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Viruses, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Filamentous phages have attracted the attention of bioengineers as structurally flexible [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Characterization of Type IV Pili as the Cellular Receptor of Broad Host Range Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Bacteriophages DLP1 and DLP2
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060338 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Bacteriophages DLP1 and DLP2 are capable of infecting both Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, two highly antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens, which is unusual for phages that typically exhibit extremely limited host range. To explain their unusual cross-order infectivity and differences in host
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Bacteriophages DLP1 and DLP2 are capable of infecting both Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, two highly antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens, which is unusual for phages that typically exhibit extremely limited host range. To explain their unusual cross-order infectivity and differences in host range, we have identified the type IV pilus as the primary receptor for attachment. Screening of a P. aeruginosa PA01 mutant library, a host that is susceptible to DLP1 but not DLP2, identified DLP1-resistant mutants with disruptions in pilus structural and regulatory components. Subsequent complementation of the disrupted pilin subunit genes in PA01 restored DLP1 infection. Clean deletion of the major pilin subunit, pilA, in S. maltophilia strains D1585 and 280 prevented phage binding and lysis by both DLP1 and DLP2, and complementation restored infection by both. Transmission electron microscopy shows a clear interaction between DLP1 and pili of both D1585 and PA01. These results support the identity of the type IV pilus as the receptor for DLP1 and DLP2 infection across their broad host ranges. This research further characterizes DLP1 and DLP2 as potential “anti-virulence” phage therapy candidates for the treatment of multidrug resistant bacteria from multiple genera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage-Host Interactions)
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Open AccessReview Visualizing Viral Infection In Vivo by Multi-Photon Intravital Microscopy
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060337 (registering DOI)
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
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Abstract
Viral pathogens have adapted to the host organism to exploit the cellular machinery for virus replication and to modulate the host cells for efficient systemic dissemination and immune evasion. Much of our knowledge of the effects that virus infections have on cells originates
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Viral pathogens have adapted to the host organism to exploit the cellular machinery for virus replication and to modulate the host cells for efficient systemic dissemination and immune evasion. Much of our knowledge of the effects that virus infections have on cells originates from in vitro imaging studies using experimental culture systems consisting of cell lines and primary cells. Recently, intravital microscopy using multi-photon excitation of fluorophores has been applied to observe virus dissemination and pathogenesis in real-time under physiological conditions in living organisms. Critical steps during viral infection and pathogenesis could be studied by direct visualization of fluorescent virus particles, virus-infected cells, and the immune response to viral infection. In this review, I summarize the latest research on in vivo studies of viral infections using multi-photon intravital microscopy (MP-IVM). Initially, the underlying principle of multi-photon microscopy is introduced and experimental challenges during microsurgical animal preparation and fluorescent labeling strategies for intravital imaging are discussed. I will further highlight recent studies that combine MP-IVM with optogenetic tools and transcriptional analysis as a powerful approach to extend the significance of in vivo imaging studies of viral pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Advanced Imaging to the Study of Virus Replication)
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Open AccessReview Harnessing T Follicular Helper Cell Responses for HIV Vaccine Development
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060336
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Passive administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) capable of recognizing a broad range of viral strains to non-human primates has led to protection from infection with chimeric SIV/HIV virus (SHIV). This data suggests that generating protective antibody responses could be an effective strategy
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Passive administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) capable of recognizing a broad range of viral strains to non-human primates has led to protection from infection with chimeric SIV/HIV virus (SHIV). This data suggests that generating protective antibody responses could be an effective strategy for an HIV vaccine. However, classic vaccine approaches have failed so far to induce such protective antibodies in HIV vaccine trials. HIV-specific bNAbs identified in natural infection show high levels of somatic hypermutations, demonstrating that they underwent extensive affinity maturation. It is likely that to gain ability to recognize diverse viral strains, vaccine-induced humoral responses will also require complex, iterative maturation. T follicular helper cells (Tfh) are a specialized CD4+ T cell subset that provides help to B cells in the germinal center for the generation of high-affinity and long-lasting humoral responses. It is therefore probable that the quality and quantity of Tfh responses upon vaccination will impact development of bNAbs. Here, we review studies that advanced our understanding of Tfh differentiation, function and regulation. We discuss correlates of Tfh responses and bNAb development in natural HIV infection. Finally, we highlight recent strategies to optimize Tfh responses upon vaccination and their impact on prophylactic HIV vaccine research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
