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Viruses, Volume 10, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Conserved Active-Site Residues Associated with OAS Enzyme Activity and Ubiquitin-Like Domains Are Not Required for the Antiviral Activity of goOASL Protein against Avian Tembusu Virus
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070371
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
Interferon (IFN)-induced 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) proteins exhibit an extensive and efficient antiviral effect against flavivirus infection in mammals and birds. Only the 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL) gene has been identified thus far in birds, except for ostrich, which has both OAS1 and
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Interferon (IFN)-induced 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) proteins exhibit an extensive and efficient antiviral effect against flavivirus infection in mammals and birds. Only the 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL) gene has been identified thus far in birds, except for ostrich, which has both OAS1 and OASL genes. In this study, we first investigated the antiviral activity of goose OASL (goOASL) protein against a duck-origin Tembusu virus (DTMUV) in duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs). To investigate the relationship of conserved amino acids that are related to OAS enzyme activity and ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains with the antiviral activity of goOASL, a series of mutant goOASL plasmids was constructed, including goOASL-S64C/D76E/D78E/D144T, goOASL∆UBLs and goOASL∆UBLs-S64C/D76E/D78E/D144T. Interestingly, all these mutant proteins significantly inhibited the replication of DTMUV in DEFs in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the goOASL, goOASL-S64C/D76E/D78E/D144T, goOASL∆UBLs and goOASL∆UBLs-S64C/D76E/D78E/D144T proteins were located not only in the cytoplasm where DTMUV replicates but also in the nucleus of DEFs. However, the goOASL and goOASL mutant proteins were mainly colocalized with DTMUV in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Our data indicated that goOASL could significantly inhibit DTMUV replication in vitro, while the active-site residues S64, D76, D78 and D144, which were associated with OAS enzyme activity, the UBL domains were not required for the antiviral activity of goOASL protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Intracellular Localization of Blattella germanica Densovirus (BgDV1) Capsid Proteins
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070370
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Densovirus genome replication and capsid assembly take place in the nucleus of the infected cells. However, the mechanisms underlying such processes as the delivery of virus proteins to the nucleus and the export of progeny virus from the nucleus remain elusive. It is
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Densovirus genome replication and capsid assembly take place in the nucleus of the infected cells. However, the mechanisms underlying such processes as the delivery of virus proteins to the nucleus and the export of progeny virus from the nucleus remain elusive. It is evident that nuclear transport signals should be involved in these processes. We performed an in silico search for the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear export signal (NES) motifs in the capsid proteins of the Blattella germanica Densovirus 1 (BgDV1) densovirus. A high probability NLS motif was found in the common C-terminal of capsid proteins together with a NES motif in the unique N-terminal of VP2. We also performed a global search for the nuclear traffic signals in the densoviruses belonging to five Densovirinae genera, which revealed high diversity in the patterns of NLSs and NESs. Using a heterologous system, the HeLa mammalian cell line expressing GFP-fused BgDV1 capsid proteins, we demonstrated that both signals are functionally active. We suggest that the NLS shared by all three BgDV1 capsid proteins drives the trafficking of the newly-synthesized proteins into the nucleus, while the NES may play a role in the export of the newly-assembled BgDV1 particles into the cytoplasm through nuclear pore complexes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization of Divergent Closterovirus Isolates Infecting Ribes Species
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 369; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070369
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Five isolates of a new member of the family Closteroviridae, tentatively named blackcurrant leafroll-associated virus 1 (BcLRaV-1), were identified in the currant. The 17-kb-long genome codes for 10 putative proteins. The replication-associated polyprotein has several functional domains, including papain-like proteases, methyltransferase, Zemlya,
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Five isolates of a new member of the family Closteroviridae, tentatively named blackcurrant leafroll-associated virus 1 (BcLRaV-1), were identified in the currant. The 17-kb-long genome codes for 10 putative proteins. The replication-associated polyprotein has several functional domains, including papain-like proteases, methyltransferase, Zemlya, helicase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Additional open reading frames code for a small protein predicted to integrate into the host cell wall, a heat-shock protein 70 homolog, a heat-shock protein 90 homolog, two coat proteins, and three proteins of unknown functions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BcLRaV-1 is related to members of the genus Closterovirus, whereas recombination analysis provided evidence of intraspecies recombination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Tree Viruses and Viroids)
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Open AccessArticle A Reverse Genetics System for Zika Virus Based on a Simple Molecular Cloning Strategy
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070368
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
The Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently attracted major research interest as infection was unexpectedly associated with neurological manifestations in developing foetuses and with Guillain-Barré syndrome in infected adults. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms requires reverse genetic systems, which allow manipulation of infectious cDNA
[...] Read more.
The Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently attracted major research interest as infection was unexpectedly associated with neurological manifestations in developing foetuses and with Guillain-Barré syndrome in infected adults. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms requires reverse genetic systems, which allow manipulation of infectious cDNA clones at will. In the case of flaviviruses, to which ZIKV belongs, several reports have indicated that the construction of full-length cDNA clones is difficult due to toxicity during plasmid amplification in Escherichia coli. Toxicity of flaviviral cDNAs has been linked to the activity of cryptic prokaryotic promoters within the region encoding the structural proteins leading to spurious transcription and expression of toxic viral proteins. Here, we employ an approach based on in silico prediction and mutational silencing of putative promoters to generate full-length cDNA clones of the historical MR766 strain and the contemporary French Polynesian strain H/PF/2013 of ZIKV. While for both strains construction of full-length cDNA clones has failed in the past, we show that our approach generates cDNA clones that are stable on single bacterial plasmids and give rise to infectious viruses with properties similar to those generated by other more complex assembly strategies. Further, we generate luciferase and fluorescent reporter viruses as well as sub-genomic replicons that are fully functional and suitable for various research and drug screening applications. Taken together, this study confirms that in silico prediction and silencing of cryptic prokaryotic promoters is an efficient strategy to generate full-length cDNA clones of flaviviruses and reports novel tools that will facilitate research on ZIKV biology and development of antiviral strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances on Zika Virus Research)
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Open AccessArticle The C-Type Lectin Domain Gene Family in Aedes aegypti and Their Role in Arbovirus Infection
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070367
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Several medically important flaviviruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes have been shown to bind to the C-type lectin fold that is present in either vertebrate or invertebrate proteins. While in some cases this interaction is part of a neutralizing anti-viral immune response, many
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Several medically important flaviviruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes have been shown to bind to the C-type lectin fold that is present in either vertebrate or invertebrate proteins. While in some cases this interaction is part of a neutralizing anti-viral immune response, many reports have implicated this as critical for successful virus entry. Despite the establishment of mosquito C-type lectin domain containing proteins (CTLDcps) as known host factors in assisting the infectious process for flaviviruses, little is known about the structural characteristics of these proteins and their relationships to each other. In this report, we describe the manual annotation and structural characterization of 52 Aedes aegypti CTLDcps. Using existing RNAseq data, we establish that these genes can be subdivided into two classes: those highly conserved with expression primarily in development (embryo/early larvae) and those with no clear orthologs with expression primarily in late larvae/pupae or adults. The latter group contained all CTLDcps that are regulated by the Toll/Imd immune pathways, all known microbiome-regulating CTLDcps, and almost all CTLDcps that are implicated as flavivirus host factors in A. aegypti. Finally, we attempt to synthesize results from multiple conflicting gene expression profiling experiments in terms of how flavivirus infection changes steady-state levels of mRNA encoding CTLDcps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Defense in Invertebrates)
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Open AccessArticle Biodiversity, Evolution and Ecological Specialization of Baculoviruses: A Treasure Trove for Future Applied Research
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070366
Received: 3 June 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
The Baculoviridae, a family of insect-specific large DNA viruses, is widely used in both biotechnology and biological control. Its applied value stems from millions of years of evolution influenced by interactions with their hosts and the environment. To understand how ecological interactions
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The Baculoviridae, a family of insect-specific large DNA viruses, is widely used in both biotechnology and biological control. Its applied value stems from millions of years of evolution influenced by interactions with their hosts and the environment. To understand how ecological interactions have shaped baculovirus diversification, we reconstructed a robust molecular phylogeny using 217 complete genomes and ~580 isolates for which at least one of four lepidopteran core genes was available. We then used a phylogenetic-concept-based approach (mPTP) to delimit 165 baculovirus species, including 38 species derived from new genetic data. Phylogenetic optimization of ecological characters revealed a general pattern of host conservatism punctuated by occasional shifts between closely related hosts and major shifts between lepidopteran superfamilies. Moreover, we found significant phylogenetic conservatism between baculoviruses and the type of plant growth (woody or herbaceous) associated with their insect hosts. In addition, we found that colonization of new ecological niches sometimes led to viral radiation. These macroevolutionary patterns show that besides selection during the infection process, baculovirus diversification was influenced by tritrophic interactions, explained by their persistence on plants and interactions in the midgut during horizontal transmission. This complete eco-evolutionary framework highlights the potential innovations that could still be harnessed from the diversity of baculoviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Baculovirus Advances and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Establishment of Baculovirus-Expressed VLPs Induced Syncytial Formation Assay for Flavivirus Antiviral Screening
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070365
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
The baculovirus-insect cell expression system has been widely used for heterologous protein expression and virus-like particles (VLPs) expression. In this study, we established a new method for antiviral screening targeting to glycoprotein E of flaviviruses based on the baculovirus expression system. ZIKV is
[...] Read more.
