Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Energies, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) We investigated the possibility of using soundless cracking demolition agents (SCDAs) as an [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-120
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of Thermal Behaviors in Window Systems by Monitoring of Surface Condensation Using Full-Scale Measurements and Simulation Tools
Energies 2016, 9(11), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110979
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal performance of window systems using full-scale measurements and simulation tools. A chamber was installed on the balcony of an apartment to control the temperatures which can create condensation on the interior surfaces
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal performance of window systems using full-scale measurements and simulation tools. A chamber was installed on the balcony of an apartment to control the temperatures which can create condensation on the interior surfaces of window systems. The condensation process on the window was carefully scrutinized when outdoor and indoor temperature and indoor relative humidity ranged from −15 °C to −20 °C, 23 °C to 24 °C, and 50% to 65%, respectively. The results of these investigations were analyzed to determine how the moisture is influenced by changing temperatures. It appears that the glass-edge was highly susceptible to the temperature variations and the lowest temperature on the glass edge was caused by the heat transfer through the spacer, between the two glass panels of the window. The results from the simulation used in this study confirm that the thermal performance of window systems can be improved the use of super insulated or thermally broken spacers. If the values of the indoor humidity and temperature are given, then the outdoor temperature when condensation forms can be obtained by using Temperature Difference Ratio (TDR). This methodology can be employed to predict the possible occurrence of condensation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Improved Direct Deadbeat Voltage Control with an Actively Damped Inductor-Capacitor Plant Model in an Islanded AC Microgrid
Energies 2016, 9(11), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110978
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A direct deadbeat voltage control design method for inverter-based microgrid applications is proposed in this paper. When the inductor-capacitor (LC) filter output voltage is directly controlled using voltage source inverters (VSIs), the plant dynamics exhibit second-order resonant characteristics with a load current disturbance.
[...] Read more.
A direct deadbeat voltage control design method for inverter-based microgrid applications is proposed in this paper. When the inductor-capacitor (LC) filter output voltage is directly controlled using voltage source inverters (VSIs), the plant dynamics exhibit second-order resonant characteristics with a load current disturbance. To effectively damp the resonance caused by the output LC filter, an active damping strategy that does not cause additional energy loss is utilized. The proposed direct deadbeat voltage control law is devised from a detailed, actively damped LC plant model. The proposed deadbeat control method enhances voltage control performance owing to its better disturbance rejection capability than the conventional deadbeat or proportional-integral-based control methods. The most important advantage of the proposed deadbeat control method is that it makes the deadbeat control more robust by bringing discrete closed-loop poles closer to the origin. Simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the enhanced voltage control performance and stability of the proposed voltage control method. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Smart Grid)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Improved Adaptive-Torque-Gain MPPT Control for Direct-Driven PMSG Wind Turbines Considering Wind Farm Turbulences
Energies 2016, 9(11), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110977
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6042 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of a wind energy conversion system (WECS). In this paper, three conventional MPPT methods are reviewed: power signal feedback (PSF) control, decreased torque gain (DTG) control, and adaptive torque gain
[...] Read more.
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of a wind energy conversion system (WECS). In this paper, three conventional MPPT methods are reviewed: power signal feedback (PSF) control, decreased torque gain (DTG) control, and adaptive torque gain (ATG) control, and their potential challenges are investigated. It is found out that the conventional MPPT method ignores the effect of wind turbine inertia and wind speed fluctuations, which lowers WECS efficiency. Accordingly, an improved adaptive torque gain (IATG) method is proposed, which customizes adaptive torque gains and enhances MPPT performances. Specifically, the IATG control considers wind farm turbulences and works out the relationship between the optimal torque gains and the wind speed characteristics, which has not been reported in the literature. The IATG control is promising, especially under the ongoing trend of building wind farms with large-scale wind turbines and at low and medium wind speed sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2017)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Three-Stage Optimal Approach for Power System Economic Dispatch Considering Microgrids
Energies 2016, 9(11), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110976
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inclusion of microgrids (MGs) in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a
[...] Read more.
