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Future Internet, Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Energy-Aware Adaptive Weighted Grid Clustering Algorithm for Renewable Wireless Sensor Networks
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 54; doi:10.3390/fi9040054
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
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Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), built from many battery-operated sensor nodes are distributed in the environment for monitoring and data acquisition. Subsequent to the deployment of sensor nodes, the most challenging and daunting task is to enhance the energy resources for the lifetime performance
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), built from many battery-operated sensor nodes are distributed in the environment for monitoring and data acquisition. Subsequent to the deployment of sensor nodes, the most challenging and daunting task is to enhance the energy resources for the lifetime performance of the entire WSN. In this study, we have attempted an approach based on the shortest path algorithm and grid clustering to save and renew power in a way that minimizes energy consumption and prolongs the overall network lifetime of WSNs. Initially, a wireless portable charging device (WPCD) is assumed which periodically travels on our proposed routing path among the nodes of the WSN to decrease their charge cycle time and recharge them with the help of wireless power transfer (WPT). Further, a scheduling scheme is proposed which creates clusters of WSNs. These clusters elect a cluster head among them based on the residual energy, buffer size, and distance of the head from each node of the cluster. The cluster head performs all data routing duties for all its member nodes to conserve the energy supposed to be consumed by member nodes. Furthermore, we compare our technique with the available literature by simulation, and the results showed a significant increase in the vacation time of the nodes of WSNs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Botnet Detection Technology Based on DNS
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 55; doi:10.3390/fi9040055
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
With the help of botnets, intruders can implement a remote control on infected machines and perform various malicious actions. Domain Name System (DNS) is very famous for botnets to locate command and control (C and C) servers, which enormously strengthens a botnet’s survivability
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With the help of botnets, intruders can implement a remote control on infected machines and perform various malicious actions. Domain Name System (DNS) is very famous for botnets to locate command and control (C and C) servers, which enormously strengthens a botnet’s survivability to evade detection. This paper focuses on evasion and detection techniques of DNS-based botnets and gives a review of this field for a general summary of all these contributions. Some important topics, including technological background, evasion and detection, and alleviation of botnets, are discussed. We also point out the future research direction of detecting and mitigating DNS-based botnets. To the best of our knowledge, this topic gives a specialized and systematic study of the DNS-based botnet evading and detecting techniques in a new era and is useful for researchers in related fields. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle TSKT-ORAM: A Two-Server k-ary Tree Oblivious RAM without Homomorphic Encryption
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 57; doi:10.3390/fi9040057
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper proposes TSKT-oblivious RAM (ORAM), an efficient multi-server ORAM construction, to protect a client’s access pattern to outsourced data. TSKT-ORAM organizes each of the server storages as a k-ary tree and adopts XOR-based private information retrieval (PIR) and a novel delayed
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This paper proposes TSKT-oblivious RAM (ORAM), an efficient multi-server ORAM construction, to protect a client’s access pattern to outsourced data. TSKT-ORAM organizes each of the server storages as a k-ary tree and adopts XOR-based private information retrieval (PIR) and a novel delayed eviction technique to optimize both the data query and data eviction process. TSKT-ORAM is proven to protect the data access pattern privacy with a failure probability of 2 - 80 when system parameter k 128 . Meanwhile, given a constant-size local storage, when N (i.e., the total number of outsourced data blocks) ranges from 2 16 2 34 , the communication cost of TSKT-ORAM is only 22–46 data blocks. Asymptotic analysis and practical comparisons are conducted to show that TSKT-ORAM incurs lower communication cost, storage cost and access delay in practical scenarios than the compared state-of-the-art ORAM schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Information Systems Security)
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Open AccessArticle Access Control with Delegated Authorization Policy Evaluation for Data-Driven Microservice Workflows
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 58; doi:10.3390/fi9040058
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
Microservices offer a compelling competitive advantage for building data flow systems as a choreography of self-contained data endpoints that each implement a specific data processing functionality. Such a ‘single responsibility principle’ design makes them well suited for constructing scalable and flexible data integration
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Microservices offer a compelling competitive advantage for building data flow systems as a choreography of self-contained data endpoints that each implement a specific data processing functionality. Such a ‘single responsibility principle’ design makes them well suited for constructing scalable and flexible data integration and real-time data flow applications. In this paper, we investigate microservice based data processing workflows from a security point of view, i.e., (1) how to constrain data processing workflows with respect to dynamic authorization policies granting or denying access to certain microservice results depending on the flow of the data; (2) how to let multiple microservices contribute to a collective data-driven authorization decision and (3) how to put adequate measures in place such that the data within each individual microservice is protected against illegitimate access from unauthorized users or other microservices. Due to this multifold objective, enforcing access control on the data endpoints to prevent information leakage or preserve one’s privacy becomes far more challenging, as authorization policies can have dependencies and decision outcomes cross-cutting data in multiple microservices. To address this challenge, we present and evaluate a workflow-oriented authorization framework that enforces authorization policies in a decentralized manner and where the delegated policy evaluation leverages feature toggles that are managed at runtime by software circuit breakers to secure the distributed data processing workflows. The benefit of our solution is that, on the one hand, authorization policies restrict access to the data endpoints of the microservices, and on the other hand, microservices can safely rely on other data endpoints to collectively evaluate cross-cutting access control decisions without having to rely on a shared storage backend holding all the necessary information for the policy evaluation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Extensions and Enhancements to “the Secure Remote Update Protocol”
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 59; doi:10.3390/fi9040059
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
This paper builds on previous work introducing the Secure Remote Update Protocol (SRUP), a secure communications protocol for Command and Control applications in the Internet of Things, built on top of MQTT. This paper builds on the original protocol and introduces a number
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This paper builds on previous work introducing the Secure Remote Update Protocol (SRUP), a secure communications protocol for Command and Control applications in the Internet of Things, built on top of MQTT. This paper builds on the original protocol and introduces a number of additional message types: adding additional capabilities to the protocol. We also discuss the difficulty of proving that a physical device has an identity corresponding to a logical device on the network and propose a mechanism to overcome this within the protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Security and Privacy)
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Open AccessArticle A Design Space for Virtuality-Introduced Internet of Things
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 60; doi:10.3390/fi9040060
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
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Abstract
Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies have been dramatically expanded in recent years. In the near future, we expect that diverse digital services that employ Internet of Things (IoT) technologies enhanced with AR and VR will become more popular. Advanced information
