessArticle Access Control with Delegated Authorization Policy Evaluation for Data-Driven Microservice Workflows
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 58; doi:10.3390/fi9040058
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
Microservices offer a compelling competitive advantage for building data flow systems as a choreography of self-contained data endpoints that each implement a specific data processing functionality. Such a ‘single responsibility principle’ design makes them well suited for constructing scalable and flexible data integration
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Microservices offer a compelling competitive advantage for building data flow systems as a choreography of self-contained data endpoints that each implement a specific data processing functionality. Such a ‘single responsibility principle’ design makes them well suited for constructing scalable and flexible data integration and real-time data flow applications. In this paper, we investigate microservice based data processing workflows from a security point of view, i.e., (1) how to constrain data processing workflows with respect to dynamic authorization policies granting or denying access to certain microservice results depending on the flow of the data; (2) how to let multiple microservices contribute to a collective data-driven authorization decision and (3) how to put adequate measures in place such that the data within each individual microservice is protected against illegitimate access from unauthorized users or other microservices. Due to this multifold objective, enforcing access control on the data endpoints to prevent information leakage or preserve one’s privacy becomes far more challenging, as authorization policies can have dependencies and decision outcomes cross-cutting data in multiple microservices. To address this challenge, we present and evaluate a workflow-oriented authorization framework that enforces authorization policies in a decentralized manner and where the delegated policy evaluation leverages feature toggles that are managed at runtime by software circuit breakers to secure the distributed data processing workflows. The benefit of our solution is that, on the one hand, authorization policies restrict access to the data endpoints of the microservices, and on the other hand, microservices can safely rely on other data endpoints to collectively evaluate cross-cutting access control decisions without having to rely on a shared storage backend holding all the necessary information for the policy evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Extensions and Enhancements to “the Secure Remote Update Protocol”
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 59; doi:10.3390/fi9040059
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper builds on previous work introducing the Secure Remote Update Protocol (SRUP), a secure communications protocol for Command and Control applications in the Internet of Things, built on top of MQTT. This paper builds on the original protocol and introduces a number
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This paper builds on previous work introducing the Secure Remote Update Protocol (SRUP), a secure communications protocol for Command and Control applications in the Internet of Things, built on top of MQTT. This paper builds on the original protocol and introduces a number of additional message types: adding additional capabilities to the protocol. We also discuss the difficulty of proving that a physical device has an identity corresponding to a logical device on the network and propose a mechanism to overcome this within the protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Security and Privacy)
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Open AccessArticle A Design Space for Virtuality-Introduced Internet of Things
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 60; doi:10.3390/fi9040060
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
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Abstract
Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies have been dramatically expanded in recent years. In the near future, we expect that diverse digital services that employ Internet of Things (IoT) technologies enhanced with AR and VR will become more popular. Advanced information
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Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies have been dramatically expanded in recent years. In the near future, we expect that diverse digital services that employ Internet of Things (IoT) technologies enhanced with AR and VR will become more popular. Advanced information technologies will enable the physical world to be fused with the virtual world. These digital services will be advanced via virtuality, which means that things that do not physically exist make people believe in their existence. We propose a design space for digital services that are enhanced via virtuality based on insights extracted from three case studies that we have developed and from discussions in focus groups that analyze how existing commercial IoT products proposed in a commercial crowdfunding platform, Kickstarter, could be enhanced through virtuality. The derived design space offers three dimensions to design a digital service to fuse IoT technologies with virtuality: (1) Taxonomy of IoT; (2) Visualizing Level, and (3) Virtuality Level. The design space will help IoT-based digital service designers to develop advanced future IoT products that incorporate virtuality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Internet of Thing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Integrated Dictionary-Learning Entropy-Based Medical Image Fusion Framework
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 61; doi:10.3390/fi9040061
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
Image fusion is widely used in different areas and can integrate complementary and relevant information of source images captured by multiple sensors into a unitary synthetic image. Medical image fusion, as an important image fusion application, can extract the details of multiple images
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Image fusion is widely used in different areas and can integrate complementary and relevant information of source images captured by multiple sensors into a unitary synthetic image. Medical image fusion, as an important image fusion application, can extract the details of multiple images from different imaging modalities and combine them into an image that contains complete and non-redundant information for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnosis and assessment. The quality of the fused image directly affects medical diagnosis and assessment. However, existing solutions have some drawbacks in contrast, sharpness, brightness, blur and details. This paper proposes an integrated dictionary-learning and entropy-based medical image-fusion framework that consists of three steps. First, the input image information is decomposed into low-frequency and high-frequency components by using a Gaussian filter. Second, low-frequency components are fused by weighted average algorithm and high-frequency components are fused by the dictionary-learning based algorithm. In the dictionary-learning process of high-frequency components, an entropy-based algorithm is used for informative blocks selection. Third, the fused low-frequency and high-frequency components are combined to obtain the final fusion results. The results and analyses of comparative experiments demonstrate that the proposed medical image fusion framework has better performance than existing solutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Practical Resource Management Scheme for Cellular Underlaid D2D Networks
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 62; doi:10.3390/fi9040062
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we investigate a resource management scheme for cellular underlaid device-to-device (D2D) communications, which are an integral part of mobile caching networks. D2D communications are allowed to share radio resources with cellular communications as long as the generating interference of D2D
