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p. 548559
Received: 27 August 2009 / Accepted: 23 September 2009 / Published: 28 September 2009
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Abstract: We quantify the probability per unit Euclideantime of reversing the magnetization of a πBloch vector, which describes the Ferromagnetic Domain Walls of a Ferromagnetic Nanowire at finitetemperatures. Our approach, based on Langer’s Theory, treats the double sineGordon model that defines the πBloch vectors via a procedure of nonperturbative renormalization, and uses importance sampling methods to minimise the free energy of the system and identify the saddlepoint solution corresponding to the reversal probability. We identify that whilst the general solution for the free energy minima cannot be expressed in closed form, we can obtain a closed expression for the saddlepoint by maximizing the entanglement entropy of the system as a polynomial ring. We use this approach to quantify the geometric and nongeometric contributions to the entanglement entropy of the Ferromagnetic Nanowire, defined between entangled Ferromagnetic Domain Walls, and evaluate the Euclideantime dependence of the domain wall width and angular momentum transfer at the domain walls, which has been recently proposed as a mechanism for Quantum Memory Storage.
p. 560585
Received: 7 September 2009 / Accepted: 23 September 2009 / Published: 12 October 2009
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Abstract: This paper describes the basic ideas behind a novel prediction error parameter identification algorithm exhibiting high robustness with respect to outlying data. Given the low sensitivity to outliers, these can be more easily identified by analysing the residuals of the fit. The devised cost function is inspired by the definition of entropy, although the method in itself does not exploit the stochastic meaning of entropy in its usual sense. After describing the most common alternative approaches for robust identification, the novel method is presented together with numerical examples for validation.
p. 586597
Received: 17 August 2009 / Accepted: 15 September 2009 / Published: 13 October 2009
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Abstract: Landauer’s principle is one of the pillars of the physics of information. It constitutes one of the foundations behind the idea that “information is physical”. Landauer’s principle establishes the smallest amount of energy that has to be dissipated when one bit of information is erased from a computing device. Here we explore an extended Landauerlike principle valid for general dynamical systems (not necessarily Hamiltonian) governed by divergenceless phase space flows.
p. 598605
Received: 7 July 2009 / Accepted: 11 October 2009 / Published: 14 October 2009
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Abstract: This study demonstrates an application of entropy for information theory in the field of survey scale. Based on computer anxiety scale we obtain that the desired information may be achieved with fewer questions. In particular, one question is insufficient and two questions are necessary for a survey subscale.
p. 606633
Received: 17 September 2009 / Accepted: 14 October 2009 / Published: 21 October 2009
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Abstract: Economic activity can be regarded as an evolutionary process governed by the 2^{nd} law of thermodynamics. The universal law, when formulated locally as an equation of motion, reveals that a growing economy develops functional machinery and organizes hierarchically in such a way as to tend to equalize energy density differences within the economy and in respect to the surroundings it is open to. Diverse economic activities result in flows of energy that will preferentially channel along the most steeply descending paths, leveling a nonEuclidean free energy landscape. This principle of 'maximal energy dispersal‘, equivalent to the maximal rate of entropy production, gives rise to economic laws and regularities. The law of diminishing returns follows from the diminishing free energy while the relation between supply and demand displays a quest for a balance among interdependent energy densities. Economic evolution is dissipative motion where the driving forces and energy flows are inseparable from each other. When there are multiple degrees of freedom, economic growth and decline are inherently impossible to forecast in detail. Namely, trajectories of an evolving economy are nonintegrable, i.e. unpredictable in detail because a decision by a player will affect also future decisions of other players. We propose that decision making is ultimately about choosing from various actions those that would reduce most effectively subjectively perceived energy gradients.
p. 634642
Received: 1 September 2009 / Accepted: 20 October 2009 / Published: 22 October 2009
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Abstract: We show that the maximin average redundancy in pattern coding is eventually larger than 1.84 (n /log n )^{1/3} for messages of length n . This improves recent results on pattern redundancy, although it does not fill the gap between known lower and upperbounds. The pattern of a string is obtained by replacing each symbol by the index of its first occurrence. The problem of pattern coding is of interest because strongly universal codes have been proved to exist for patterns while universal message coding is impossible for memoryless sources on an infinite alphabet. The proof uses fine combinatorial results on partitions with small summands.