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Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies have been dramatically expanded in recent years. In the near future, we expect that diverse digital services that employ Internet of Things (IoT) technologies enhanced with AR and VR will become more popular. Advanced information technologies will enable the physical world to be fused with the virtual world. These digital services will be advanced via virtuality, which means that things that do not physically exist make people believe in their existence. We propose a design space for digital services that are enhanced via virtuality based on insights extracted from three case studies that we have developed and from discussions in focus groups that analyze how existing commercial IoT products proposed in a commercial crowdfunding platform, Kickstarter, could be enhanced through virtuality. The derived design space offers three dimensions to design a digital service to fuse IoT technologies with virtuality: (1) Taxonomy of IoT; (2) Visualizing Level, and (3) Virtuality Level. The design space will help IoT-based digital service designers to develop advanced future IoT products that incorporate virtuality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Internet of Thing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Integrated Dictionary-Learning Entropy-Based Medical Image Fusion Framework
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 61; doi:10.3390/fi9040061
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
Image fusion is widely used in different areas and can integrate complementary and relevant information of source images captured by multiple sensors into a unitary synthetic image. Medical image fusion, as an important image fusion application, can extract the details of multiple images
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Image fusion is widely used in different areas and can integrate complementary and relevant information of source images captured by multiple sensors into a unitary synthetic image. Medical image fusion, as an important image fusion application, can extract the details of multiple images from different imaging modalities and combine them into an image that contains complete and non-redundant information for increasing the accuracy of medical diagnosis and assessment. The quality of the fused image directly affects medical diagnosis and assessment. However, existing solutions have some drawbacks in contrast, sharpness, brightness, blur and details. This paper proposes an integrated dictionary-learning and entropy-based medical image-fusion framework that consists of three steps. First, the input image information is decomposed into low-frequency and high-frequency components by using a Gaussian filter. Second, low-frequency components are fused by weighted average algorithm and high-frequency components are fused by the dictionary-learning based algorithm. In the dictionary-learning process of high-frequency components, an entropy-based algorithm is used for informative blocks selection. Third, the fused low-frequency and high-frequency components are combined to obtain the final fusion results. The results and analyses of comparative experiments demonstrate that the proposed medical image fusion framework has better performance than existing solutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Practical Resource Management Scheme for Cellular Underlaid D2D Networks
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 62; doi:10.3390/fi9040062
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we investigate a resource management scheme for cellular underlaid device-to-device (D2D) communications, which are an integral part of mobile caching networks. D2D communications are allowed to share radio resources with cellular communications as long as the generating interference of D2D
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In this paper, we investigate a resource management scheme for cellular underlaid device-to-device (D2D) communications, which are an integral part of mobile caching networks. D2D communications are allowed to share radio resources with cellular communications as long as the generating interference of D2D communications satisfies an interference constraint to secure cellular communications. Contrary to most of the other studies, we propose a distributed resource management scheme for cellular underlaid D2D communications focusing on a practical feasibility. In the proposed scheme, the feedback of channel information is not required because all D2D transmitters use a fixed transmit power and every D2D transmitter determines when to transmit data on its own without centralized control. We analyze the average sum-rates to evaluate the proposed scheme and compare them with optimal values, which can be achieved when a central controller has the perfect entire channel information and the full control of all D2D communications. Our numerical results show that the average sum-rates of the proposed scheme approach the optimal values in low or high signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) regions. In particular, the proposed scheme achieves almost optimal average sum-rates in the entire SNR values in practical environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Collaborative Web Service Discovery and Recommendation Based on Social Link
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 63; doi:10.3390/fi9040063
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
With the increasing application of web services in varying fields, the demand of effective Web service discovery approaches is becoming unprecedentedly strong. To improve the performance of service discovery, this paper proposes a collaborative Web service discovery and recommendation mechanism based on social
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With the increasing application of web services in varying fields, the demand of effective Web service discovery approaches is becoming unprecedentedly strong. To improve the performance of service discovery, this paper proposes a collaborative Web service discovery and recommendation mechanism based on social link by extracting the latent relationships behind users and services. The presented approach can generate a set of candidate services through a complementary manner, in which service discovery and service recommendation could collaborate according to the formalized social link. The experimental results reveal that the proposed mechanism can effectively improve the efficiency and precision of Web service discovery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle IAACaaS: IoT Application-Scoped Access Control as a Service
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 64; doi:10.3390/fi9040064
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
access control is a key element when guaranteeing the security of online services. However, devices that make the Internet of Things have some special requirements that foster new approaches to access control mechanisms. Their low computing capabilities impose limitations that make traditional paradigms
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access control is a key element when guaranteeing the security of online services. However, devices that make the Internet of Things have some special requirements that foster new approaches to access control mechanisms. Their low computing capabilities impose limitations that make traditional paradigms not directly applicable to sensors and actuators. In this paper, we propose a dynamic, scalable, IoT-ready model that is based on the OAuth 2.0 protocol and that allows the complete delegation of authorization, so that an as a service access control mechanism is provided. Multiple tenants are also supported by means of application-scoped authorization policies, whose roles and permissions are fine-grained enough to provide the desired flexibility of configuration. Besides, OAuth 2.0 ensures interoperability with the rest of the Internet, yet preserving the computing constraints of IoT devices, because its tokens provide all the necessary information to perform authorization. The proposed model has been fully implemented in an open-source solution and also deeply validated in the scope of FIWARE, a European project with thousands of users, the goal of which is to provide a framework for developing smart applications and services for the future Internet. We provide the details of the deployed infrastructure and offer the analysis of a sample smart city setup that takes advantage of the model. We conclude that the proposed solution enables a new access control as a service paradigm that satisfies the special requirements of IoT devices in terms of performance, scalability and interoperability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT Security and Privacy)
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Open AccessArticle An Effective Grouping Method for Privacy-Preserving Bike Sharing Data Publishing
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 65; doi:10.3390/fi9040065
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Bike sharing programs are eco-friendly transportation systems that are widespread in smart city environments. In this paper, we study the problem of privacy-preserving bike sharing microdata publishing. Bike sharing systems collect visiting information along with user identity and make it public by removing
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Bike sharing programs are eco-friendly transportation systems that are widespread in smart city environments. In this paper, we study the problem of privacy-preserving bike sharing microdata publishing. Bike sharing systems collect visiting information along with user identity and make it public by removing the user identity. Even after excluding user identification, the published bike sharing dataset will not be protected against privacy disclosure risks. An adversary may arrange published datasets based on bike’s visiting information to breach a user’s privacy. In this paper, we propose a grouping based anonymization method to protect published bike sharing dataset from linking attacks. The proposed Grouping method ensures that the published bike sharing microdata will be protected from disclosure risks. Experimental results show that our approach can protect user privacy in the released datasets from disclosure risks and can keep more data utility compared with existing methods. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Deep Classifiers-Based License Plate Detection, Localization and Recognition on GPU-Powered Mobile Platform
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 66; doi:10.3390/fi9040066
