Next Article in Journal
Combining Adaptive Holonic Control and ISA-95 Architectures to Self-Organize the Interaction in a Worker-Industrial Robot Cooperative Workcell
Previous Article in Journal
G-Networks with Adders
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Future Internet 2017, 9(3), 33; doi:10.3390/fi9030033

Robust Image Embedded Watermarking Using DCT and Listless SPIHT

Department of ECE, K L University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur dist, Andhra Pradesh 522502, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Javier Garcia Villalba
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6689 KB, uploaded 12 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

This paper presents a DCT-based (DCT: discrete cosine transform) listless set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) digital watermarking technique that is robust against several common attacks such as cropping, filtering, sharpening, noise, inversion, contrast manipulation, and compression. The proposed technique is made further robust by the incorporation of the Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) encryption technique. Our scheme is compared with the recently proposed CRT-based DCT technique, CRT-based spatial domain watermarking, and DCT-based inter block correlation techniques. Extensive simulation experiments show better robustness in common image manipulations and, at the same time, the proposed technique successfully makes the watermark perceptually invisible. A better Tamper Assessment Function (TAF) value of 2–15% and a better Normalized Correlation (NC) is achieved compared to some of the above techniques. In particular, the proposed technique shows better robustness on compression attacks at moderate to higher compression ratios. It is possible to maintain the imperceptibility and low TAF for various values by doubling the capacity of the watermark. View Full-Text
Keywords: discrete cosine transform; watermarking; cryptography; random number generation; normalized correlation discrete cosine transform; watermarking; cryptography; random number generation; normalized correlation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shivani, J.L.D.; Senapati, R.K. Robust Image Embedded Watermarking Using DCT and Listless SPIHT. Future Internet 2017, 9, 33.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Future Internet EISSN 1999-5903 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top