p. 643666
Received: 16 September 2009 / Accepted: 20 October 2009 / Published: 23 October 2009
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Abstract: Selfassembly is a key phenomenon whereby vast numbers of individual components passively interact and form organized structures, as can be seen, for example, in the morphogenesis of a virus. Generally speaking, the process can be viewed as a spatial placement of attractive and repulsive components. In this paper, we report on an investigation of how morphology, i.e. , the shape of components, affects a selfassembly process. The experiments were conducted with 3 differently shaped floating tiles equipped with magnets in an agitated water tank. We propose a novel measure involving clustering coefficients, which qualifies the degree of parallelism of the assembly process. The results showed that the assembly processes were affected by the aggregation sequence in their early stages, where shape induces different behaviors and thus results in variations in aggregation speeds.
p. 667674
Received: 2 September 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
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Abstract: A homogeneous solution of a chiral substance is acquired with an overall asymmetry which is expressed by a specific rotation of a linearly polarized light. Such a solution, despite being at a complete equilibrium, stores configurational entropy in a form of negative entropy which can be nullified by mixing with a solution of the opposite enantiomer. This abundant, yet quite a specific case of inherent negative entropy, resides predominantly in the chiral configuration of the solvent envelopes surrounding the chiral centers. Heat release, amounting to several cal/mol, associated with the annulment of negative entropy in aqueous solutions of D and Lamino acids, was recently documented by Shinitzky et al. [1]. This heat corresponds almost exclusively to TΔS stored in the solvent envelope upon adoption of a chiral configuration. Simple fundamental expressions which combine configurational entropy and information capacity in chiral solutions have been developed and were found to comply well with the observed heat release upon intermolecular racemization.
p. 675687
Received: 14 September 2009 / Accepted: 27 October 2009 / Published: 29 October 2009
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Abstract: In this paper we present a simple model to describe a rather general system in a stationary nonequilibrium state, which is an open system traversed by a stationary flux. The probabilistic description is provided by a nonhomogeneous Markov chain, which is not assumed on the basis of a model of the microscopic interactions but rather derived from the knowledge of the macroscopic fluxes traversing the system through a maximum entropy rate principle.
p. 688701
Received: 30 June 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 30 October 2009
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Abstract: We show that dolphin whistle types tend to be used in specific behavioral contexts, which is consistent with the hypothesis that dolphin whistle have some sort of “meaning”. Besides, in some cases, it can be shown that the behavioral context in which a whistle tends to occur or not occur is shared by different individuals, which is consistent with the hypothesis that dolphins are communicating through whistles. Furthermore, we show that the number of behavioral contexts significantly associated with a certain whistle type tends to grow with the frequency of the whistle type, a pattern that is reminiscent of a law of word meanings stating, as a tendency, that the higher the frequency of a word, the higher its number of meanings. Our findings indicate that the presence of Zipf's law in dolphin whistle types cannot be explained with enough detail by a simplistic die rolling experiment.
p. 702712
Received: 19 August 2009 / Accepted: 27 October 2009 / Published: 30 October 2009
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Abstract: All real processes generate entropy and the power/exergy loss is usually determined by means of the GouyStodola law. If the system only exchanges heat at the environmental temperature, the GouyStodola law gives the correct loss of power. However, most industrial processes exchange heat at higher or lower temperatures than the actual environmental temperature. When calculating the real loss of power in these cases, the GouyStodola law does not give the correct loss if the actual environmental temperature is used. The first aim of this paper is to show through simple steam turbine examples that the previous statement is true. The second aim of the paper is to define the effective temperature to calculate the real power loss of the system with the GouyStodola law, and to apply it to turbine examples. Example calculations also show that the correct power loss can be defined if the effective temperature is used instead of the real environmental temperature.
p. 748765
Received: 11 September 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 3 November 2009
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Abstract: Current research is probing transport on ever smaller scales. Modeling of the electromagnetic interaction with nanoparticles or small collections of dipoles and its associated energy transport and nonequilibrium characteristics requires a detailed understanding of transport properties. The goal of this paper is to use a nonequilibrium statisticalmechanical method to obtain exact timecorrelation functions, fluctuationdissipation theorems (FD), heat and charge transport, and associated transport expressions under electromagnetic driving. We extend the timesymmetric Robertson statisticalmechanical theory to study the exact time evolution of relevant variables and entropy rate in the electromagnetic interaction with materials. In this exact statisticalmechanical theory, a generalized canonical density is used to define an entropy in terms of a set of relevant variables and associated Lagrange multipliers. Then the entropy production rate are defined through the relevant variables. The influence of the nonrelevant variables enter the equations through the projectionlike operator and thereby influences the entropy. We present applications to the response functions for the electrical and thermal conductivity, specific heat, generalized temperature, Boltzmann’s constant, and noise. The analysis can be performed either classically or quantummechanically, and there are only a few modifications in transferring between the approaches. As an application we study the energy, generalized temperature, and charge transport equations that are valid in nonequilibrium and relate it to heat flow and temperature relations in equilibrium states.