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
The realization of a deep neural architecture on a mobile platform is challenging, but can open up a number of possibilities for visual analysis applications. A neural network can be realized on a mobile platform by exploiting the computational power of the embedded
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The realization of a deep neural architecture on a mobile platform is challenging, but can open up a number of possibilities for visual analysis applications. A neural network can be realized on a mobile platform by exploiting the computational power of the embedded GPU and simplifying the flow of a neural architecture trained on the desktop workstation or a GPU server. This paper presents an embedded platform-based Italian license plate detection and recognition system using deep neural classifiers. In this work, trained parameters of a highly precise automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) system are imported and used to replicate the same neural classifiers on a Nvidia Shield K1 tablet. A CUDA-based framework is used to realize these neural networks. The flow of the trained architecture is simplified to perform the license plate recognition in real-time. Results show that the tasks of plate and character detection and localization can be performed in real-time on a mobile platform by simplifying the flow of the trained architecture. However, the accuracy of the simplified architecture would be decreased accordingly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle SDMw: Secure Dynamic Middleware for Defeating Port and OS Scanning
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 67; doi:10.3390/fi9040067
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
Fingerprinting is a process of identifying the remote network devices and services running on the devices, including operating systems (OS) of the devices, and hosts running different OSs. Several research proposals and commercial products are available in the market to defeat fingerprinting. However,
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Fingerprinting is a process of identifying the remote network devices and services running on the devices, including operating systems (OS) of the devices, and hosts running different OSs. Several research proposals and commercial products are available in the market to defeat fingerprinting. However, they have performance limitations and expose themselves to attackers. In this paper, we utilize some real-time fault-tolerance concepts (viz. real-time/dynamic, detection/locating, confinement/localizing and masking/decoy) to propose a plug-and-play adaptive middleware architecture called Secure Dynamic Middleware (SDMw) with a view to defeat attackers fingerprinting the network, without exposing itself to the attackers. We verify that the proposed scheme works seamlessly and requires zero-configuration at the client side. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Challenges When Using Jurimetrics in Brazil—A Survey of Courts
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 68; doi:10.3390/fi9040068
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
Jurimetrics is the application of quantitative methods, usually statistics, to law. An important step to implement a jurimetric analysis is to extract raw data from courts and organize that data in a way that can be processed. Most of the raw data is
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Jurimetrics is the application of quantitative methods, usually statistics, to law. An important step to implement a jurimetric analysis is to extract raw data from courts and organize that data in a way that can be processed. Most of the raw data is unstructured and written in natural language, which stands as a challenge to Computer Science experts. As it requires expertise in law, statistics, and computer science, jurimetrics is a multidisciplinary field. When trying to implement a jurimetric system in Brazil, additional challenges were identified due to the heterogeneity of the different court systems, the lack of standards, and how the open data laws in Brazil are interpreted and implemented. In this article, we present a survey of Brazilian courts in terms of readiness to implement a jurimetric system. Analyzing a sample of data, we have found, in light of Brazil’s open data regulation, privacy issues and technical issues. Finally, we propose a roadmap that encompasses both technology and public policy to meet those challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Signal Consensus in TSP of the Same Grid in Road Network
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 69; doi:10.3390/fi9040069
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we propose a consensus algorithm with input constraints for traffic light signals in transit signal priority (TSP). TSP ensures control strategy of traffic light signals can be adjusted and applied according to the real-time traffic status, and provides priority for
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In this paper, we propose a consensus algorithm with input constraints for traffic light signals in transit signal priority (TSP). TSP ensures control strategy of traffic light signals can be adjusted and applied according to the real-time traffic status, and provides priority for buses. We give the convergence conditions of the consensus algorithms with and without input constraints in TSP respectively and analyze the convergence performance of them by using matrix theory and graph theory, and PTV-VISSIM is used to simulate the traffic accident probability of three cases at intersections. Simulation results are presented that a consensus is asymptotically reached for all weights of priority; the algorithm with input constraints is more suitable for TSP than the algorithm without input constraints, and the traffic accident rate is reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Computing for Real Time Intelligent Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Data Model Relations in OpenStreetMap
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 70; doi:10.3390/fi9040070
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
The OpenStreetMap (OSM) geographic data model has three principal object types: nodes (points), ways (polygons and polylines), and relations (logical grouping of all three object types to express real-world geographical relationships). While there has been very significant analysis of OSM over the past
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The OpenStreetMap (OSM) geographic data model has three principal object types: nodes (points), ways (polygons and polylines), and relations (logical grouping of all three object types to express real-world geographical relationships). While there has been very significant analysis of OSM over the past decade or so, very little research attention has been given to OSM relations. In this paper, we provide an exploratory overview of relations in OSM for four European cities. In this exploration, we undertake analysis of relations to assess their complexity, composition and flexibility within the OSM data model. We show that some of the patterns discovered by researchers related to OSM nodes and ways also exist in relations. We find some other interesting aspects of relations which we believe can act as a catalyst for a more sustained future research effort on relations in OSM. These aspects include: the potential influence of bulk imports of geographical data to OSM, tagging of relations, and contribution patterns of edits to OSM relations. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle FttC-Based Fronthaul for 5G Dense/Ultra-Dense Access Network: Performance and Costs in Realistic Scenarios
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 71; doi:10.3390/fi9040071
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes) at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to
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One distinctive feature of the next 5G systems is the presence of a dense/ultra-dense wireless access network with a large number of access points (or nodes) at short distances from each other. Dense/ultra-dense access networks allow for providing very high transmission capacity to terminals. However, the deployment of dense/ultra-dense networks is slowed down by the cost of the fiber-based infrastructure required to connect radio nodes to the central processing units and then to the core network. In this paper, we investigate the possibility for existing FttC access networks to provide fronthaul capabilities for dense/ultra-dense 5G wireless networks. The analysis is realistic in that it is carried out considering an actual access network scenario, i.e., the Italian FttC deployment. It is assumed that access nodes are connected to the Cabinets and to the corresponding distributors by a number of copper pairs. Different types of cities grouped in terms of population have been considered. Results focus on fronthaul transport capacity provided by the FttC network and have been expressed in terms of the available fronthaul bit rate per node and of the achievable coverage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Throughput-Aware Cooperative Reinforcement Learning for Adaptive Resource Allocation in Device-to-Device Communication
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 72; doi:10.3390/fi9040072
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an essential feature for the future cellular networks as it increases spectrum efficiency by reusing resources between cellular and D2D users. However, the performance of the overall system can degrade if there is no proper control over interferences produced