The inclusion of microgrids (MGs) in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a three-stage optimal power dispatch model is proposed to solve such dispatch problems. In the proposed model, the entire power system is divided into two parts, namely, the main power grid and MGs. The optimal power dispatch problem is resolved on the basis of multi-area concepts. In stage I, the main power system economic dispatch (ED) problem is solved by sensitive factors. In stage II, the optimal power dispatches of the local MGs are addressed via an improved direct search method. In stage III, the incremental linear models for the entire power system can be established on the basis of the solutions of the previous two stages and can be subjected to linear programming to determine the optimal reschedules from the original dispatch solutions. The proposed method is coded using Matlab and tested by utilizing an IEEE 14-bus test system to verify its feasibility and accuracy. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used for the ED of power systems with MGs as virtual power plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Methods for Smart Grids Planning and Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Aluminum–Titanium Alloy Back Contact Reducing Production Cost of Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells
Energies 2016, 9(11), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110975
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, metal films are fabricated by using an in-line reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system. The aluminum–titanium (AlTi) back contacts are prepared by changing the pressure from 10 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The optical, electrical and structural properties of the metal
[...] Read more.
In this study, metal films are fabricated by using an in-line reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system. The aluminum–titanium (AlTi) back contacts are prepared by changing the pressure from 10 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The optical, electrical and structural properties of the metal back contacts are investigated. The solar cells with the AlTi had lower contact resistance than those with the silver (Ag) back contact, resulting in a higher fill factor. The AlTi contact can achieve a solar cell conversion efficiency as high as that obtained from the Ag contact. These findings encourage the potential adoption of AlTi films as an alternative back contact to silver for silicon thin-film solar cells. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Improving the Stability and Accuracy of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Using Virtual Impedance Method
Energies 2016, 9(11), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110974
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
PDF Full-text (7398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) systems are advanced, real-time platforms for combined software and hardware testing. Two paramount issues in PHIL simulations are the closed-loop stability and simulation accuracy. This paper presents a virtual impedance (VI) method for PHIL simulations that improves the simulation’s stability
[...] Read more.
Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) systems are advanced, real-time platforms for combined software and hardware testing. Two paramount issues in PHIL simulations are the closed-loop stability and simulation accuracy. This paper presents a virtual impedance (VI) method for PHIL simulations that improves the simulation’s stability and accuracy. Through the establishment of an impedance model for a PHIL simulation circuit, which is composed of a voltage-source converter and a simple network, the stability and accuracy of the PHIL system are analyzed. Then, the proposed VI method is implemented in a digital real-time simulator and used to correct the combined impedance in the impedance model, achieving higher stability and accuracy of the results. The validity of the VI method is verified through the PHIL simulation of two typical PHIL examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Low-Carbon Power and Energy Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Accelerated Model Predictive Control for Electric Vehicle Integrated Microgrid Energy Management: A Hybrid Robust and Stochastic Approach
Energies 2016, 9(11), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110973
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A microgrid with an advanced energy management approach is a feasible solution for accommodating the development of distributed generators (DGs) and electric vehicles (EVs). At the primary stage of development, the total number of EVs in a microgrid is fairly small but increases
[...] Read more.
A microgrid with an advanced energy management approach is a feasible solution for accommodating the development of distributed generators (DGs) and electric vehicles (EVs). At the primary stage of development, the total number of EVs in a microgrid is fairly small but increases promptly. Thus, it makes most prediction models for EV charging demand difficult to apply at present. To overcome the inadaptability, a novel robust approach is proposed to handle EV charging demand predictions along with demand-side management (DSM) on the condition of satisfying each EV user’s demand. Variables with stochastic forecast models join the objective function in the form of probability-constrained scenarios. This paper proposes a scenario-based model predictive control (MPC) approach combining both robust and stochastic models to minimize the total operational cost for energy management. To overcome the concern about the convergence time increasing from the combination of scenarios, the Benders decomposition (BD) technique is further adopted to improve computational efficiency. Simulation results on a combined heat and power microgrid indicate that the proposed scenario-based MPC approach achieves a better economic performance than a traditional deterministic MPC (DMPC) approach, while ensuring EV charging demands, as well as minimizing the trade-off between optimal solutions and computing times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Microgrids: Developing the Intelligent Power Grid of Tomorrow)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Failure Criteria of Gas-Infiltrated Sandy Shale Based on the Effective Stress Principle
Energies 2016, 9(11), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110972
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pore gas has a significant influence on rock strength. This study performed triaxial compression tests of gas-infiltrated sandy shale samples to investigate the strength characteristics under gas pressures of 0 and 2 MPa. The effective stress coefficient was evaluated while considering the gas
[...] Read more.