p. 766781
Received: 31 August 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 3 November 2009
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Abstract: The high pay packages of U.S. CEOs have raised serious concerns about what would constitute a fair pay. Since the present economic models do not adequately address this fundamental question, we propose a new theory based on statistical mechanics and information theory. We use the principle of maximum entropy to show that the maximally fair pay distribution is lognormal under ideal conditions. This prediction is in agreement with observed data for the bottom 90%–95% of the working population. The theory estimates that the top 35 U.S. CEOs were overpaid by about 129 times their ideal salaries in 2008. We also provide an insight of entropy as a measure of fairness, which is maximized at equilibrium, in an economic system.
p. 782797
Received: 17 August 2009 / Accepted: 30 October 2009 / Published: 4 November 2009
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Abstract: In this paper evidence is provided that individual neurons possess language, and that the basic unit for communication consists of two neurons and their entire field of interacting dendritic and synaptic connections. While information processing in the brain is highly complex, each neuron uses a simple mechanism for transmitting information. This is in the form of temporal electrophysiological action potentials or spikes (S) operating on a millisecond timescale that, along with pauses (P) between spikes constitute a two letter “alphabet” that generates meaningful frequencyencoded signals or neuronal S/P “words” in a primary language. However, when a word from an afferent neuron enters the dendriticsynapticdendritic field between two neurons, it is translated into a new frequencyencoded word with the same meaning, but in a different spikepause language, that is delivered to and understood by the efferent neuron. It is suggested that this unidirectional interneuronal languagebased word translation step is of utmost importance to brain function in that it allows for variations in meaning to occur. Thus, structural or biochemical changes in dendrites or synapses can produce novel words in the second language that have changed meanings, allowing for a specific signaling experience, either external or internal, to modify the meaning of an original word (learning), and store the learned information of that experience (memory) in the form of an altered dendriticsynapticdendritic field.
p. 798806
Received: 14 September 2009 / Accepted: 3 November 2009 / Published: 5 November 2009
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Abstract: It is known that mechanical work, and in turn electricity, can be produced from a difference in the chemical potential that may result from a salinity gradient. Such a gradient may be found, for instance, in an estuary where a stream of soft water is flooding into a sink of salty water which we may find in an ocean, gulf or salt lake. Various technological approaches are proposed for the production of energy from a salinity gradient between a stream of soft water and a source of salty water. Before considering the implementation of a typical technology, it is of utmost importance to be able to compare various technological approaches, on the same basis, using the appropriate variables and mathematical formulations. In this context, exergy balance can become a very useful tool for an easy and quick evaluation of the maximum thermodynamic work that can be produced from energy systems. In this short paper, we briefly introduce the use of exergy for enabling us to easily and quickly assess the theoretical maximum power or ideal reversible work we may expect from typical salinity gradient energy systems.
p. 807819
Received: 1 August 2009 / Accepted: 2 November 2009 / Published: 5 November 2009
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Abstract: An ensemble formulation for the Gompertz growth function within the framework of statistical mechanics is presented, where the two growth parameters are assumed to be statistically distributed. The growth can be viewed as a selfreferential process, which enables us to use the BoseEinstein statistics picture. The analytical entropy expression pertain to the law can be obtained in terms of the growth velocity distribution as well as the Gompertz function itself for the whole process.
p. 820835
Received: 21 September 2009 / Accepted: 2 November 2009 / Published: 6 November 2009
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Abstract: The benefits are demonstrated of using exergy to understand the efficiencies of electrical power technologies and to assist improvements. Although exergy applications in power systems and electrical technology are uncommon, exergy nevertheless identifies clearly potential reductions in thermodynamic losses and efficiency improvements. Various devices are considered, ranging from simple electrical devices to generation systems for electrical power and for multiple products including electricity, and on to electrically driven. The insights provided by exergy are shown to be more useful than those provided by energy, which are sometimes misleading. Exergy is concluded to have a significant role in assessing and improving the efficiencies of electrical power technologies and systems, and provides a useful tool for engineers and scientists as well as decision and policy makers.