The baculovirus-insect cell expression system has been widely used for heterologous protein expression and virus-like particles (VLPs) expression. In this study, we established a new method for antiviral screening targeting to glycoprotein E of flaviviruses based on the baculovirus expression system. ZIKV is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and has posed great threat to the public health. It has been reported that ZIKV infection was associated with microcephaly and serious neurological complications. Our study showed that either ZIKV E or prME protein expressed in insect cells can form VLPs and induce membrane fusion between insect cells. Therefore, the E protein, which is responsible for receptor binding, attachment, and virus fusion during viral entry, achieved proper folding and retained its fusogenic ability in VLPs when expressed in this system. The syncytia in insect cells were significantly reduced by the anti-ZIKV-E specific polyclonal antibody in a dose-dependent manner. AMS, a thiol-conjugating reagent, was also shown to have an inhibitory effect on the E protein induced syncytia and inhibited ZIKV infection by blocking viral entry. Indeed the phenomenon of syncytial formation induced by E protein expressed VLPs in insect cells is common among flaviviruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). This inhibition effect on syncytial formation can be developed as a novel, safe, and simple antiviral screening approach for inhibitory antibodies, peptides, or small molecules targeting to E protein of ZIKV and other flaviviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Baculovirus Advances and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Transcript Profiling Identifies Early Response Genes against FMDV Infection in PK-15 Cells
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070364
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that results in enormous economic loses worldwide. Although the protection provided by vaccination is limited during early infection, it is recognized as the best method to prevent FMD outbreaks. Furthermore, the mechanism of host early
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that results in enormous economic loses worldwide. Although the protection provided by vaccination is limited during early infection, it is recognized as the best method to prevent FMD outbreaks. Furthermore, the mechanism of host early responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection remains unclear. In our study, a pig kidney cell line (PK-15) was used as a cell model to reveal the mechanism of early pig responses to FMDV infection. Four non-treated control and four FMDV-treated PK-15 cells were sequenced with RNA-seq technology, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were analyzed. The results showed that 1212 DEGs were in the FMDV-infected PK-15 cells, including 914 up-regulated and 298 down-regulated genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly enriched in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF), cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, NOD-like receptor, toll-like receptor, NF-κB, and the chemokine signaling pathways. To verify the results of the DEGs, 30 immune-related DEGs (19 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated) were selected for Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) verification. The results showed that RT-qPCR-measured genes exhibited a similar pattern as the RNA-seq analyses. Based on bioinformatics analysis, during FMDV early infection, we found that a series of cytokines, such as interleukins (IL6), chemokines (CXCL2, CCL20 and CCL4), and transcription factors (ZFP36, FOS, NFKBIA, ZBTB3, ZNF503, ZNF283, dymeclin (DYM), and orthodenticle homeobox 1 (OTX1)) were involved in the battle between FMDV and the host. Combined with their features and functions, we propose inflammation as the main early mechanism by which the host responds to FMDV infection. These data provide an additional panel of candidate genes for deciphering the mechanisms of a host’s early response against FMDV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models for Viral Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle HDV Can Constrain HBV Genetic Evolution in HBsAg: Implications for the Identification of Innovative Pharmacological Targets
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 363; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070363
Received: 4 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract
Chronic HBV + HDV infection is associated with greater risk of liver fibrosis, earlier hepatic decompensation, and liver cirrhosis hepatocellular carcinoma compared to HBV mono-infection. However, to-date no direct anti-HDV drugs are available in clinical practice. Here, we identified conserved and variable regions
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Chronic HBV + HDV infection is associated with greater risk of liver fibrosis, earlier hepatic decompensation, and liver cirrhosis hepatocellular carcinoma compared to HBV mono-infection. However, to-date no direct anti-HDV drugs are available in clinical practice. Here, we identified conserved and variable regions in HBsAg and HDAg domains in HBV + HDV infection, a critical finding for the design of innovative therapeutic agents. The extent of amino-acid variability was measured by Shannon-Entropy (Sn) in HBsAg genotype-d sequences from 31 HBV + HDV infected and 62 HBV mono-infected patients (comparable for demographics and virological-parameters), and in 47 HDAg genotype-1 sequences. Positions with Sn = 0 were defined as conserved. The percentage of conserved HBsAg-positions was significantly higher in HBV + HDV infection than HBV mono-infection (p = 0.001). Results were confirmed after stratification for HBeAg-status and patients’ age. A Sn = 0 at specific positions in the C-terminus HBsAg were correlated with higher HDV-RNA, suggesting that conservation of these positions can preserve HDV-fitness. Conversely, HDAg was characterized by a lower percentage of conserved-residues than HBsAg (p < 0.001), indicating higher functional plasticity. Furthermore, specific HDAg-mutations were significantly correlated with higher HDV-RNA, suggesting a role in conferring HDV replicative-advantage. Among HDAg-domains, only the virus-assembly signal exhibited a high genetic conservation (75% of conserved-residues). In conclusion, HDV can constrain HBsAg genetic evolution to preserve its fitness. The identification of conserved regions in HDAg poses the basis for designing innovative targets against HDV-infection. Full article
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Open AccessReview Tick–Virus–Host Interactions at the Cutaneous Interface: The Nidus of Flavivirus Transmission
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070362
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
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Abstract
Tick-borne viral diseases continue to emerge in the United States, as clearly evident from the increase in Powassan encephalitis virus, Heartland virus, and Bourbon virus infections. Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) are transmitted to the mammalian host along with the infected tick saliva during blood-feeding.