Pore gas has a significant influence on rock strength. This study performed triaxial compression tests of gas-infiltrated sandy shale samples to investigate the strength characteristics under gas pressures of 0 and 2 MPa. The effective stress coefficient was evaluated while considering the gas and solid coupling effect, and was found to decrease with increasing confining pressure. The calculated and different assumed coefficient values (0 and 1) were applied to obtain the effective principal stress. The experimental results would serve as fundamental strength data for fitting analysis in failure criterion work. The Mohr-Coulomb, Hoek-Brown, Drucker-Prager, linear Mogi, and non-linear Mogi criteria were modified based on the effective stress principle of porous rock. In addition, the RMSE, cohesion, and internal friction angle were utilized for a quantitative criterion comparison. The results showed that the Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager, and linear Mogi failure criteria led to higher errors, whereas the Hoek-Brown criterion gave an apparent distortion as a result of the empirical strength parameters. Moreover, the non-linear Mogi criterion showed a good fit. The predicted strength was overestimated when α = 0 and underestimated when α = 1, with a more accurate strength estimated when the effective stress coefficient was calculated using the effective stress principle. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Multi-Objective Optimization of a Solar Chimney Power Plant with Inclined Collector Roof Using Genetic Algorithm
Energies 2016, 9(11), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110971
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an optimization of a solar chimney power plant with an inclined collector roof using genetic algorithms. Five design parameters that affect the system performance are the collector radius, collector inlet height, collector outlet height, chimney height and diameter. A multi-objective
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an optimization of a solar chimney power plant with an inclined collector roof using genetic algorithms. Five design parameters that affect the system performance are the collector radius, collector inlet height, collector outlet height, chimney height and diameter. A multi-objective design to simultaneously optimize three conflicting objectives including system efficiency, power output and expenditure is used. Based on this approach, obtaining the best combination of the possible geometrical parameters, performance of two built pilot power plants in Kerman (Iran) and Manzanares (Spain) are optimized thermo-economically. The heights of the zero-slope collectors of the Kerman and Manzanares systems are 2 m and 1.85 m, respectively. The results show that in the Kerman pilot the optimal collector inlet and outlet heights are 1.5 m and 2.95 m, respectively, while those optimal heights in the Manzanares prototype are 1.5 m and 4.6 m, respectively. It is found that selecting the optimal collector roof configuration in addition to the other design parameters has a significant effect in the system optimization process. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Suitability Assessment of an ICE-Based Micro-CCHP Unit in Different Spanish Climatic Zones: Application of an Experimental Model in Transient Simulation
Energies 2016, 9(11), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110969
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 20 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2885 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tri-generation plants will have an important role in the near future in the residential sector where heating and cooling demands come into play throughout the year. Depending on the building’s location, the characteristics of its enclosure and its use, the thermal loads and
[...] Read more.
Tri-generation plants will have an important role in the near future in the residential sector where heating and cooling demands come into play throughout the year. Depending on the building’s location, the characteristics of its enclosure and its use, the thermal loads and demands will be different. This article analyses and compares a combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system tested in the laboratory and a single household located in Spain. The cooling capacity is obtained using a reversible heat pump where the compressor is driven directly by a gas engine with internal combustion engine (ICE) technology. The tests were carried out in a work bench at three different operating speeds. A variable-speed model is developed in the TRNSYS simulation environment with an operating strategy following the thermal load (FTL). Once the micro-CCHP system was modeled with experimental data and validated, it was dynamically simulated to analyze its performance in different climatic zones defined in the Spanish “Código Técnico de la Edificación” (CTE). This study reveals that the micro-CCHP system is suitable in mild weathers during the summer season. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview A Review of Factors Influencing the Cost Development of Electricity Generation Technologies
Energies 2016, 9(11), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110970
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reviews the literature on the past cost dynamics of various renewable, fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation technologies. It identifies 10 different factors which have played key roles in influencing past cost developments according to the literature. These 10 factors are:
[...] Read more.
This article reviews the literature on the past cost dynamics of various renewable, fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation technologies. It identifies 10 different factors which have played key roles in influencing past cost developments according to the literature. These 10 factors are: deployment-induced learning, research, development and demonstration (RD&D)-induced learning, knowledge spillovers from other technologies, upsizing, economies of manufacturing scale, economies of project scale, changes in material and labour costs, changes in fuel costs, regulatory changes, and limits to the availability of suitable sites. The article summarises the relevant literature findings for each of these 10 factors and provides an overview indicating which factors have impacted on which generation technologies. The article also discusses the insights gained from the review for a better understanding of possible future cost developments of electricity generation technologies. Finally, future research needs, which may support a better understanding of past and future cost developments, are identified. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Long Term Expected Revenue of Wind Farms Considering the Bidding Admission Uncertainty
Energies 2016, 9(11), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110945
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 6 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
PDF Full-text (1440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a long term bidding behavior, bid shading is exhibited by wind farms participating in real Uniform Price (UP) markets. This signifies that the wind farm owners bid far below their true long run marginal cost. In this paper, a method is proposed
[...] Read more.