p. 867887
Received: 21 September 2009 / Accepted: 10 November 2009 / Published: 17 November 2009
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Abstract: In this paper, we develop a general theory for the estimation of the transition probabilities of reversible Markov chains using the maximum entropy principle. A broad range of physical models can be studied within this approach. We use onedimensional classical spin systems to illustrate the theoretical ideas. The examples studied in this paper are: the Ising model, the Potts model and the BlumeEmeryGriffiths model.
p. 907916
Received: 21 October 2009 / Accepted: 18 November 2009 / Published: 20 November 2009
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Abstract: The dynamics and statics of flexible polymer chains are based on their conformational entropy, resulting in the properties of isolated polymer chains with any branching potentially being characterized by Gaussian chain models. According to the graphtheoretical approach, the dynamics and statics of Gaussian chains can be expressed as a set of eigenvalues of their Laplacian matrix. As such, the existence of Laplacian cospectral trees allows the structural nonidentifiability of any branched flexible polymer.
p. 917930
Received: 24 September 2009 / Accepted: 16 November 2009 / Published: 26 November 2009
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Abstract: The method of Generalized Maximum Entropy (GME), proposed in Golan, Judge and Miller (1996), is an informationtheoretic approach that is robust to multicolinearity problem. It uses an objective function that is the sum of the entropies for coefficient distributions and disturbance distributions. This method can be generalized to the weighted GME (WGME), where different weights are assigned to the two entropies in the objective function. We propose a datadriven method to select the weights in the entropy objective function. We use the least squares cross validation to derive the optimal weights. MonteCarlo simulations demonstrate that the proposedWGME estimator is comparable to and often outperforms the conventional GME estimator, which places equal weights on the entropies of coefficient and disturbance distributions.
p. 931944
Received: 23 October 2009 / Accepted: 23 November 2009 / Published: 27 November 2009
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Abstract: Is Maximum Entropy Production (MEP) a physical principle? In this paper I tentatively suggest it is not, on the basis that MEP is equivalent to Jaynes’ Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) inference algorithm that passively translates physical assumptions into macroscopic predictions, as applied to nonequilibrium systems. MaxEnt itself has no physical content; disagreement between MaxEnt predictions and experiment falsifies the physical assumptions, not MaxEnt. While it remains to be shown rigorously that MEP is indeed equivalent to MaxEnt for systems arbitrarily far from equilibrium, work in progress tentatively supports this conclusion. In terms of its role within nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, MEP might then be better understood as Messenger of Essential Physics.
p. 945948
Received: 23 October 2009 / Accepted: 26 November 2009 / Published: 30 November 2009
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Abstract: The principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) is the subject of considerable academic study, but has yet to become remarkable for its practical applications. A tale is told of an instance in which a spinoff from consideration of an MEPconstrained climate model at least led to reconsideration of the very practical issue of watervapour feedback in climate change. Further, and on a moreorless unrelated matter, a recommendation is made for further research on whether there might exist a general "rule" whereby, for certain classes of complex nonlinear systems, a state of maximum entropy production is equivalent to a state of minimum entropy.
p. 949958
Received: 17 September 2009 / Accepted: 13 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
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Abstract: In this paper, an analytical expression is developed for the differential entropy of a sinusoid with a Betadistributed phase angle. This particular signal model is prevalent in optical communications, however an expression for the associated differential entropy does not currently exist. The expression we derive is approximate as it relies on a series expansion for one of the key terms needed in the derivation. However, we are able to show that the approximation is accurate (error ≤ 5%) for a wide variety of Beta parameter choices.
p. 959971
Received: 3 November 2009 / Accepted: 30 November 2009 / Published: 2 December 2009
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Abstract: A set of many identical interacting agents obeying a global additive constraint is considered. Under the hypothesis of equiprobability in the highdimensional volume delimited in phase space by the constraint, the statistical behavior of a generic agent over the ensemble is worked out. The asymptotic distribution of that statistical behavior is derived from geometrical arguments. This distribution is related with the Gamma distributions found in several multiagent economy models. The parallelism with all these systems is established. Also, as a collateral result, a formula for the volume of highdimensional symmetrical bodies is proposed.