[...] Read more.
Tick-borne viral diseases continue to emerge in the United States, as clearly evident from the increase in Powassan encephalitis virus, Heartland virus, and Bourbon virus infections. Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFVs) are transmitted to the mammalian host along with the infected tick saliva during blood-feeding. Successful tick feeding is facilitated by a complex repertoire of pharmacologically active salivary proteins/factors in tick saliva. These salivary factors create an immunologically privileged micro-environment in the host’s skin that influences virus transmission and pathogenesis. In this review, we will highlight tick determinants of TBFV transmission with a special emphasis on tick–virus–host interactions at the cutaneous interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Treatment of Tick-Borne Viral Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle The 125th Lys and 145th Thr Amino Acids in the GTPase Domain of Goose Mx Confer Its Antiviral Activity against the Tembusu Virus
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070361
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
The Tembusu virus (TMUV) is an avian pathogenic flavivirus that causes a highly contagious disease and catastrophic losses to the poultry industry. The myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) of innate immune effectors is a key antiviral “workhorse” of the interferon (IFN) system. Although mammalian
[...] Read more.
The Tembusu virus (TMUV) is an avian pathogenic flavivirus that causes a highly contagious disease and catastrophic losses to the poultry industry. The myxovirus resistance protein (Mx) of innate immune effectors is a key antiviral “workhorse” of the interferon (IFN) system. Although mammalian Mx resistance against myxovirus and retrovirus was witnessed for decades, whether or not bird Mx has anti-flavivirus activity remains unknown. In this study, we found that the transcription of goose Mx (goMx) was obviously driven by TMUV infection, both in vivo and in vitro, and that the titers and copies of TMUV were significantly reduced by goMx overexpression. In both primary (goose embryo fibroblasts, GEFs) and passaged cells (baby hamster kidney cells, BHK21, and human fetal kidney cells, HEK 293T), it was shown that goMx was mainly located in the cytoplasm, and sporadically distributed in the nucleus. The intracellular localization of this protein is attributed to the predicted bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS; 30 residues: the 441st–471st amino acids of goMx). Intuitively, it seems that the cells with a higher level of goMx expression tend to have lower TMUV loads in the cytoplasm, as determined by an immunofluorescence assay. To further explore the antiviral determinants, a panel of variants was constructed. Two amino acids at the 125th (Lys) and 145th (Thr) positions in GTP-binding elements, not in the L4 loop (40 residues: the 532nd–572nd amino acids of goMx), were vital for the antiviral function of goMx against TMUV in vitro. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the antiviral system in aquatic birds, and the development of goMx could be a valuable therapeutic agent against TMUV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine Responses in Viral Infections)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Infectivity against Herpes Simplex Virus and Selected Microbes and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Compounds Isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill.