As a long term bidding behavior, bid shading is exhibited by wind farms participating in real Uniform Price (UP) markets. This signifies that the wind farm owners bid far below their true long run marginal cost. In this paper, a method is proposed to consider the uncertainty of bidding admission in the long term expected revenue of wind farms. We show that this consideration could perfectly explain the observed bid shading behavior of wind farm owners. We use a novel market price model with a stochastic model of a wind farm to derive indices describing the uncertainty of bidding admission. The optimal behavior of the wind farm is then obtained by establishing a multi objective optimization problem and subsequently solved using genetic algorithm. The method is applied to the analysis of long term bidding behavior of a wind farm participating in a Pay-as-Bid (PAB) auction such as Iran Electricity Market (IEM). The results demonstrate that wind farm owners change their bid shading behavior in a PAB Auction. However, the expected revenue of the wind farm will also decrease in a PAB auction. As a result, it is not recommended to make an obligation for the wind farms to participate in a PAB auction as a normal market player. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Climate Change 2016)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles †
Energies 2016, 9(11), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110968
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes and systems are
[...] Read more.
The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions of using existing, or developing their own, solutions for further applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2nd Energy Future Conference)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Detailed Assessment of the Wave Energy Resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site
Energies 2016, 9(11), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110967
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (22521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wave characteristic assessments of wave energy test sites provide a greater understanding of prevailing wave conditions and are therefore extremely important to both wave energy test site operators and clients as they can inform wave energy converter design, optimisation, deployment, operation and maintenance.
[...] Read more.
Wave characteristic assessments of wave energy test sites provide a greater understanding of prevailing wave conditions and are therefore extremely important to both wave energy test site operators and clients as they can inform wave energy converter design, optimisation, deployment, operation and maintenance. This research presents an assessment of the wave resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) on the west coast of Ireland based on 12-years of modelled data from January 2004 to December 2015. The primary aim is to provide an assessment of annual and seasonal wave characteristics and resource variability at the two deployment berths which comprise the site. A nested model has been developed using Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) to replicate wave propagations from regional to local scale with a 0.05° resolution model covering the northeast Atlantic and a 0.0027° resolution model covering AMETS. The coarse and fine models have been extensively validated against available measured data within Irish waters. 12-year model outputs from the high resolution model were analysed to determine mean and maximum conditions and operational, high and extreme event conditions for significant wave height, energy period and power. Annual and seasonal analyses are presented. The 12-year annual mean P were 68 kW/m at Berth A (BA) and 57 kW/m at Berth B (BB). The resource shows strong seasonal and annual variations and the winter mean power levels were found to be strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling of Wave and Tidal Energy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Study on the Static Load Capacity and Synthetic Vector Direct Torque Control of Brushless Doubly Fed Machines
Energies 2016, 9(11), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110966
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (8789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compared to the doubly fed machine, the brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM) has high reliability and low maintenance requirements. First, by taking the negative conjugation of the control motor variables in rotor reference frame, a state-space model of BDFM is derived. It is
[...] Read more.
Compared to the doubly fed machine, the brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM) has high reliability and low maintenance requirements. First, by taking the negative conjugation of the control motor variables in rotor reference frame, a state-space model of BDFM is derived. It is then transformed into synchronous reference frame, called synchronous reference frame state-space model (SSSM). In this way, all the variables of the SSSM are DC under the static state. Second, on the basis of the analysis of static equations, the possible output torque limits are obtained. Third, the causes of losing control are analyzed by the flux and the torque derivatives. A new control strategy called synthetic vector direct torque control (SVDTC) is proposed to solve the losing control problems of the conventional direct torque control (DTC). Finally, the correctness of the results of this paper is verified by calculation examples and simulation results, the losing control problems can be solved, and the theoretical output capacity limits can be reached using SVDTC. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Biogas Production on Farmland Rental Prices: Empirical Evidences from Northern Italy
Energies 2016, 9(11), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110965
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last decade, increased environmental awareness has prompted the adoption of incentives for exploiting renewable energy sources. Among these, biogas production has received a certain attention in developed countries. Nonetheless, the subsidies provided have posed the problem of an activity (the production
[...] Read more.