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Device-to-device (D2D) communication is an essential feature for the future cellular networks as it increases spectrum efficiency by reusing resources between cellular and D2D users. However, the performance of the overall system can degrade if there is no proper control over interferences produced by the D2D users. Efficient resource allocation among D2D User equipments (UE) in a cellular network is desirable since it helps to provide a suitable interference management system. In this paper, we propose a cooperative reinforcement learning algorithm for adaptive resource allocation, which contributes to improving system throughput. In order to avoid selfish devices, which try to increase the throughput independently, we consider cooperation between devices as promising approach to significantly improve the overall system throughput. We impose cooperation by sharing the value function/learned policies between devices and incorporating a neighboring factor. We incorporate the set of states with the appropriate number of system-defined variables, which increases the observation space and consequently improves the accuracy of the learning algorithm. Finally, we compare our work with existing distributed reinforcement learning and random allocation of resources. Simulation results show that the proposed resource allocation algorithm outperforms both existing methods while varying the number of D2D users and transmission power in terms of overall system throughput, as well as D2D throughput by proper Resource block (RB)-power level combination with fairness measure and improving the Quality of service (QoS) by efficient controlling of the interference level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Quality of Service Based NOMA Group D2D Communications
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 73; doi:10.3390/fi9040073
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) provides superior spectral efficiency and is considered as a promising multiple access scheme for fifth generation (5G) wireless systems. The spectrum efficiency can be further enhanced by enabling device-to-device (D2D) communications. In this work, we propose quality of service
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Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) provides superior spectral efficiency and is considered as a promising multiple access scheme for fifth generation (5G) wireless systems. The spectrum efficiency can be further enhanced by enabling device-to-device (D2D) communications. In this work, we propose quality of service (QoS) based NOMA (Q-NOMA) group D2D communications in which the D2D receivers (DRs) are ordered according to their QoS requirements. We discuss two possible implementations of proposed Q-NOMA group D2D communications based on the two power allocation coefficient policies. In order to capture the key aspects of D2D communications, which are device clustering and spatial separation, we model the locations of D2D transmitters (DTs) by Gauss–Poisson process (GPP). The DRs are then considered to be clustered around DTs. Multiple DTs can exist in proximity of each other. In order to characterize the performance, we derive the Laplace transform of the interference at the probe D2D receiver and obtain a closed-form expression of its outage probability using stochastic geometry tools. The performance of proposed Q-NOMA group D2D communications is then evaluated and benchmarked against conventional paired D2D communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Traffic Engineering Strategies for Improving the Performance of TCP Friendly Rate Control Protocol
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 74; doi:10.3390/fi9040074
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Multimedia services will play a prominent role in the next generation of internet. With increasing real time requirements, internet technology has to provide Quality of Service (QoS) for various kinds of real time streaming services. When the bandwidth required exceeds the available network
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Multimedia services will play a prominent role in the next generation of internet. With increasing real time requirements, internet technology has to provide Quality of Service (QoS) for various kinds of real time streaming services. When the bandwidth required exceeds the available network resources, network paths can get congested, which results in a delay in packet delivery and packet loss. This situation leads to the design of new strategies for congestion avoidance and control. One of the popular and appropriate congestion control mechanisms that is useful in transmitting multimedia applications in the transport layer is TCP Friendly Rate Control Protocol (TFRC). However, TFRC still suffers from packet loss and delay due to long distance heavy traffic and network fluctuations. This paper introduces a number of key concerns like enhanced Round Trip Time (RTT) and Retransmission Time Out (RTO) calculations, Enhanced Average Loss Interval (ALI) methods and improved Time to Live (TTL) features are applied to TFRC to enhance the performance of TFRC over wired networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Computing for Real Time Intelligent Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Creation and Staging of Android Theatre “Sayonara”towards Developing Highly Human-Like Robots
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 75; doi:10.3390/fi9040075
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Even after long-term exposures, androids with a strikingly human-like appearance evoke unnatural feelings. The behavior that would induce human-like feelings after long exposures is difficult to determine, and it often depends on the cultural background of the observers. Therefore, in this study, we
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Even after long-term exposures, androids with a strikingly human-like appearance evoke unnatural feelings. The behavior that would induce human-like feelings after long exposures is difficult to determine, and it often depends on the cultural background of the observers. Therefore, in this study, we generate an acting performance system for the android, in which an android and a human interact in a stage play in the real world. We adopt the theatrical theory called Contemporary Colloquial Theatre Theory to give the android natural behaviors so that audiences can comfortably observe it even after long-minute exposure. A stage play is created and shown in various locations, and the audiences are requested to report their impressions of the stage and their cultural and psychological backgrounds in a self-evaluating questionnaire. Overall analysis indicates that the audience had positive feelings, in terms of attractiveness, towards the android on the stage even after 20 min of exposure. The singularly high acceptance of the android by Japanese audiences seems to be correlated with a high animism tendency, rather than to empathy. We also discuss how the stage play approach is limited and could be extended to contribute to realization of human–robot interaction in the real world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engaging in Interaction with Robots)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Proposed Fuzzy-NN Algorithm with LoRaCommunication Protocol for Clustered Irrigation Systems
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 78; doi:10.3390/fi9040078
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
Modern irrigation systems utilize sensors and actuators, interconnected together as a single entity. In such entities, A.I. algorithms are implemented, which are responsible for the irrigation process. In this paper, the authors present an irrigation Open Watering System (OWS) architecture that spatially clusters
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Modern irrigation systems utilize sensors and actuators, interconnected together as a single entity. In such entities, A.I. algorithms are implemented, which are responsible for the irrigation process. In this paper, the authors present an irrigation Open Watering System (OWS) architecture that spatially clusters the irrigation process into autonomous irrigation sections. Authors’ OWS implementation includes a Neuro-Fuzzy decision algorithm called FITRA, which originates from the Greek word for seed. In this paper, the FITRA algorithm is described in detail, as are experimentation results that indicate significant water conservations from the use of the FITRA algorithm. Furthermore, the authors propose a new communication protocol over LoRa radio as an alternative low-energy and long-range OWS clusters communication mechanism. The experimental scenarios confirm that the FITRA algorithm provides more efficient irrigation on clustered areas than existing non-clustered, time scheduled or threshold adaptive algorithms. This is due to the FITRA algorithm’s frequent monitoring of environmental conditions, fuzzy and neural network adaptation as well as adherence to past irrigation preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Internet of Thing)
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Open AccessArticle Malicious Cognitive User Identification Algorithm in Centralized Spectrum Sensing System
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 79; doi:10.3390/fi9040079
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Collaborative spectral sensing can fuse the perceived results of multiple cognitive users, and thus will improve the accuracy of perceived results. However, the multi-source features of the perceived results result in security problems in the system. When there is a high probability of