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In this paper, we investigate a resource management scheme for cellular underlaid device-to-device (D2D) communications, which are an integral part of mobile caching networks. D2D communications are allowed to share radio resources with cellular communications as long as the generating interference of D2D communications satisfies an interference constraint to secure cellular communications. Contrary to most of the other studies, we propose a distributed resource management scheme for cellular underlaid D2D communications focusing on a practical feasibility. In the proposed scheme, the feedback of channel information is not required because all D2D transmitters use a fixed transmit power and every D2D transmitter determines when to transmit data on its own without centralized control. We analyze the average sum-rates to evaluate the proposed scheme and compare them with optimal values, which can be achieved when a central controller has the perfect entire channel information and the full control of all D2D communications. Our numerical results show that the average sum-rates of the proposed scheme approach the optimal values in low or high signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) regions. In particular, the proposed scheme achieves almost optimal average sum-rates in the entire SNR values in practical environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Collaborative Web Service Discovery and Recommendation Based on Social Link
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 63; doi:10.3390/fi9040063
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
With the increasing application of web services in varying fields, the demand of effective Web service discovery approaches is becoming unprecedentedly strong. To improve the performance of service discovery, this paper proposes a collaborative Web service discovery and recommendation mechanism based on social
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With the increasing application of web services in varying fields, the demand of effective Web service discovery approaches is becoming unprecedentedly strong. To improve the performance of service discovery, this paper proposes a collaborative Web service discovery and recommendation mechanism based on social link by extracting the latent relationships behind users and services. The presented approach can generate a set of candidate services through a complementary manner, in which service discovery and service recommendation could collaborate according to the formalized social link. The experimental results reveal that the proposed mechanism can effectively improve the efficiency and precision of Web service discovery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle IAACaaS: IoT Application-Scoped Access Control as a Service
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 64; doi:10.3390/fi9040064
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
access control is a key element when guaranteeing the security of online services. However, devices that make the Internet of Things have some special requirements that foster new approaches to access control mechanisms. Their low computing capabilities impose limitations that make traditional paradigms
[...] Read more.
access control is a key element when guaranteeing the security of online services. However, devices that make the Internet of Things have some special requirements that foster new approaches to access control mechanisms. Their low computing capabilities impose limitations that make traditional paradigms not directly applicable to sensors and actuators. In this paper, we propose a dynamic, scalable, IoT-ready model that is based on the OAuth 2.0 protocol and that allows the complete delegation of authorization, so that an as a service access control mechanism is provided. Multiple tenants are also supported by means of application-scoped authorization policies, whose roles and permissions are fine-grained enough to provide the desired flexibility of configuration. Besides, OAuth 2.0 ensures interoperability with the rest of the Internet, yet preserving the computing constraints of IoT devices, because its tokens provide all the necessary information to perform authorization. The proposed model has been fully implemented in an open-source solution and also deeply validated in the scope of FIWARE, a European project with thousands of users, the goal of which is to provide a framework for developing smart applications and services for the future Internet. We provide the details of the deployed infrastructure and offer the analysis of a sample smart city setup that takes advantage of the model. We conclude that the proposed solution enables a new access control as a service paradigm that satisfies the special requirements of IoT devices in terms of performance, scalability and interoperability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Security and Privacy)
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Open AccessArticle An Effective Grouping Method for Privacy-Preserving Bike Sharing Data Publishing
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 65; doi:10.3390/fi9040065
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Bike sharing programs are eco-friendly transportation systems that are widespread in smart city environments. In this paper, we study the problem of privacy-preserving bike sharing microdata publishing. Bike sharing systems collect visiting information along with user identity and make it public by removing
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Bike sharing programs are eco-friendly transportation systems that are widespread in smart city environments. In this paper, we study the problem of privacy-preserving bike sharing microdata publishing. Bike sharing systems collect visiting information along with user identity and make it public by removing the user identity. Even after excluding user identification, the published bike sharing dataset will not be protected against privacy disclosure risks. An adversary may arrange published datasets based on bike’s visiting information to breach a user’s privacy. In this paper, we propose a grouping based anonymization method to protect published bike sharing dataset from linking attacks. The proposed Grouping method ensures that the published bike sharing microdata will be protected from disclosure risks. Experimental results show that our approach can protect user privacy in the released datasets from disclosure risks and can keep more data utility compared with existing methods. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Review on Semi-Fragile Watermarking Algorithms for Content Authentication of Digital Images
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 56; doi:10.3390/fi9040056
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
With the popularity of network and the continuous development of multimedia technology, saving of network bandwidth and copyright protection of multimedia content have gradually attracted people’s attention. The fragile watermark for integrity authentication of image data and protection of copyright has become a
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With the popularity of network and the continuous development of multimedia technology, saving of network bandwidth and copyright protection of multimedia content have gradually attracted people’s attention. The fragile watermark for integrity authentication of image data and protection of copyright has become a hotspot. In the storage and transmission process, image data must be compressed to save network bandwidth. As a result, semi-fragile watermarking techniques, which can be used to distinguish common image processing operations from malicious tampering, are emerging. In this paper, semi-fragile watermarking algorithms for image authentication are surveyed. The basic principles and characteristics about semi-fragile watermarking algorithms are introduced, and several kinds of attack behaviors are also included. Aiming at several typical image-authentication algorithms, advantages and disadvantages are analyzed, and evaluation indexes of various algorithms are compared. Finally, we analyze the key points and difficulties in the study on semi-fragile watermarking algorithms, and the direction about future development is prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Systems Security)
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