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Open AccessReview Phage Genetic Engineering Using CRISPR–Cas Systems
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060335
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
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Abstract
Since their discovery over a decade ago, the class of prokaryotic immune systems known as CRISPR–Cas have afforded a suite of genetic tools that have revolutionized research in model organisms spanning all domains of life. CRISPR-mediated tools have also emerged for the natural
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Since their discovery over a decade ago, the class of prokaryotic immune systems known as CRISPR–Cas have afforded a suite of genetic tools that have revolutionized research in model organisms spanning all domains of life. CRISPR-mediated tools have also emerged for the natural targets of CRISPR–Cas immunity, the viruses that specifically infect bacteria, or phages. Despite their status as the most abundant biological entities on the planet, the majority of phage genes have unassigned functions. This reality underscores the need for robust genetic tools to study them. Recent reports have demonstrated that CRISPR–Cas systems, specifically the three major types (I, II, and III), can be harnessed to genetically engineer phages that infect diverse hosts. Here, the mechanisms of each of these systems, specific strategies used, and phage editing efficacies will be reviewed. Due to the relatively wide distribution of CRISPR–Cas systems across bacteria and archaea, it is anticipated that these immune systems will provide generally applicable tools that will advance the mechanistic understanding of prokaryotic viruses and accelerate the development of novel technologies based on these ubiquitous organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of CRISPR Technology in Virology 2018)
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Open AccessArticle Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus Full-Length Pr77Gag Expressed in Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060334
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Pr77Gag polypeptide is an essential retroviral structural protein without which infectious viral particles cannot be formed. This process requires specific recognition and packaging of dimerized genomic RNA (gRNA) by Gag during virus assembly. Most of the
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The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Pr77Gag polypeptide is an essential retroviral structural protein without which infectious viral particles cannot be formed. This process requires specific recognition and packaging of dimerized genomic RNA (gRNA) by Gag during virus assembly. Most of the previous work on retroviral assembly has used either the nucleocapsid portion of Gag, or other truncated Gag derivatives—not the natural substrate for virus assembly. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of MMTV gRNA packaging process, we expressed and purified full-length recombinant Pr77Gag-His6-tag fusion protein from soluble fractions of bacterial cultures. We show that the purified Pr77Gag-His6-tag protein retained the ability to assemble virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro with morphologically similar immature intracellular particles. The recombinant proteins (with and without His6-tag) could both be expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and had the ability to form VLPs in vivo. Most importantly, the recombinant Pr77Gag-His6-tag fusion proteins capable of making VLPs in eukaryotic cells were competent for packaging sub-genomic MMTV RNAs. The successful expression and purification of a biologically active, full-length MMTV Pr77Gag should lay down the foundation towards performing RNA–protein interaction(s), especially for structure-function studies and towards understanding molecular intricacies during MMTV gRNA packaging and assembly processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Neutralizing Antibody-Based Prevention of Cell-Associated HIV-1 Infection
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060333
Received: 4 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
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Abstract
Improved vaccine-mediated protection against HIV-1 requires a thorough understanding of the mode of HIV-1 transmission and how various immune responses control transmission. Cell-associated HIV-1 is infectious and contributes to HIV-1 transmission in humans. Non-human primate models of cell-associated SIV infection demonstrate that cell-associated
[...] Read more.
Improved vaccine-mediated protection against HIV-1 requires a thorough understanding of the mode of HIV-1 transmission and how various immune responses control transmission. Cell-associated HIV-1 is infectious and contributes to HIV-1 transmission in humans. Non-human primate models of cell-associated SIV infection demonstrate that cell-associated SIV is more infectious than cell-free SIV. In a recently described chimeric simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) macaque model, it was demonstrated that an occult infection with cell-associated SHIV can be established that evades passive protection with a broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb). Indeed, considerable in vitro data shows that bnAbs have less efficacy against cell-associated HIV-1 than cell-free HIV-1. Optimizing the protective capacity of immune responses such as bnAbs against cell-associated infections may be needed to maximize their protective efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Transcriptomic Analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni Response to T4-Like Phage NCTC 12673 Infection
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060332
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent foodborne pathogen of humans. As C. jejuni infections commonly arise from contaminated poultry, phage treatments have been proposed to reduce the C. jejuni load on farms to prevent human infections. While a prior report documented the transcriptome of
[...] Read more.
Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent foodborne pathogen of humans. As C. jejuni infections commonly arise from contaminated poultry, phage treatments have been proposed to reduce the C. jejuni load on farms to prevent human infections. While a prior report documented the transcriptome of C. jejuni phages during the carrier state life cycle, transcriptomic analysis of a lytic C. jejuni phage infection has not been reported. We used RNA-sequencing to profile the infection of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 by the lytic T4-like myovirus NCTC 12673. Interestingly, we found that the most highly upregulated host genes upon infection make up an uncharacterized operon (cj0423–cj0425), which includes genes with similarity to T4 superinfection exclusion and antitoxin genes. Other significantly upregulated genes include those involved in oxidative stress defense and the Campylobactermultidrug efflux pump (CmeABC). We found that phage infectivity is altered by mutagenesis of the oxidative stress defense genes catalase (katA), alkyl-hydroxyperoxidase (ahpC), and superoxide dismutase (sodB), and by mutagenesis of the efflux pump genes cmeA and cmeB. This suggests a role for these gene products in phage infection. Together, our results shed light on the phage-host dynamics of an important foodborne pathogen during lytic infection by a T4-like phage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phage-Host Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Pseudomonas PB1-Like Phages: Whole Genomes from Metagenomes Offer Insight into an Abundant Group of Bacteriophages
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060331
Received: 15 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Despite the abundance, ubiquity and impact of environmental viruses, their inherent genomic plasticity and extreme diversity pose significant challenges for the examination of bacteriophages on Earth. Viral metagenomic studies have offered insight into broader aspects of phage ecology and repeatedly uncover genes to
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Despite the abundance, ubiquity and impact of environmental viruses, their inherent genomic plasticity and extreme diversity pose significant challenges for the examination of bacteriophages on Earth. Viral metagenomic studies have offered insight into broader aspects of phage ecology and repeatedly uncover genes to which we are currently unable to assign function. A combined effort of phage isolation and metagenomic survey of Chicago’s nearshore waters of Lake Michigan revealed the presence of Pbunaviruses, relatives of the Pseudomonas phage PB1. This prompted our expansive investigation of PB1-like phages. Genomic signatures of PB1-like phages and Pbunaviruses were identified, permitting the unambiguous distinction between the presence/absence of these phages in soils, freshwater and wastewater samples, as well as publicly available viral metagenomic datasets. This bioinformatic analysis led to the de novo assembly of nine novel PB1-like phage genomes from a metagenomic survey of samples collected from Lake Michigan. While this study finds that Pbunaviruses are abundant in various environments of Northern Illinois, genomic variation also exists to a considerable extent within individual communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophage Genomes and Genomics: News from the Wild)
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Open AccessArticle Host Long Noncoding RNA lncRNA-PAAN Regulates the Replication of Influenza A Virus
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060330
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
The productive infection of influenza A virus (IAV) depends on host factors. However, the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in IAV infection remains largely uninvestigated. In this work, we have discovered a human lncRNA, named lncRNA-PAAN (PA-associated noncoding RNA) that enhances IAV
[...] Read more.
The productive infection of influenza A virus (IAV) depends on host factors. However, the involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in IAV infection remains largely uninvestigated. In this work, we have discovered a human lncRNA, named lncRNA-PAAN (PA-associated noncoding RNA) that enhances IAV replication. The level of lncRNA-PAAN increases upon infection of IAV, but not other viruses, nor interferon treatment, suggesting specific up-regulation of lncRNA-PAAN expression by IAV. Silencing lncRNA-PAAN significantly decreases IAV replication through impairing the activity of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). This function of lncRNA-PAAN is a result of its association with viral PA protein, a key component of IAV RNA polymerase complex. Consequently, depletion of lncRNA-PAAN prevents the formation of functional RdRp. Together, these results suggest that lncRNA-PAAN promotes the assembly of viral RNA polymerase, thus warranting efficient viral RNA synthesis. Elucidating the functions of lncRNAs in IAV infection is expected to advance our understanding of IAV pathogenesis and open new avenues to the development of novel anti-IAV therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What’s New with Flu?)