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Collaborative spectral sensing can fuse the perceived results of multiple cognitive users, and thus will improve the accuracy of perceived results. However, the multi-source features of the perceived results result in security problems in the system. When there is a high probability of a malicious user attack, the traditional algorithm can correctly identify the malicious users. However, when the probability of attack by malicious users is reduced, it is almost impossible to use the traditional algorithm to correctly distinguish between honest users and malicious users, which greatly reduces the perceived performance. To address the problem above, based on the β function and the feedback iteration mathematical method, this paper proposes a malicious user identification algorithm under multi-channel cooperative conditions (β-MIAMC), which involves comprehensively assessing the cognitive user’s performance on multiple sub-channels to identify the malicious user. Simulation results show under the same attack probability, compared with the traditional algorithm, the β-MIAMC algorithm can more accurately identify the malicious users, reducing the false alarm probability of malicious users by more than 20%. When the attack probability is greater than 7%, the proposed algorithm can identify the malicious users with 100% certainty. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Framework for Cloud Based E-Government from the Perspective of Developing Countries
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 80; doi:10.3390/fi9040080
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Despite significant efforts to initiate electronic government projects, developing countries are still struggling to reap the benefits of using e-government services. An effective implementation of e-government infrastructure is necessary to increase the efficiency and transparency of the government services. There are several studies
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Despite significant efforts to initiate electronic government projects, developing countries are still struggling to reap the benefits of using e-government services. An effective implementation of e-government infrastructure is necessary to increase the efficiency and transparency of the government services. There are several studies that observed causes like lack of infrastructure support, lack of payment gateway and improper e-government service delivery channel as main barriers to a wider adoption of e-government services. The main contribution of this research is to propose a cloud-based G2G (Government-to-government) e-government framework for a viable e-government solution from the perspective of developing countries. We have introduced a list of concepts and a systematic process to guide the implementation of e-government project based on the government’s vision, goals, chosen services through the service delivery channel to the appropriate cloud service and deployment model. We have used Nepal as a context of the case study and applied the framework to a real e-government project of driving licensing department using action research methodology. The results from the study show that the G2G approach of e-government implementation would be the best for providing effective government services to the stakeholders of developing countries. The proposed framework also supports a smooth integration of government services and reduces the time of the overall project. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Network Intrusion Detection through Discriminative Feature Selection by Using Sparse Logistic Regression
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 81; doi:10.3390/fi9040081
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a well-known and effective component of network security that provides transactions upon the network systems with security and safety. Most of earlier research has addressed difficulties such as overfitting, feature redundancy, high-dimensional features and a limited number of
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Intrusion detection system (IDS) is a well-known and effective component of network security that provides transactions upon the network systems with security and safety. Most of earlier research has addressed difficulties such as overfitting, feature redundancy, high-dimensional features and a limited number of training samples but feature selection. We approach the problem of feature selection via sparse logistic regression (SPLR). In this paper, we propose a discriminative feature selection and intrusion classification based on SPLR for IDS. The SPLR is a recently developed technique for data analysis and processing via sparse regularized optimization that selects a small subset from the original feature variables to model the data for the purpose of classification. A linear SPLR model aims to select the discriminative features from the repository of datasets and learns the coefficients of the linear classifier. Compared with the feature selection approaches, like filter (ranking) and wrapper methods that separate the feature selection and classification problems, SPLR can combine feature selection and classification into a unified framework. The experiments in this correspondence demonstrate that the proposed method has better performance than most of the well-known techniques used for intrusion detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Information Systems Security)
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Open AccessArticle A Combinational Buffer Management Scheme in Mobile Opportunistic Network
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 82; doi:10.3390/fi9040082
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
PDF Full-text (913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nodes in Mobile Opportunistic Network (MON) have to cache packets to deal with the intermittent connection. The buffer management strategy obviously impacts the performance of MON, and it attracts more attention recently. Due to the limited storage capacity of nodes, traditional buffer management
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Nodes in Mobile Opportunistic Network (MON) have to cache packets to deal with the intermittent connection. The buffer management strategy obviously impacts the performance of MON, and it attracts more attention recently. Due to the limited storage capacity of nodes, traditional buffer management strategies just drop messages based on the property of message, and they neglect the collaboration between neighbors, resulting in an ineffective performance improvement. Therefore, effective buffer management strategies are necessary to ensure that each node has enough buffer space to store the message when the node buffer is close to congestion. In this paper, we propose a buffer management strategy by integrating the characteristics of messages and nodes, and migrate the redundant messages to the neighbor to optimize the total utility, instead of deleting them. The simulation experiment results show that it can obviously improve the delivery ratio, the overhead ratio and the average delays, and reduce the amount of hops compared with the traditional ones. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Request Expectation Index Based Cache Replacement Algorithm for Streaming Content Delivery over ICN
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 83; doi:10.3390/fi9040083
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Since the content delivery unit over Information-Centric Networking (ICN) has shifted from files to the segments of a file named chunks, solely either file-level or chunk-level request probability is insufficient for ICN cache management. In this paper, a Request Expectation Index (RXI) based
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Since the content delivery unit over Information-Centric Networking (ICN) has shifted from files to the segments of a file named chunks, solely either file-level or chunk-level request probability is insufficient for ICN cache management. In this paper, a Request Expectation Index (RXI) based cache replacement algorithm for streaming content delivery is proposed. In this algorithm, RXI is introduced to serve as a fine-grained and unified estimation criteria of possible future request probability for cached chunks. RXI is customized for streaming content delivery by adopting both file-level and chunk-level request probability and considering the dynamically varied request status at each route as well. Compared to prior work, the proposed algorithm evicts the chunk with the minimum expectation of future request to maintain a high cache utilization. Additionally, simulation results demonstrate that the RXI-based algorithm can remarkably enhance the streaming content delivery performance and can be deployed in complex network scenarios. The proposed results validate that, by taking fine-grained request probability and request status into consideration, the customized in-network caching algorithm can improve the ICN streaming content delivery performance by high cache utilization, fast content delivery, and lower network traffic. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energy-Efficient Resource and Power Allocation for Underlay Multicast Device-to-Device Transmission
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 84; doi:10.3390/fi9040084
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we present an energy-efficient resource allocation and power control scheme for D2D (Device-to-Device) multicasting transmission. The objective is to maximize the overall energy-efficiency of D2D multicast clusters through effective resource allocation and power control schemes, while considering the quality of
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In this paper, we present an energy-efficient resource allocation and power control scheme for D2D (Device-to-Device) multicasting transmission. The objective is to maximize the overall energy-efficiency of D2D multicast clusters through effective resource allocation and power control schemes, while considering the quality of service (QoS) requirements of both cellular users (CUs) and D2D clusters. We first build the optimization model and a heuristic resource and power allocation algorithm is then proposed to solve the energy-efficiency problem with less computational complexity. Numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing schemes in terms of throughput per energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Blockchain-Empowered Fair Computational Resource Sharing System in the D2D Network
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 85; doi:10.3390/fi9040085
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges
[...] Read more.
