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Viruses 2018, 10(6), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10060321

The HPV E2 Transcriptional Transactivation Protein Stimulates Cellular DNA Polymerase Epsilon

Departments of Microbiology & Immunology and Biochemistry, Jacobs School of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
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Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

The papillomavirus (PV) protein E2 is one of only two proteins required for viral DNA replication. E2 is the viral transcriptional regulator/activation protein as well as the initiator of viral DNA replication. E2 is known to interact with various cellular DNA replication proteins, including the PV E1 protein, the cellular ssDNA binding complex (RPA), and topoisomerase I. Recently, we observed that cellular DNA polymerase ε (pol ε) interacts with the PV helicase protein, E1. E1 stimulates its activity with a very high degree of specificity, implicating pol ε in PV DNA replication. In this paper, we evaluated whether E2 also shows a functional interaction with pol ε. We found that E2 stimulates the DNA synthesis activity of pol ε, independently of pol ε’ s processivity factors, RFC, PCNA, and RPA, or E1. This appears to be specific for pol ε, as cellular DNA polymerase δ is unaffected by E1. However, unlike other known stimulatory factors of pol ε, E2 does not affect the processivity of pol ε. The domains of E2 were analyzed individually and in combination for their ability to stimulate pol ε. Both the transactivation and hinge domains were found to be important for this stimulation, while the E2 DNA-binding domain was dispensable. These findings support a role for E2 beyond E1 recruitment in viral DNA replication, demonstrate a novel functional interaction in PV DNA replication, and further implicate cellular pol ε in PV DNA replication. View Full-Text
Keywords: human papillomavirus; DNA replication; DNA polymerase epsilon human papillomavirus; DNA replication; DNA polymerase epsilon
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Chojnacki, M.; Melendy, T. The HPV E2 Transcriptional Transactivation Protein Stimulates Cellular DNA Polymerase Epsilon. Viruses 2018, 10, 321.

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