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Open AccessReview Viral Determinants of Virulence in Tick-Borne Flaviviruses
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060329
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 16 June 2018
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Abstract
Tick-borne flaviviruses have a global distribution and cause significant human disease, including encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and often result in neurologic sequelae. There are two distinct properties that determine the neuropathogenesis of a virus. The ability to invade the central nervous system (CNS)
[...] Read more.
Tick-borne flaviviruses have a global distribution and cause significant human disease, including encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever, and often result in neurologic sequelae. There are two distinct properties that determine the neuropathogenesis of a virus. The ability to invade the central nervous system (CNS) is referred to as the neuroinvasiveness of the agent, while the ability to infect and damage cells within the CNS is referred to as its neurovirulence. Examination of laboratory variants, cDNA clones, natural isolates with varying pathogenicity, and virally encoded immune evasion strategies have contributed extensively to our understanding of these properties. Here we will review the major viral determinants of virulence that contribute to pathogenesis and influence both neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence properties of tick-borne flaviviruses, focusing particularly on the envelope protein (E), nonstructural protein 5 (NS5), and the 3′ untranslated region (UTR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Treatment of Tick-Borne Viral Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle Whole Genome Analysis of Two Novel Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses with Complex Genome Recombination between Lineage 8, 3, and 1 Strains Identified in Southwestern China
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060328
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome
[...] Read more.
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs) is thought to contribute to the emergence of new PRRSV variants. In this study, two newly emerged PRRSV strains, designated SCcd16 and SCya17, are isolated from lung tissues of piglets in Southwestern China. Genome comparative analysis reveals that SCcd16/SCya17 exhibit 93.1%/93.2%, 86.9%/87.0%, 85.3%/85.7%, and 83.6%/82.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs JXA1, VR-2332, QYYZ and NADC30, respectively. They only exhibit 44.8%/45.1% sequence identity with LV (PRRSV-1), indicating that both emergent strains belong to the PRRSV-2 genotype. Genomic sequence alignment shows that SCcd16 and SCya17 have the same discontinuous 30-amino acid (aa) deletion in Nsp2 of the highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain JXA1, when compared to strain VR-2332. Notably, SCya17 shows a unique 5-nt deletion in its 3’-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis shows that both of the isolates are classified in the QYYZ-like lineage based on ORF5 genotyping, whereas they appear to constitute an inter-lineage between JXA1-like and QYYZ-like lineages based on their genomic sequences. Furthermore, recombination analyses reveal that the two newly emerged PRRSV isolates share the same novel recombination pattern. They have both likely originated from multiple recombination events between lineage 8 (JXA1-like), lineage 1 (NADC30-like), and lineage 3 (QYYZ-like) strains that have circulated in China recently. The genomic data from SCcd16 and SCya17 indicate that there is on going evolution of PRRSV field strains through genetic recombination, leading to outbreaks in the pig populations in Southwestern China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessReview The Diversity of Bacterial Lifestyles Hampers Bacteriophage Tenacity
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060327
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
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Abstract
Phage therapy is based on a simple concept: the use of a virus (bacteriophage) that is capable of killing specific pathogenic bacteria to treat bacterial infections. Since the pioneering work of Félix d’Herelle, bacteriophages (phages) isolated in vitro have been shown to be
[...] Read more.
Phage therapy is based on a simple concept: the use of a virus (bacteriophage) that is capable of killing specific pathogenic bacteria to treat bacterial infections. Since the pioneering work of Félix d’Herelle, bacteriophages (phages) isolated in vitro have been shown to be of therapeutic value. Over decades of study, a large number of rather complex mechanisms that are used by phages to hijack bacterial resources and to produce their progeny have been deciphered. While these mechanisms have been identified and have been studied under optimal conditions in vitro, much less is known about the requirements for successful viral infections in relevant natural conditions. This is particularly true in the context of phage therapy. Here, we highlight the parameters affecting phage replication in both in vitro and in vivo environments, focusing, in particular, on the mammalian digestive tract. We propose avenues for increasing the knowledge-guided implementation of phages as therapeutic tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
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Open AccessArticle NS1 Antigenemia and Viraemia Load: Potential Markers of Progression to Dengue Fatal Outcome?