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is becoming an increasingly important technology in future networks with the climbing demand for local services. For instance, resource sharing in the D2D network features ubiquitous availability, flexibility, low latency and low cost. However, these features also bring along challenges when building a satisfactory resource sharing system in the D2D network. Specifically, user mobility is one of the top concerns for designing a cooperative D2D computational resource sharing system since mutual communication may not be stably available due to user mobility. A previous endeavour has demonstrated and proven how connectivity can be incorporated into cooperative task scheduling among users in the D2D network to effectively lower average task execution time. There are doubts about whether this type of task scheduling scheme, though effective, presents fairness among users. In other words, it can be unfair for users who contribute many computational resources while receiving little when in need. In this paper, we propose a novel blockchain-based credit system that can be incorporated into the connectivity-aware task scheduling scheme to enforce fairness among users in the D2D network. Users’ computational task cooperation will be recorded on the public blockchain ledger in the system as transactions, and each user’s credit balance can be easily accessible from the ledger. A supernode at the base station is responsible for scheduling cooperative computational tasks based on user mobility and user credit balance. We investigated the performance of the credit system, and simulation results showed that with a minor sacrifice of average task execution time, the level of fairness can obtain a major enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Study of Mobility Enhancements for RPL in Convergecast Scenarios
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 86; doi:10.3390/fi9040086
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, mobility support has become an important requirement in various wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. However, due to the strict resource constraints of power, memory, and processing resources in WSNs, routing protocols are mainly designed without considering mobility. Low-Power and Lossy
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In recent years, mobility support has become an important requirement in various wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. However, due to the strict resource constraints of power, memory, and processing resources in WSNs, routing protocols are mainly designed without considering mobility. Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) are a special type of WSNs that tolerate data loss. The Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is a routing protocol for LLNs that adapts IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) and runs on top of the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.15.4 standard. RPL supports multipoint-to-point traffic and point-to-multipoint traffic. In this paper we propose a mobility enhancement mechanism in order to improve data collection applications in highly mobile scenarios. The enhancement is based on signal strength monitoring and depth updating in order to improve the routing protocol performance in mobile scenarios. This enhancement helps routing protocols to cope better with topology changes and makes proactive decisions on updating next-hop neighbours. We integrated this mechanism into the RPL and compared it with other existing RPL mobility support enhancements. Results obtained through simulation using Cooja show that our work outperforms other existing RPL mobility supports on different performance metrics. Results also prove the efficiency of our proposal in highly mobile scenarios. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High-Performance Elastic Management for Cloud Containers Based on Predictive Message Scheduling
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 87; doi:10.3390/fi9040087
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
Containerized data centers can improve the computational density of IaaS layers. This intensive high-concurrency environment has high requirements for message scheduling and container processing. In the paper, an elastically scalable strategy for cloud containers based on predictive message scheduling is introduced, in order
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Containerized data centers can improve the computational density of IaaS layers. This intensive high-concurrency environment has high requirements for message scheduling and container processing. In the paper, an elastically scalable strategy for cloud containers based on predictive message scheduling is introduced, in order to reduce the delay of messages and improve the response time of services and the utilization of container resources. According to the busy degree of different containers, a management strategy of multiple containers at message-granularity level is developed, which gives the containers better elasticity. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy improves service processing efficiency and reduces response latency compared with existing solutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Behavioural Verification: Preventing Report Fraud in Decentralized Advert Distribution Systems
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 88; doi:10.3390/fi9040088
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Service commissions, which are claimed by Ad-Networks and Publishers, are susceptible to forgery as non-human operators are able to artificially create fictitious traffic on digital platforms for the purpose of committing financial fraud. This places a significant strain on Advertisers who have no
[...] Read more.
