Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Energies, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) We investigated the possibility of using soundless cracking demolition agents (SCDAs) as an [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-120
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of Thermal Behaviors in Window Systems by Monitoring of Surface Condensation Using Full-Scale Measurements and Simulation Tools
Energies 2016, 9(11), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110979
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal performance of window systems using full-scale measurements and simulation tools. A chamber was installed on the balcony of an apartment to control the temperatures which can create condensation on the interior surfaces
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal performance of window systems using full-scale measurements and simulation tools. A chamber was installed on the balcony of an apartment to control the temperatures which can create condensation on the interior surfaces of window systems. The condensation process on the window was carefully scrutinized when outdoor and indoor temperature and indoor relative humidity ranged from −15 °C to −20 °C, 23 °C to 24 °C, and 50% to 65%, respectively. The results of these investigations were analyzed to determine how the moisture is influenced by changing temperatures. It appears that the glass-edge was highly susceptible to the temperature variations and the lowest temperature on the glass edge was caused by the heat transfer through the spacer, between the two glass panels of the window. The results from the simulation used in this study confirm that the thermal performance of window systems can be improved the use of super insulated or thermally broken spacers. If the values of the indoor humidity and temperature are given, then the outdoor temperature when condensation forms can be obtained by using Temperature Difference Ratio (TDR). This methodology can be employed to predict the possible occurrence of condensation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Heating and Cooling Techniques)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Improved Direct Deadbeat Voltage Control with an Actively Damped Inductor-Capacitor Plant Model in an Islanded AC Microgrid
Energies 2016, 9(11), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110978
Received: 7 October 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A direct deadbeat voltage control design method for inverter-based microgrid applications is proposed in this paper. When the inductor-capacitor (LC) filter output voltage is directly controlled using voltage source inverters (VSIs), the plant dynamics exhibit second-order resonant characteristics with a load current disturbance.
[...] Read more.
A direct deadbeat voltage control design method for inverter-based microgrid applications is proposed in this paper. When the inductor-capacitor (LC) filter output voltage is directly controlled using voltage source inverters (VSIs), the plant dynamics exhibit second-order resonant characteristics with a load current disturbance. To effectively damp the resonance caused by the output LC filter, an active damping strategy that does not cause additional energy loss is utilized. The proposed direct deadbeat voltage control law is devised from a detailed, actively damped LC plant model. The proposed deadbeat control method enhances voltage control performance owing to its better disturbance rejection capability than the conventional deadbeat or proportional-integral-based control methods. The most important advantage of the proposed deadbeat control method is that it makes the deadbeat control more robust by bringing discrete closed-loop poles closer to the origin. Simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the enhanced voltage control performance and stability of the proposed voltage control method. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Smart Grid)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Improved Adaptive-Torque-Gain MPPT Control for Direct-Driven PMSG Wind Turbines Considering Wind Farm Turbulences
Energies 2016, 9(11), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110977
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (6042 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of a wind energy conversion system (WECS). In this paper, three conventional MPPT methods are reviewed: power signal feedback (PSF) control, decreased torque gain (DTG) control, and adaptive torque gain
[...] Read more.
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in increasing the efficiency of a wind energy conversion system (WECS). In this paper, three conventional MPPT methods are reviewed: power signal feedback (PSF) control, decreased torque gain (DTG) control, and adaptive torque gain (ATG) control, and their potential challenges are investigated. It is found out that the conventional MPPT method ignores the effect of wind turbine inertia and wind speed fluctuations, which lowers WECS efficiency. Accordingly, an improved adaptive torque gain (IATG) method is proposed, which customizes adaptive torque gains and enhances MPPT performances. Specifically, the IATG control considers wind farm turbulences and works out the relationship between the optimal torque gains and the wind speed characteristics, which has not been reported in the literature. The IATG control is promising, especially under the ongoing trend of building wind farms with large-scale wind turbines and at low and medium wind speed sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2017)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Three-Stage Optimal Approach for Power System Economic Dispatch Considering Microgrids
Energies 2016, 9(11), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110976
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4598 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inclusion of microgrids (MGs) in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a
[...] Read more.