In the last decade, increased environmental awareness has prompted the adoption of incentives for exploiting renewable energy sources. Among these, biogas production has received a certain attention in developed countries. Nonetheless, the subsidies provided have posed the problem of an activity (the production of bioenergy) that engages in direct competition with food and feed production for limited resources, like agricultural land. Even if this competition may be softened by allocating marginal land and/or using dedicated non-agricultural crops, empirical evidence shows that biogas plants have been developed in highly-productive agricultural areas, using increasing amounts of maize silage as feedstock. Thus, studies aimed at measuring the effect of biogas production on agricultural activities are needed in order to avoid this socially undesirable outcome. The paper presents an econometric estimation of the impact of biogas plants on farmland rental values of a Northern Italian rural area. Results show that biogas has a non-linear effect on rental prices, suggesting that incentive schemes specifically accounting for plants’ dimensions and technologies would improve the social sustainability of the bioenergy sector and its coexistence with agricultural activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economics of Bioenergy 2016)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe
Energies 2016, 9(11), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110963
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical), hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G) from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical
[...] Read more.
Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical), hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G) from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by means of the electrolysis of water which does not produce any toxic or climate-relevant emission. This paper aims to pinpoint the potential uses of renewable hydrogen storage systems in Europe, analysing current and potential locations, regulatory framework, governments’ outlooks, economic issues, and available renewable energy amounts. The expert opinion survey, already used in many research articles on different topics including energy, has been selected as an effective method to produce realistic results. The obtained results highlight strategies and actions to optimize the storage of hydrogen produced by renewables to face varying electricity demand and generation-driven fluctuations reducing the negative effects of the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix of European Countries. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production
Energies 2016, 9(11), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110960
Received: 24 August 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA) of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and
[...] Read more.
Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA) of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Novel Auto-Reclosing Blocking Method for Combined Overhead-Cable Lines in Power Networks
Energies 2016, 9(11), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110964
Received: 25 June 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
PDF Full-text (7551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel auto-reclosing blocking method for combined overhead-cable lines in power distribution networks that are solidly or impedance grounded, with distribution transformers in a delta connection in their high-voltage sides. The main contribution of this new technique is that it
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel auto-reclosing blocking method for combined overhead-cable lines in power distribution networks that are solidly or impedance grounded, with distribution transformers in a delta connection in their high-voltage sides. The main contribution of this new technique is that it can detect whether a ground fault has been produced at the overhead line side or at the cable line side, thus improving the performance of the auto-reclosing functionality. This localization technique is based on the measurements and analysis of the argument differences between the load currents in the active conductors of the cable and the currents in the shields at the cable end where the transformers in delta connection are installed, including a wavelet analysis. This technique has been verified through computer simulations and experimental laboratory tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Communication in Distributed Generation Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Linearization and Control of Series-Series Compensated Inductive Power Transfer System Based on Extended Describing Function Concept
Energies 2016, 9(11), 962; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110962
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extended describing function (EDF) is a well-known method for modelling resonant converters due to its high accuracy. However, it requires complex mathematical formulation effort. This paper presents a simplified non-linear mathematical model of series-series (SS) compensated inductive power transfer (IPT) system, considering
[...] Read more.
The extended describing function (EDF) is a well-known method for modelling resonant converters due to its high accuracy. However, it requires complex mathematical formulation effort. This paper presents a simplified non-linear mathematical model of series-series (SS) compensated inductive power transfer (IPT) system, considering zero-voltage switching in the inverter. This simplified mathematical model permits the user to derive the small-signal model using the EDF method, with less computational effort, while maintaining the accuracy of an actual physical model. The derived model has been verified using a frequency sweep method in PLECS. The small-signal model has been used to design the voltage loop controller for a SS compensated IPT system. The designed controller was implemented on a 3.6 kW experimental setup, to test its robustness. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Adaptive Speed Control Approach for DC Shunt Motors
Energies 2016, 9(11), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110961
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A B-spline neural networks-based adaptive control technique for angular speed reference trajectory tracking tasks with highly efficient performance for direct current shunt motors is proposed. A methodology for adaptive control and its proper training procedure are introduced. This algorithm sets the control signal
[...] Read more.