p. 9931000
Received: 15 October 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
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Abstract: The objective of this essay is to reflect on a possible relation between entropy and emergence. A qualitative, relational approach is followed. We begin by highlighting that entropy includes the concept of dispersal, relevant to our enquiry. Emergence in complex systems arises from the coordinated behavior of their parts. Coordination in turn necessitates recognition between parts, i.e. , information exchange. What will be argued here is that the scope of recognition processes between parts is increased when preceded by their dispersal, which multiplies the number of encounters and creates a richer potential for recognition. A process intrinsic to emergence is dissolvence (aka submergence or topdown constraints), which participates in the informationentropy interplay underlying the creation, evolution and breakdown of higherlevel entities.
p. 10011024
Received: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 2 December 2009 / Published: 4 December 2009
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Abstract: The maximum entropy method is a theoretically sound approach to construct an analytical form for the probability density function (pdf) given a sample of random events. In practice, numerical methods employed to determine the appropriate Lagrange multipliers associated with a set of moments are generally unstable in the presence of noise due to limited sampling. A robust method is presented that always returns the best pdf, where tradeoff in smoothing a highly varying function due to noise can be controlled. An unconventional adaptive simulated annealing technique, called funnel diffusion, determines expansion coefficients for Chebyshev polynomials in the exponential function.
p. 10251041
Received: 13 October 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 7 December 2009
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Abstract: Systems do not elect thermodynamic pathways on their own. They operate in tandem with their surroundings. Pathway selection and traversal require coordinated work and heat exchanges along with parallel tuning of the system variables. Previous research by the author (Reference [1]) focused on the information expressed in thermodynamic pathways. Examined here is how spectral entropy is a byproduct of information that depends intricately on the pathway structure. The spectral entropy has proven to be a valuable tool in diverse fields. This paper illustrates the contact between spectral entropy and the properties which distinguish ideal from nonideal gases. The role of spectral entropy in the first and second laws of thermodynamics and heat → work conversions is also discussed.
p. 10421054
Received: 29 October 2009 / Accepted: 1 December 2009 / Published: 8 December 2009
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Abstract: Under which circumstances are variational principles based on entropy production rate useful tools for modeling steady states of electric (gas) discharge systems far from equilibrium? It is first shown how various different approaches, as Steenbeck’s minimum voltage and Prigogine’s minimum entropy production rate principles are related to the maximum entropy production rate principle (MEPP). Secondly, three typical examples are discussed, which provide a certain insight in the structure of the models that are candidates for MEPP application. It is then thirdly argued that MEPP, although not being an exact physical law, may provide reasonable model parameter estimates , provided the constraints contain the relevant (nonlinear) physical effects and the parameters to be determined are related to disregarded weak constraints that affect mainly global entropy production. Finally, it is additionally conjectured that a further reason for the success of MEPP in certain far from equilibrium systems might be based on a hidden linearity of the underlying kinetic equation(s).
p. 10551072
Received: 14 October 2009 / Accepted: 2 December 2009 / Published: 11 December 2009
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Abstract: One of the greatest conundrums in semiotics and linguistics is explaining why change occurs in communication systems. The descriptive apparatus of how change occurs has been developed in great detail since at least the nineteenth century, but a viable explanatory framework of why it occurs in the first place still seems to be clouded in vagueness. So far, only the socalled Principle of Least Effort has come forward to provide a suggestive psychobiological framework for understanding change in communication codes such as language. Extensive work in using this model has shown many fascinating things about language structure and how it evolves. However, the many findings need an integrative framework for shedding light on any generalities implicit in them. This paper argues that a new approach to the study of codes, called cybersemiotics, can be used to great advantage for assessing theoretical frameworks and notions such as the Principle of Least Effort. Amalgamating cybernetic and biosemiotic notions, this new science provides analysts with valuable insights on the raison d’être of phenomena such as linguistic change.
p. 11231147
Received: 9 October 2009 / Accepted: 11 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
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Abstract: The existence of noise has great influence on the real features of observed time series, thus noise reduction in time series data is a necessary and significant task in many practical applications. When using traditional denoising methods, the results often cannot meet the practical needs due to their inherent shortcomings. In the present paper, first a set of key but difficult wavelet denoising problems are discussed, and then by applying information entropy theories to the wavelet denoising process, i.e. , using the principle of maximum entropy (POME) to describe the random character of the noise and using wavelet energy entropy to describe the degrees of complexity of the main series in original series data, a new entropybased wavelet denoising method is proposed. Analysis results of both several different synthetic series and typical observed time series data have verified the performance of the new method. A comprehensive discussion of the results indicates that compared with traditional wavelet denoising methods, the new proposed method is more effective and universal. Furthermore, because it uses information entropy theories to describe the obviously different characteristics of noises and the main series in the series data is observed first and then denoised, the analysis process has a more reliable physical basis, and the results of the new proposed method are more reasonable and are the global optimum. Besides, the analysis process of the new proposed method is simple and is easy to implement, so it would be more applicable and useful in applied sciences and practical engineering works.