The inclusion of microgrids (MGs) in power systems, especially distribution-substation-level MGs, significantly affects power systems because of the large volumes of import and export power flows. Consequently, power dispatch has become complicated, and finding an optimal solution is difficult. In this study, a three-stage optimal power dispatch model is proposed to solve such dispatch problems. In the proposed model, the entire power system is divided into two parts, namely, the main power grid and MGs. The optimal power dispatch problem is resolved on the basis of multi-area concepts. In stage I, the main power system economic dispatch (ED) problem is solved by sensitive factors. In stage II, the optimal power dispatches of the local MGs are addressed via an improved direct search method. In stage III, the incremental linear models for the entire power system can be established on the basis of the solutions of the previous two stages and can be subjected to linear programming to determine the optimal reschedules from the original dispatch solutions. The proposed method is coded using Matlab and tested by utilizing an IEEE 14-bus test system to verify its feasibility and accuracy. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach can be used for the ED of power systems with MGs as virtual power plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Methods for Smart Grids Planning and Management)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Aluminum–Titanium Alloy Back Contact Reducing Production Cost of Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells
Energies 2016, 9(11), 975; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110975
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, metal films are fabricated by using an in-line reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system. The aluminum–titanium (AlTi) back contacts are prepared by changing the pressure from 10 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The optical, electrical and structural properties of the metal
[...] Read more.
In this study, metal films are fabricated by using an in-line reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system. The aluminum–titanium (AlTi) back contacts are prepared by changing the pressure from 10 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The optical, electrical and structural properties of the metal back contacts are investigated. The solar cells with the AlTi had lower contact resistance than those with the silver (Ag) back contact, resulting in a higher fill factor. The AlTi contact can achieve a solar cell conversion efficiency as high as that obtained from the Ag contact. These findings encourage the potential adoption of AlTi films as an alternative back contact to silver for silicon thin-film solar cells. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Improving the Stability and Accuracy of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Using Virtual Impedance Method
Energies 2016, 9(11), 974; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110974
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
PDF Full-text (7398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) systems are advanced, real-time platforms for combined software and hardware testing. Two paramount issues in PHIL simulations are the closed-loop stability and simulation accuracy. This paper presents a virtual impedance (VI) method for PHIL simulations that improves the simulation’s stability
[...] Read more.
Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) systems are advanced, real-time platforms for combined software and hardware testing. Two paramount issues in PHIL simulations are the closed-loop stability and simulation accuracy. This paper presents a virtual impedance (VI) method for PHIL simulations that improves the simulation’s stability and accuracy. Through the establishment of an impedance model for a PHIL simulation circuit, which is composed of a voltage-source converter and a simple network, the stability and accuracy of the PHIL system are analyzed. Then, the proposed VI method is implemented in a digital real-time simulator and used to correct the combined impedance in the impedance model, achieving higher stability and accuracy of the results. The validity of the VI method is verified through the PHIL simulation of two typical PHIL examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next-Generation Low-Carbon Power and Energy Systems)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Accelerated Model Predictive Control for Electric Vehicle Integrated Microgrid Energy Management: A Hybrid Robust and Stochastic Approach
Energies 2016, 9(11), 973; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110973
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A microgrid with an advanced energy management approach is a feasible solution for accommodating the development of distributed generators (DGs) and electric vehicles (EVs). At the primary stage of development, the total number of EVs in a microgrid is fairly small but increases
[...] Read more.
A microgrid with an advanced energy management approach is a feasible solution for accommodating the development of distributed generators (DGs) and electric vehicles (EVs). At the primary stage of development, the total number of EVs in a microgrid is fairly small but increases promptly. Thus, it makes most prediction models for EV charging demand difficult to apply at present. To overcome the inadaptability, a novel robust approach is proposed to handle EV charging demand predictions along with demand-side management (DSM) on the condition of satisfying each EV user’s demand. Variables with stochastic forecast models join the objective function in the form of probability-constrained scenarios. This paper proposes a scenario-based model predictive control (MPC) approach combining both robust and stochastic models to minimize the total operational cost for energy management. To overcome the concern about the convergence time increasing from the combination of scenarios, the Benders decomposition (BD) technique is further adopted to improve computational efficiency. Simulation results on a combined heat and power microgrid indicate that the proposed scenario-based MPC approach achieves a better economic performance than a traditional deterministic MPC (DMPC) approach, while ensuring EV charging demands, as well as minimizing the trade-off between optimal solutions and computing times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Microgrids: Developing the Intelligent Power Grid of Tomorrow)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Failure Criteria of Gas-Infiltrated Sandy Shale Based on the Effective Stress Principle
Energies 2016, 9(11), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110972
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pore gas has a significant influence on rock strength. This study performed triaxial compression tests of gas-infiltrated sandy shale samples to investigate the strength characteristics under gas pressures of 0 and 2 MPa. The effective stress coefficient was evaluated while considering the gas
[...] Read more.