A B-spline neural networks-based adaptive control technique for angular speed reference trajectory tracking tasks with highly efficient performance for direct current shunt motors is proposed. A methodology for adaptive control and its proper training procedure are introduced. This algorithm sets the control signal without using a detailed mathematical model nor exact values of the parameters of the nonlinear dynamic system. The proposed robust adaptive tracking control scheme only requires measurements of the velocity output signal. Thus, real-time measurements or estimations of acceleration, current and disturbance signals are avoided. Experimental results confirm the efficient and robust performance of the proposed control approach for highly demanding motor operation conditions exposed to variable-speed reference trajectories and completely unknown load torque. Hence, laboratory experimental tests on a direct current shunt motor prove the viability of the proposed adaptive output feedback trajectory tracking control approach. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Parametric Density Recalibration of a Fundamental Market Model to Forecast Electricity Prices
Energies 2016, 9(11), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110959
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a new approach to hybrid forecasting methodology, characterized as the statistical recalibration of forecasts from fundamental market price formation models. Such hybrid methods based upon fundamentals are particularly appropriate to medium term forecasting and in this paper the application is
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new approach to hybrid forecasting methodology, characterized as the statistical recalibration of forecasts from fundamental market price formation models. Such hybrid methods based upon fundamentals are particularly appropriate to medium term forecasting and in this paper the application is to month-ahead, hourly prediction of electricity wholesale prices in Spain. The recalibration methodology is innovative in seeking to perform the recalibration into parametrically defined density functions. The density estimation method selects from a wide diversity of general four-parameter distributions to fit hourly spot prices, in which the first four moments are dynamically estimated as latent functions of the outputs from the fundamental model and several other plausible exogenous drivers. The proposed approach demonstrated its effectiveness against benchmark methods across the full range of percentiles of the price distribution and performed particularly well in the tails. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forecasting Models of Electricity Prices) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview An Alternative to Conventional Rock Fragmentation Methods Using SCDA: A Review
Energies 2016, 9(11), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110958
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global energy and material consumption are expected to rise in exponential proportions during the next few decades, generating huge demands for deep earth energy (oil/gas) recovery and mineral processing. Under such circumstances, the continuation of existing methods in rock fragmentation in such applications
[...] Read more.
Global energy and material consumption are expected to rise in exponential proportions during the next few decades, generating huge demands for deep earth energy (oil/gas) recovery and mineral processing. Under such circumstances, the continuation of existing methods in rock fragmentation in such applications is questionable due to the proven adverse environmental impacts associated with them. In this regard; the possibility of using more environmentally friendly options as Soundless Chemical Demolition Agents (SCDAs) play a vital role in replacing harmful conventional rock fragmentation techniques for gas; oil and mineral recovery. This study reviews up to date research on soundless cracking demolition agent (SCDA) application on rock fracturing including its limitations and strengths, possible applications in the petroleum industry and the possibility of using existing rock fragmentation models for SCDA-based rock fragmentation; also known as fracking. Though the expansive properties of SCDAs are currently used in some demolition works, the poor usage guidelines available reflect the insufficient research carried out on its material’s behavior. SCDA is a cementitious powdery substance with quicklime (CaO) as its primary ingredient that expands upon contact with water; which results in a huge expansive pressure if this CaO hydration reaction occurs in a confined condition. So, the mechanism can be used for rock fragmentation by injecting the SCDA into boreholes of a rock mass; where the resulting expansive pressure is sufficient to create an effective fracture network in the confined rock mass around the borehole. This expansive pressure development, however, dependent on many factors, where formation water content creates a negative influence on this due to required greater degree of hydration under greater water contents and temperature creates a positive influence by accelerating the reaction. Having a precise understanding of the fracture propagation mechanisms when using SCDA is important due to the formation of complex fracture networks in rocks. Several models can be found in the literature based on the tangential and radial stresses acting on a rock mass surrounding an SCDA charged borehole. Those fracture models with quasi-static fracturing mechanism that occurs in Mode I type tensile failure show compatibility with SCDA fracturing mechanisms. The effect of borehole diameter, spacing and the arrangement on expansive pressure generation and corresponding fracture network generation is important in the SCDA fracturing process and effective handling of them would pave the way to creating an optimum fracture network in a targeted rock formation. SCDA has many potential applications in unconventional gas and oil recovery and in-situ mining in mineral processing. However, effective utilization of SCDA in such application needs much extensive research on the performance of SCDA with respect to its potential applications, particularly when considering unique issues arising in using SCDA in different applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Unconventional Natural Gas (UNG) Recoveries)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints
Energies 2016, 9(11), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110957
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 5 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
PDF Full-text (1915 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants
[...] Read more.