Service commissions, which are claimed by Ad-Networks and Publishers, are susceptible to forgery as non-human operators are able to artificially create fictitious traffic on digital platforms for the purpose of committing financial fraud. This places a significant strain on Advertisers who have no effective means of differentiating fabricated Ad-Reports from those which correspond to real consumer activity. To address this problem, we contribute an advert reporting system which utilizes opportunistic networking and a blockchain-inspired construction in order to identify authentic Ad-Reports by determining whether they were composed by honest or dishonest users. What constitutes a user’s honesty for our system is the manner in which they access adverts on their mobile device. Dishonest users submit multiple reports over a short period of time while honest users behave as consumers who view adverts at a balanced pace while engaging in typical social activities such as purchasing goods online, moving through space and interacting with other users. We argue that it is hard for dishonest users to fake honest behaviour and we exploit the behavioural patterns of users in order to classify Ad-Reports as real or fabricated. By determining the honesty of the user who submitted a particular report, our system offers a more secure reward-claiming model which protects against fraud while still preserving the user’s anonymity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle An Ontology-Based Approach to Enable Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in Worker–Cobot Agile Manufacturing
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 90; doi:10.3390/fi9040090
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
There is no doubt that the rapid development in robotics technology has dramatically changed the interaction model between the Industrial Robot (IR) and the worker. As the current robotic technology has afforded very reliable means to guarantee the physical safety of the worker
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There is no doubt that the rapid development in robotics technology has dramatically changed the interaction model between the Industrial Robot (IR) and the worker. As the current robotic technology has afforded very reliable means to guarantee the physical safety of the worker during a close proximity interaction with the IR. Therefore, new forms of cooperation between the robot and the worker can now be achieved. Collaborative/Cooperative robotics is the new branch of industrial robotics which empowers the idea of cooperative manufacturing. Cooperative manufacturing significantly depends on the existence of a collaborative/cooperative robot (cobot). A cobot is usually a Light-Weight Robot (LWR) which is capable of operating safely with the human co-worker in a shared work environment. This is in contrast with the conventional IR which can only operate in isolation from the worker workspace, due to the fact that the conventional IR can manipulate very heavy objects, which makes it so dangerous to operate in direct contact with the worker. There is a slight difference between the definition of collaboration and cooperation in robotics. In cooperative robotics, both the worker and the robot are performing tasks over the same product in the same shared workspace but not simultaneously. Collaborative robotics has a similar definition, except that the worker and the robot are performing a simultaneous task. Gathering the worker and the cobot in the same manufacturing workcell can provide an easy and cheap method to flexibly customize the production. Moreover, to adapt with the production demands in the real time of production, without the need to stop or to modify the production operations. There are many challenges and problems that can be addressed in the cooperative manufacturing field. However, one of the most important challenges in this field is the representation of the cooperative manufacturing environment and components. Thus, in order to accomplish the cooperative manufacturing concept, a proper approach is required to describe the shared environment between the worker and the cobot. The cooperative manufacturing shared environment includes the cobot, the co-worker, and other production components such as the product itself. Furthermore, the whole cooperative manufacturing system components need to communicate and share their knowledge, to reason and process the shared information, which eventually gives the control solution the capability of obtaining collective manufacturing decisions. Putting into consideration that the control solution should also provide a natural language which is human readable and in the same time can be understood by the machine (i.e., the cobot). Accordingly, a distributed control solution which combines an ontology-based Multi-Agent System (MAS) and a Business Rule Management System (BRMS) is proposed, in order to solve the mentioned challenges in the cooperative manufacturing, which are: manufacturing knowledge representation, sharing, and reasoning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Throughput and Acceptance Ratio Multipath Routing Algorithm in Cognitive Wireless Mesh Network
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 91; doi:10.3390/fi9040091
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
The link failure due to the secondary users exiting the licensed channels when primary users reoccupy the licensed channels is very important in cognitive wireless mesh networks (CWMNs). A multipath routing and spectrum allocation algorithm based on channel interference and reusability with Quality
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The link failure due to the secondary users exiting the licensed channels when primary users reoccupy the licensed channels is very important in cognitive wireless mesh networks (CWMNs). A multipath routing and spectrum allocation algorithm based on channel interference and reusability with Quality of Service (QoS) constraints in CWMNs (MRIR) was proposed. Maximizing the throughput and the acceptance ratio of the wireless service is the objective of the MRIR. First, a primary path of resource conservation with QoS constraints was constructed, then, a resource conservation backup path based on channel interference and reusability with QoS constraints was constructed. The MRIR algorithm contains the primary path routing and spectrum allocation algorithm, and the backup path routing and spectrum allocation algorithm. The simulation results showed that the MRIR algorithm could achieve the expected goals and could achieve a higher throughput and acceptance ratio. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social-Aware Relay Selection for Cooperative Multicast Device-to-Device Communications
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 92; doi:10.3390/fi9040092
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
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Abstract
The increasing use of social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram to share photos, video streaming, and music among friends has generated a huge increase in the amount of data traffic over wireless networks. This social behavior has triggered new communication paradigms
[...] Read more.
The increasing use of social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram to share photos, video streaming, and music among friends has generated a huge increase in the amount of data traffic over wireless networks. This social behavior has triggered new communication paradigms such as device-to-device (D2D) and relaying communication schemes, which are both considered as strong drivers for the next fifth-generation (5G) cellular systems. Recently, the social-aware layer and its relationship to and influence on the physical communications layer have gained great attention as emerging focus points. We focus here on the case of relaying communications to pursue the multicast data dissemination to a group of users forming a social community through a relay node, according to the extension of the D2D mode to the case of device-to-many devices. Moreover, in our case, the source selects the device to act as the relay among different users of the multicast group by taking into account both the propagation link conditions and the relay social-trust level with the constraint of minimizing the end-to-end content delivery delay. An optimization procedure is also proposed in order to achieve the best performance. Finally, numerical results are provided to highlight the advantages of considering the impact of social level on the end-to-end delivery delay in the integrated social–physical network in comparison with the classical relay-assisted multicast communications for which the relay social-trust level is not considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle How 5G Wireless (and Concomitant Technologies) Will Revolutionize Healthcare?
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 93; doi:10.3390/fi9040093
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
PDF Full-text (1975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The need to have equitable access to quality healthcare is enshrined in the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which defines the developmental agenda of the UN for the next 15 years. In particular, the third SDG focuses on the need to
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The need to have equitable access to quality healthcare is enshrined in the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which defines the developmental agenda of the UN for the next 15 years. In particular, the third SDG focuses on the need to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. In this paper, we build the case that 5G wireless technology, along with concomitant emerging technologies (such as IoT, big data, artificial intelligence and machine learning), will transform global healthcare systems in the near future. Our optimism around 5G-enabled healthcare stems from a confluence of significant technical pushes that are already at play: apart from the availability of high-throughput low-latency wireless connectivity, other significant factors include the democratization of computing through cloud computing; the democratization of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and cognitive computing (e.g., IBM Watson); and the commoditization of data through crowdsourcing and digital exhaust. These technologies together can finally crack a dysfunctional healthcare system that has largely been impervious to technological innovations. We highlight the persistent deficiencies of the current healthcare system and then demonstrate how the 5G-enabled healthcare revolution can fix these deficiencies. We also highlight open technical research challenges, and potential pitfalls, that may hinder the development of such a 5G-enabled health revolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communications and Computing for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Approximate Networking for Universal Internet Access
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 94; doi:10.3390/fi9040094
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
PDF Full-text (2403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the best efforts of networking researchers and practitioners, an ideal Internet experience is inaccessible to an overwhelming majority of people the world over, mainly due to the lack of cost-efficient ways of provisioning high-performance, global Internet. In this paper, we argue that
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Despite the best efforts of networking researchers and practitioners, an ideal Internet experience is inaccessible to an overwhelming majority of people the world over, mainly due to the lack of cost-efficient ways of provisioning high-performance, global Internet. In this paper, we argue that instead of an exclusive focus on a utopian goal of universally accessible “ideal networking” (in which we have a high throughput and quality of service as well as low latency and congestion), we should consider providing “approximate networking” through the adoption of context-appropriate trade-offs. In this regard, we propose to leverage the advances in the emerging trend of “approximate computing” that rely on relaxing the bounds of precise/exact computing to provide new opportunities for improving the area, power, and performance efficiency of systems by orders of magnitude by embracing output errors in resilient applications. Furthermore, we propose to extend the dimensions of approximate computing towards various knobs available at network layers. Approximate networking can be used to provision “Global Access to the Internet for All” (GAIA) in a pragmatically tiered fashion, in which different users around the world are provided a different context-appropriate (but still contextually functional) Internet experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communications and Computing for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Review on Semi-Fragile Watermarking Algorithms for Content Authentication of Digital Images
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 56; doi:10.3390/fi9040056
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
With the popularity of network and the continuous development of multimedia technology, saving of network bandwidth and copyright protection of multimedia content have gradually attracted people’s attention. The fragile watermark for integrity authentication of image data and protection of copyright has become a
[...] Read more.