Pore gas has a significant influence on rock strength. This study performed triaxial compression tests of gas-infiltrated sandy shale samples to investigate the strength characteristics under gas pressures of 0 and 2 MPa. The effective stress coefficient was evaluated while considering the gas and solid coupling effect, and was found to decrease with increasing confining pressure. The calculated and different assumed coefficient values (0 and 1) were applied to obtain the effective principal stress. The experimental results would serve as fundamental strength data for fitting analysis in failure criterion work. The Mohr-Coulomb, Hoek-Brown, Drucker-Prager, linear Mogi, and non-linear Mogi criteria were modified based on the effective stress principle of porous rock. In addition, the RMSE, cohesion, and internal friction angle were utilized for a quantitative criterion comparison. The results showed that the Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager, and linear Mogi failure criteria led to higher errors, whereas the Hoek-Brown criterion gave an apparent distortion as a result of the empirical strength parameters. Moreover, the non-linear Mogi criterion showed a good fit. The predicted strength was overestimated when α = 0 and underestimated when α = 1, with a more accurate strength estimated when the effective stress coefficient was calculated using the effective stress principle. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Multi-Objective Optimization of a Solar Chimney Power Plant with Inclined Collector Roof Using Genetic Algorithm
Energies 2016, 9(11), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110971
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 9 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an optimization of a solar chimney power plant with an inclined collector roof using genetic algorithms. Five design parameters that affect the system performance are the collector radius, collector inlet height, collector outlet height, chimney height and diameter. A multi-objective
[...] Read more.
This paper presents an optimization of a solar chimney power plant with an inclined collector roof using genetic algorithms. Five design parameters that affect the system performance are the collector radius, collector inlet height, collector outlet height, chimney height and diameter. A multi-objective design to simultaneously optimize three conflicting objectives including system efficiency, power output and expenditure is used. Based on this approach, obtaining the best combination of the possible geometrical parameters, performance of two built pilot power plants in Kerman (Iran) and Manzanares (Spain) are optimized thermo-economically. The heights of the zero-slope collectors of the Kerman and Manzanares systems are 2 m and 1.85 m, respectively. The results show that in the Kerman pilot the optimal collector inlet and outlet heights are 1.5 m and 2.95 m, respectively, while those optimal heights in the Manzanares prototype are 1.5 m and 4.6 m, respectively. It is found that selecting the optimal collector roof configuration in addition to the other design parameters has a significant effect in the system optimization process. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Suitability Assessment of an ICE-Based Micro-CCHP Unit in Different Spanish Climatic Zones: Application of an Experimental Model in Transient Simulation
Energies 2016, 9(11), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110969
Received: 19 October 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 20 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2885 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tri-generation plants will have an important role in the near future in the residential sector where heating and cooling demands come into play throughout the year. Depending on the building’s location, the characteristics of its enclosure and its use, the thermal loads and
[...] Read more.
Tri-generation plants will have an important role in the near future in the residential sector where heating and cooling demands come into play throughout the year. Depending on the building’s location, the characteristics of its enclosure and its use, the thermal loads and demands will be different. This article analyses and compares a combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system tested in the laboratory and a single household located in Spain. The cooling capacity is obtained using a reversible heat pump where the compressor is driven directly by a gas engine with internal combustion engine (ICE) technology. The tests were carried out in a work bench at three different operating speeds. A variable-speed model is developed in the TRNSYS simulation environment with an operating strategy following the thermal load (FTL). Once the micro-CCHP system was modeled with experimental data and validated, it was dynamically simulated to analyze its performance in different climatic zones defined in the Spanish “Código Técnico de la Edificación” (CTE). This study reveals that the micro-CCHP system is suitable in mild weathers during the summer season. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview A Review of Factors Influencing the Cost Development of Electricity Generation Technologies
Energies 2016, 9(11), 970; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110970
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (989 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reviews the literature on the past cost dynamics of various renewable, fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation technologies. It identifies 10 different factors which have played key roles in influencing past cost developments according to the literature. These 10 factors are:
[...] Read more.