An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Power System Operations and Planning)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Distributed Generation Islanding Effect on Distribution Networks and End User Loads Using the Load Sharing Islanding Method
Energies 2016, 9(11), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110956
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (12756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper a realistic medium voltage (MV) network with four different distributed generation technologies (diesel, gas, hydro and wind) along with their excitation and governor control systems is modelled and simulated. Moreover, an exponential model was used to represent the loads in
[...] Read more.
In this paper a realistic medium voltage (MV) network with four different distributed generation technologies (diesel, gas, hydro and wind) along with their excitation and governor control systems is modelled and simulated. Moreover, an exponential model was used to represent the loads in the network. The dynamic and steady state behavior of the four distributed generation technologies was investigated during grid-connected operation and two transition modes to the islanding situation, planned and unplanned. This study aims to address the feasibility of planned islanding operation and to investigate the effect of unplanned islanding. The load sharing islanding method has been used for controlling the distributed generation units during grid-connected and islanding operation. The simulation results were validated through various case studies and have shown that properly planned islanding transition could provide support to critical loads at the event of utility outages. However, a reliable protection scheme would be required to mitigate the adverse effect of unplanned islanding as all unplanned sub-cases returned severe negative results. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation on Wall Film Distribution of Dimethyl Ether/Diesel Blended Fuels Formed during Spray Wall Impingement
Energies 2016, 9(11), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110949
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 16 November 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dimethyl ether (DME)/diesel blended fuels are used to improve the emissions caused by spray wall impingement during the early injection period. However, experimental results have showed that the spray wall impingement still cannot be avoided due to the engine structure and low density
[...] Read more.
Dimethyl ether (DME)/diesel blended fuels are used to improve the emissions caused by spray wall impingement during the early injection period. However, experimental results have showed that the spray wall impingement still cannot be avoided due to the engine structure and low density of the in-cylinder charge at the early injection timing. Furthermore, the wall film formed in the spray wall impingement process directly affects fuel/air mixture formation, combustion, exhaust emissions and oil quality subsequently. In this paper, the wall film distribution of DME/diesel blended fuels formed during the spray wall impingement process has been experimentally investigated. The variations of wall film distribution, wall film area and average thickness with different injection pressures, impingement distances, impingement angles and blending ratios have been discussed under both dry wall and wet wall conditions. Results showed that the wall film distribution styles were mainly determined by the spray impingement momentum. The variation of the wall film area and average thickness were affected by three factors including the impingement momentum, wall film mass and fuel properties. Correlation analysis was introduced in order to evaluate the effect of each impact factor on the variation of wall film area and average thickness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Automotive Engines Emissions and Control)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle The Demand Side Management Potential to Balance a Highly Renewable European Power System
Energies 2016, 9(11), 955; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110955
Received: 3 July 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shares of renewables continue to grow in the European power system. A fully renewable European power system will primarily depend on the renewable power sources of wind and photovoltaics (PV), which are not dispatchable but intermittent and therefore pose a challenge to the
[...] Read more.
Shares of renewables continue to grow in the European power system. A fully renewable European power system will primarily depend on the renewable power sources of wind and photovoltaics (PV), which are not dispatchable but intermittent and therefore pose a challenge to the balancing of the power system. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been proposed and investigated in the past, including storage, backup power, reinforcement of the transmission grid, and demand side management (DSM). In this paper, we investigate the potential of DSM to balance a simplified, fully renewable European power system. For this purpose, we use ten years of weather and historical load data, a power-flow model and the implementation of demand side management as a storage equivalent, to investigate the impact of DSM on the need for backup energy. We show that DSM has the potential to reduce the need for backup energy in Europe by up to one third and can cover the need for backup up to a renewable share of 67%. Finally, it is demonstrated that the optimal mix of wind and PV is shifted by the utilisation of DSM towards a higher share of PV, from 19% to 36%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Study on Insulator Flashover Voltage Gradient Correction Considering Soluble Pollution Constituents
Energies 2016, 9(11), 954; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110954
Received: 11 September 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2718 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural polluted insulator surfaces are always coated with various kinds of soluble constituents, and those constituents affect flashover performance differentially. Currently, this fact is not considered either in laboratory experiments or field pollution degree measurements, causing the existing insulation selection method to be
[...] Read more.