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060326
Received: 3 January 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
Dengue is a worldwide problem characterized by a multifactorial pathogenesis. Considering the viral components, it is known that high viremia or high levels of the secreted nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) may be associated with a more severe disease. We aimed to characterize the
[...] Read more.
Dengue is a worldwide problem characterized by a multifactorial pathogenesis. Considering the viral components, it is known that high viremia or high levels of the secreted nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) may be associated with a more severe disease. We aimed to characterize the NS1 antigenemia and viremia in dengue fatal and non-fatal cases, as potential markers of progression to a fatal outcome. NS1 antigenemia and viremia were determined in Brazilian dengue fatal cases (n = 40) and non-fatal cases (n = 40), representative of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. Overall, the fatal cases presented higher NS1 levels and viremia. Moreover, the fatal cases from secondary infections showed significantly higher NS1 levels than the non-fatal ones. Here, irrespective of the disease outcome, DENV-1 cases presented higher NS1 levels than the other serotypes. However, DENV-2 and DENV-4 fatal cases had higher NS1 antigenemia than the non-fatal cases with the same serotype. The viremia in the fatal cases was higher than in the non-fatal ones, with DENV-3 and DENV-4 presenting higher viral loads. Viral components, such as NS1 and viral RNA, may be factors influencing the disease outcome. However, the host immune status, comorbidities, and access to adequate medical support cannot be ruled out as interfering in the disease outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 6th Pan-American Dengue Research Network Meeting)
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Open AccessArticle A Simple and Robust Approach for Evaluation of Antivirals Using a Recombinant Influenza Virus Expressing Gaussia Luciferase
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060325
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 9 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes seasonal epidemics and occasional but devastating pandemics, which are major public health concerns. Because the effectiveness of seasonal vaccines is highly variable and the currently available drugs are limited in their efficacy because of the emergence of drug
[...] Read more.
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes seasonal epidemics and occasional but devastating pandemics, which are major public health concerns. Because the effectiveness of seasonal vaccines is highly variable and the currently available drugs are limited in their efficacy because of the emergence of drug resistance, there is an urgent need to develop novel antivirals. In this study, we characterized a recombinant IAV-carrying Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) gene and determined its potential as a tool for evaluating therapeutics. We demonstrated that this recombinant IAV is replication-competent in tissue culture and pathogenic in mice, although it is slightly attenuated compared to the parental virus. Luciferase expression correlated well with virus propagation both in vitro and in vivo, providing a simple measure for viral replication in tissue culture and in mouse lungs. To demonstrate the utility of this virus, ribavirin and oseltamivir phosphate were used to treat the IAV-infected cells and mice, and we observed the dose-dependent inhibition of viral replication by a luciferase assay. Moreover, the decreased luciferase expression in the infected lungs could predict the protective efficacy of antiviral interventions as early as day 2 post virus challenge. In summary, this study provides a new and quantitative approach to evaluate antivirals against IAV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessBrief Report Production of Bacteriophages by Listeria Cells Entrapped in Organic Polymers
Viruses 2018, 10(6), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060324
Received: 13 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
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Abstract
Applications for bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents are increasing. The industrial use of these bacterial viruses requires the production of large amounts of suitable strictly lytic phages, particularly for food and agricultural applications. This work describes a new approach for phage production. Phages H387
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Applications for bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents are increasing. The industrial use of these bacterial viruses requires the production of large amounts of suitable strictly lytic phages, particularly for food and agricultural applications. This work describes a new approach for phage production. Phages H387 (Siphoviridae) and A511 (Myoviridae) were propagated separately using Listeria ivanovii host cells immobilised in alginate beads. The same batch of alginate beads could be used for four successive and efficient phage productions. This technique enables the production of large volumes of high-titer phage lysates in continuous or semi-continuous (fed-batch) cultures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
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