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070360
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes numerous mild-to-serious human diseases, including mucocutaneous herpes infections and life-threatening herpes encephalitis. Moreover, herpes viral lesions can be complicated by inflammation and secondary bacterial infections. The development of resistance to antiviral drugs along with the undesirable side effects
[...] Read more.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes numerous mild-to-serious human diseases, including mucocutaneous herpes infections and life-threatening herpes encephalitis. Moreover, herpes viral lesions can be complicated by inflammation and secondary bacterial infections. The development of resistance to antiviral drugs along with the undesirable side effects of these drugs are relevant argue for the development of new anti-HSV drugs with diverse mechanisms of action. Eucalyptus extracts have been used for decades to combat various infectious diseases. We isolated and studied 12 pure compounds and one mixture of two constitutional isomers from the leaves and twigs of E. globulus. The structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (NMR, HR-MS, IR) and all of them were tested for antiherpetic activity against the replication of antigen types HSV-1 and HSV-2. Tereticornate A (12) (IC50: 0.96 μg/mL; selectivity index CC50/IC50: 218.8) showed the strongest activity in the anti-HSV-1 assay, even greater than acyclovir (IC50: 1.92 μg/mL; selectivity index CC50/IC50: 109.4), a standard antiviral drug. Cypellocarpin C (5) (EC50: 0.73 μg/mL; selectivity index CC50/EC50: 287.7) showed the most potent anti-HSV-2 activity, also more intensive than acyclovir (EC50: 1.75 μg/mL; selectivity index CC50/EC50: 120.0). The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds was also evaluated against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. The anti-inflammatory potential was examined using LPS-stimulated THP-1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 and THP-1 macrophages and focusing on the influences of the NF-κB/AP-1 activity and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Natural Products in HSV Research)
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Open AccessArticle FUS Negatively Regulates Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Gene Expression
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 359; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070359
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human gammaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma. KSHV is also causally associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). KSHV reactivation from latency plays an integral role in the progression to
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Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human gammaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma. KSHV is also causally associated with the development of lymphoproliferative diseases, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). KSHV reactivation from latency plays an integral role in the progression to KSHV-associated disease as several lytic proteins have angiogenic and anti-apoptotic functions essential to the tumor microenvironment. Thus, restriction of KSHV reactivation represents an attractive therapeutic target. Here, we demonstrate that the cellular protein Fused-in-sarcoma (FUS) restricts KSHV lytic reactivation in PEL and in an epithelial cell-based model. Depletion of FUS significantly enhances viral mRNA and protein expression, resulting in increased viral replication and production of infectious virions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that FUS is present at several KSHV lytic cycle genes during the latent stage of infection. We further demonstrate that FUS interacts with RNA polymerase II and negatively affects Serine-2 phosphorylation of its C-terminal domain at the KSHV RTA gene, decreasing nascent RNA synthesis. Knockdown of FUS increases transcription of RTA, thus driving enhanced expression of KSHV lytic genes. Collectively, these data reveal a novel role for FUS in regulating viral gene expression and are the first to demonstrate its role as a viral restriction factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessEditorial Viral Recombination: Ecology, Evolution, and Pathogenesis
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070358
Received: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 4 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
Recombination between and within virus genomes is being increasingly recognized as a major
driver of virus evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Recombination: Ecology, Evolution and Pathogenesis)
Open AccessArticle Dengue Virus Induces the Release of sCD40L and Changes in Levels of Membranal CD42b and CD40L Molecules in Human Platelets
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 357; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070357
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 30 June 2018 / Published: 5 July 2018
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Abstract
Platelets are considered as significant players in innate and adaptive immune responses. The adhesion molecules they express, including P-selectin, CD40L, and CD42b, facilitate interactions with many cellular effectors. Upon interacting with a pathogen, platelets rapidly express and enhance their adhesion molecules, and secrete
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Platelets are considered as significant players in innate and adaptive immune responses. The adhesion molecules they express, including P-selectin, CD40L, and CD42b, facilitate interactions with many cellular effectors. Upon interacting with a pathogen, platelets rapidly express and enhance their adhesion molecules, and secrete cytokines and chemokines. A similar phenomenon occurs after exposure of platelets to thrombin, an agonist extensively used for in vitro activation of these cells. It was recently reported that the dengue virus not only interacts with platelets but possibly infects them, which triggers an increased expression of adhesion molecule P-selectin as well as secretion of IL-1β. In the present study, surface molecules of platelets like CD40L, CD42b, CD62P, and MHC class I were evaluated at 4 h of interaction with dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2), finding that DENV-2 induced a sharp rise in the membrane expression of all these molecules. At 2 and 4 h of DENV-2 stimulation of platelets, a significantly greater secretion of soluble CD40L (sCD40L) was found (versus basal levels) as well as cytokines such as GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α. Compared to basal, DENV-2 elicited more than two-fold increase in these cytokines. Compared to the thrombin-induced response, the level generated by DENV-2 was much higher for GM-CSF, IL-6, and TNF-α. All these events induced by DENV end up in conspicuous morphological changes observed in platelets by confocal microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, very different from those elicited by thrombin in a more physiological scenery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine Responses in Viral Infections)
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