This article reviews the literature on the past cost dynamics of various renewable, fossil fuel and nuclear electricity generation technologies. It identifies 10 different factors which have played key roles in influencing past cost developments according to the literature. These 10 factors are: deployment-induced learning, research, development and demonstration (RD&D)-induced learning, knowledge spillovers from other technologies, upsizing, economies of manufacturing scale, economies of project scale, changes in material and labour costs, changes in fuel costs, regulatory changes, and limits to the availability of suitable sites. The article summarises the relevant literature findings for each of these 10 factors and provides an overview indicating which factors have impacted on which generation technologies. The article also discusses the insights gained from the review for a better understanding of possible future cost developments of electricity generation technologies. Finally, future research needs, which may support a better understanding of past and future cost developments, are identified. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Long Term Expected Revenue of Wind Farms Considering the Bidding Admission Uncertainty
Energies 2016, 9(11), 945; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110945
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 6 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
PDF Full-text (1440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a long term bidding behavior, bid shading is exhibited by wind farms participating in real Uniform Price (UP) markets. This signifies that the wind farm owners bid far below their true long run marginal cost. In this paper, a method is proposed
[...] Read more.
As a long term bidding behavior, bid shading is exhibited by wind farms participating in real Uniform Price (UP) markets. This signifies that the wind farm owners bid far below their true long run marginal cost. In this paper, a method is proposed to consider the uncertainty of bidding admission in the long term expected revenue of wind farms. We show that this consideration could perfectly explain the observed bid shading behavior of wind farm owners. We use a novel market price model with a stochastic model of a wind farm to derive indices describing the uncertainty of bidding admission. The optimal behavior of the wind farm is then obtained by establishing a multi objective optimization problem and subsequently solved using genetic algorithm. The method is applied to the analysis of long term bidding behavior of a wind farm participating in a Pay-as-Bid (PAB) auction such as Iran Electricity Market (IEM). The results demonstrate that wind farm owners change their bid shading behavior in a PAB Auction. However, the expected revenue of the wind farm will also decrease in a PAB auction. As a result, it is not recommended to make an obligation for the wind farms to participate in a PAB auction as a normal market player. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Climate Change 2016)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles †
Energies 2016, 9(11), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110968
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes and systems are
[...] Read more.
The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions of using existing, or developing their own, solutions for further applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from 2nd Energy Future Conference)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Detailed Assessment of the Wave Energy Resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site
Energies 2016, 9(11), 967; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110967
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (22521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wave characteristic assessments of wave energy test sites provide a greater understanding of prevailing wave conditions and are therefore extremely important to both wave energy test site operators and clients as they can inform wave energy converter design, optimisation, deployment, operation and maintenance.
[...] Read more.
Wave characteristic assessments of wave energy test sites provide a greater understanding of prevailing wave conditions and are therefore extremely important to both wave energy test site operators and clients as they can inform wave energy converter design, optimisation, deployment, operation and maintenance. This research presents an assessment of the wave resource at the Atlantic Marine Energy Test Site (AMETS) on the west coast of Ireland based on 12-years of modelled data from January 2004 to December 2015. The primary aim is to provide an assessment of annual and seasonal wave characteristics and resource variability at the two deployment berths which comprise the site. A nested model has been developed using Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) to replicate wave propagations from regional to local scale with a 0.05° resolution model covering the northeast Atlantic and a 0.0027° resolution model covering AMETS. The coarse and fine models have been extensively validated against available measured data within Irish waters. 12-year model outputs from the high resolution model were analysed to determine mean and maximum conditions and operational, high and extreme event conditions for significant wave height, energy period and power. Annual and seasonal analyses are presented. The 12-year annual mean P were 68 kW/m at Berth A (BA) and 57 kW/m at Berth B (BB). The resource shows strong seasonal and annual variations and the winter mean power levels were found to be strongly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Modelling of Wave and Tidal Energy)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Study on the Static Load Capacity and Synthetic Vector Direct Torque Control of Brushless Doubly Fed Machines
Energies 2016, 9(11), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9110966
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compared to the doubly fed machine, the brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM) has high reliability and low maintenance requirements. First, by taking the negative conjugation of the control motor variables in rotor reference frame, a state-space model of BDFM is derived. It is
[...] Read more.
Compared to the doubly fed machine, the brushless doubly fed machine (BDFM) has high reliability and low maintenance requirements. First, by taking the negative conjugation of the control motor variables in rotor reference frame, a state-space model of BDFM is derived. It is then transformed into synchronous reference frame, called synchronous reference frame state-space model (SSSM). In this way, all the variables of the SSSM are DC under the static state. Second, on the basis of the analysis of static equations, the possible output torque limits are obtained. Third, the causes of losing control are analyzed by the flux and the torque derivatives. A new control strategy called synthetic vector direct torque control (SVDTC) is proposed to solve the losing control problems of the conventional direct torque control (DTC). Finally, the correctness of the results of this paper is verified by calculation examples and simulation results, the losing control problems can be solved, and the theoretical output capacity limits can be reached using SVDTC. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top