With the popularity of network and the continuous development of multimedia technology, saving of network bandwidth and copyright protection of multimedia content have gradually attracted people’s attention. The fragile watermark for integrity authentication of image data and protection of copyright has become a hotspot. In the storage and transmission process, image data must be compressed to save network bandwidth. As a result, semi-fragile watermarking techniques, which can be used to distinguish common image processing operations from malicious tampering, are emerging. In this paper, semi-fragile watermarking algorithms for image authentication are surveyed. The basic principles and characteristics about semi-fragile watermarking algorithms are introduced, and several kinds of attack behaviors are also included. Aiming at several typical image-authentication algorithms, advantages and disadvantages are analyzed, and evaluation indexes of various algorithms are compared. Finally, we analyze the key points and difficulties in the study on semi-fragile watermarking algorithms, and the direction about future development is prospected. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Information Systems Security)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Understanding the Digital Marketing Environment with KPIs and Web Analytics
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 76; doi:10.3390/fi9040076
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
In the practice of Digital Marketing (DM), Web Analytics (WA) and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) can and should play an important role in marketing strategy formulation. It is the aim of this article to survey the various DM metrics to determine and address
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In the practice of Digital Marketing (DM), Web Analytics (WA) and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) can and should play an important role in marketing strategy formulation. It is the aim of this article to survey the various DM metrics to determine and address the following question: What are the most relevant metrics and KPIs that companies need to understand and manage in order to increase the effectiveness of their DM strategies? Therefore, to achieve these objectives, a Systematic Literature Review has been carried out based on two main themes (i) Digital Marketing and (ii) Web Analytics. The search terms consulted in the databases have been (i) DM and (ii) WA obtaining a result total of n = 378 investigations. The databases that have been consulted for the extraction of data were Scopus, PubMed, PsyINFO, ScienceDirect and Web of Science. In this study, we define and identify the main KPIs in measuring why, how and for what purpose users interact with web pages and ads. The main contribution of the study is to lay out and clarify quantitative and qualitative KPIs and indicators for DM performance in order to achieve a consensus on the use and measurement of these indicators. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Comprehensive Survey on Real-Time Applications of WSN
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 77; doi:10.3390/fi9040077
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
PDF Full-text (4197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, the investigation of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has materialized its functional area ubiquitously such as environmental engineering, industrial and business applications, military, feedstock and habitat, agriculture sector, seismic detection, intelligent buildings, smart grids, and predictive maintenance, etc. Although some challenges still
[...] Read more.
Nowadays, the investigation of the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has materialized its functional area ubiquitously such as environmental engineering, industrial and business applications, military, feedstock and habitat, agriculture sector, seismic detection, intelligent buildings, smart grids, and predictive maintenance, etc. Although some challenges still exist in the wireless sensor network, in spite of the shortcoming, it has been gaining significant attention among researchers and technologists due to its versatility and robustness. WSN is subject to a high potential technology that has been successfully implemented and tested in real-time scenarios, as well as deployed practically in various applications. In this paper, we have carried out an extensive survey in real-time applications of wireless sensor network deployment in a practical scenario such as the real-time intelligent monitoring of temperature, criminal activity in borders and surveillance on traffic monitoring, vehicular behavior on roads, water level and pressure, and remote monitoring of patients. The application of the Wireless Sensor Network in the assorted field of research areas has been widely deliberated. WSN is found to be the most effective solution in remote areas which are not yet explored due to its perilous nature and unreachable places. Here, in this study, we have cited the recent and updated research on the ubiquitous usage of WSN in diverse fields in an extensive and comprehensive approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communications and Computing for Sustainable Development Goals)
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Open AccessConference Report A Fast and Reliable Broadcast Service for LTE-Advanced Exploiting Multihop Device-to-Device Transmissions
Future Internet 2017, 9(4), 89; doi:10.3390/fi9040089
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
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Abstract
Several applications, from the Internet of Things for smart cities to those for vehicular networks, need fast and reliable proximity-based broadcast communications, i.e., the ability to reach all peers in a geographical neighborhood around the originator of a message, as well as ubiquitous
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Several applications, from the Internet of Things for smart cities to those for vehicular networks, need fast and reliable proximity-based broadcast communications, i.e., the ability to reach all peers in a geographical neighborhood around the originator of a message, as well as ubiquitous connectivity. In this paper, we point out the inherent limitations of the LTE (Long-Term Evolution) cellular network, which make it difficult, if possible at all, to engineer such a service using traditional infrastructure-based communications. We argue, instead, that network-controlled device-to-device (D2D) communications, relayed in a multihop fashion, can efficiently support this service. To substantiate the above claim, we design a proximity-based broadcast service which exploits multihop D2D. We discuss the relevant issues both at the UE (User Equipment), which has to run applications, and within the network (i.e., at the eNodeBs), where suitable resource allocation schemes have to be enforced. We evaluate the performance of a multihop D2D broadcasting using system-level simulations, and demonstrate that it is fast, reliable and economical from a resource consumption standpoint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cellular D2D Communications)
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