Natural polluted insulator surfaces are always coated with various kinds of soluble constituents, and those constituents affect flashover performance differentially. Currently, this fact is not considered either in laboratory experiments or field pollution degree measurements, causing the existing insulation selection method to be deficient. In this paper, a systematic study on insulator flashover voltage gradient correction involving different types of soluble pollution constituents is presented. Using a typical type glass insulator as the sample, its flashover tests, polluted by typical soluble chemicals (NaCl, NaNO3, KNO3, NH4NO3, MgSO4, Ca(NO3)2 and CaSO4), were carried out. Then, the flashover gradient correction was made by combining the flashover performance of each soluble constituent, the equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD) contribution of the seven constituents, and the saturation performance of CaSO4. The correction agreed with the flashover test results of insulator polluted by three types of soluble mixture. Research results indicate that the flashover gradient correction method proposed in this paper performs well in reducing the calculating error. It is recommended to carry out component measurements and flashover gradient correction to better select outdoor insulation configuration. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Retrofitted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Swedish Single-Family Houses—Evaluation of a Prototype and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Energies 2016, 9(11), 953; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110953
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly
[...] Read more.
According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. Previous studies have investigated such retrofitting, using theoretical simulations and laboratory tests, but no actual installations were made and tested in practice. This article describes the installation, measured performance and cost effectiveness of a retrofitting solution that converts existing domestic hot water heaters to a solar domestic hot water system. The measured performance is characterised by the monthly and annual solar fractions. The cost effectiveness is evaluated by a life-cycle cost analysis, comparing the retrofitted system to a conventional solar domestic hot water system and the case without any solar heating system. Measurements showed that approximately 50% of the 5000 kWh/year of domestic hot water consumption was saved by the retrofitted system in south Sweden. Such savings are in agreement with previous estimations and are comparable to the energy savings when using a conventional solar domestic hot water system. The life-cycle cost analysis showed that, according to the assumptions and given climate, the return on investment of the retrofitted system is approximately 17 years, while a conventional system does not reach profitability during its lifetime of 25 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solar Cooling and Heating)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Optimization of Electrochemically Deposited Highly Doped ZnO Bilayers on Ga-Rich Chalcopyrite Selenide for Cost-Effective Photovoltaic Device Technology
Energies 2016, 9(11), 951; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110951
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High quality polycrystalline bilayers of aluminium doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) were successively electrodeposited in the form of columnar structures preferentially oriented along the (101¯1) crystallographic direction from aqueous solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2) at negative
[...] Read more.
High quality polycrystalline bilayers of aluminium doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) were successively electrodeposited in the form of columnar structures preferentially oriented along the ( 10 1 ¯ 1 ) crystallographic direction from aqueous solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2) at negative electrochemical potential of EC = (−0.8)–(−1.2) V and moderate temperature of 80 °C on gallium rich (30% Ga) chalcopyrite selenide Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) with chemically deposited ZnSe buffer (ZnSe/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo/glass). The aluminium doped ZnO layer properties have initially been probed by deposition of Al:ZnO/i-ZnO bilayers directly on Mo/glass substrates. The band-gap energy of the Al:ZnO/i-ZnO reference layers was found to vary from 3.2 to 3.7 eV by varying the AlCl3 solute dopant concentration from 1 to 20 mM. The electrical resistivity of indium-pellet contacted highly doped Al:ZnO sheet of In/Al:ZnO/i-ZnO/Mo/glass reference samples was of the order ρ ~10−5 Ω·cm; the respective carrier concentration of the order 1022 cm−3 is commensurate with that of sputtered Al:ZnO layers. For crystal quality optimization of the bilayers by maintenance of the volatile selenium content of the chalcopyrite, they were subjected to 2-step annealing under successive temperature raise and N2 flux regulation. The hydrostatic compressive strain due to Al3+ incorporation in the ZnO lattice of bilayers processed successively with 5 and 12 mM AlCl3 dopant was εh = −0.046 and the respective stress σh = −20 GPa. The surface reflectivity of maximum 5% over the scanned region of 180–900 nm and the (optical) band gap of Eg = 3.67 eV were indicative of the high optical quality of the electrochemically deposited (ECD) Al:ZnO bilayers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Structured Solar Cells)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top