Review
p. 529547
Received: 31 August 2009 / Accepted: 23 September 2009 / Published: 28 September 2009
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Abstract: This paper reviews how ideas have evolved in this field from the pioneering work of CARNOT right up to the present. The coupling of thermostatics with thermokinetics (heat and mass transfers) and entropy or exergy analysis is illustrated through study of thermomechanical engines such as the Carnot heat engine, and internal combustion engines. The benefits and importance of stagnation temperature and irreversibility parameters are underlined. The main situations of constrained (or unconstrained) optimization are defined, discussed and illustrated. The result of this study is a new branch of thermodynamics: Finite Dimensions Optimal Thermodynamics (FDOT).
p. 713747
Received: 27 August 2009 / Accepted: 26 October 2009 / Published: 2 November 2009
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Abstract: The efficiency of any application involving a liquid spray is known to be highly dependent on the spray characteristics, and mainly, on the dropdiameter distribution. There is therefore a crucial need of models allowing the prediction of this distribution. However, atomization processes are partially known and so far a universal model is not available. For almost thirty years, models based on the Maximum Entropy Formalism have been proposed to fulfill this task. This paper presents a review of these models emphasizing their similarities and differences, and discusses expectations of the use of this formalism to model spray dropsize distribution
p. 836853
Received: 21 September 2009 / Accepted: 4 November 2009 / Published: 10 November 2009
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Abstract: In this review we integrate results of long term experimental study on ant “language” and intelligence which were fully based on fundamental ideas of Information Theory, such as the Shannon entropy, the Kolmogorov complexity, and the Shannon’s equation connecting the length of a message (l ) and its frequency (p), i.e., l = –log p for rational communication systems. This approach enabled us to obtain the following important results on ants’ communication and intelligence: (i) to reveal “distant homing” in ants, that is, their ability to transfer information about remote events; (ii) to estimate the rate of information transmission; (iii) to reveal that ants are able to grasp regularities and to use them for “compression” of information; (iv) to reveal that ants are able to transfer to each other the information about the number of objects; (v) to discover that ants can add and subtract small numbers. The obtained results show that information theory is not only excellent mathematical theory, but many of its results may be considered as Nature laws.
p. 854866
Received: 4 September 2009 / Accepted: 11 November 2009 / Published: 16 November 2009
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Abstract: Maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling has great potential for identifying distributions and habitat selection of wildlife given its reliance on only presence locations. Recent studies indicate Maxent is relatively insensitive to spatial errors associated with location data, requires few locations to construct useful models, and performs better than other presenceonly modeling approaches. Further advances are needed to better define model thresholds, to test model significance, and to address model selection. Additionally, development of modeling approaches is needed when using repeated sampling of known individuals to assess habitat selection. These advancements would strengthen the utility of Maxent for wildlife research and management.
p. 888906
Received: 13 October 2009 / Accepted: 17 November 2009 / Published: 18 November 2009
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Abstract: For many anatomical and physical reasons animals of different genera use widely different communication strategies. While some are chemical or visual, the most common involve sound or vibration and these signals can carry a large amount of information over long distances. The acoustic signal varies greatly from one genus to another depending upon animal size, anatomy, physiology, and habitat, as also does the way in which information is encoded in the signal, but some general principles can be elucidated showing the possibilities and limitations for information transfer. Cases discussed range from insects through song birds to humans.
p. 972992
Received: 30 October 2009 / Accepted: 27 November 2009 / Published: 3 December 2009
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Abstract: We review here the difference between quantum statistical treatments and semiclassical ones, using as the main concomitant tool a semiclassical, shiftinvariant Fisher information measure built up with Husimi distributions. Its semiclassical character notwithstanding, this measure also contains abundant information of a purely quantal nature. Such a tool allows us to refine the celebrated Lieb bound for Wehrl entropies and to discover thermodynamiclike relations that involve the degree of delocalization. Fisherrelated thermal uncertainty relations are developed and the degree of purity of canonical distributions, regarded as mixed states, is connected to this Fisher measure as well.
p. 10731120
Received: 28 October 2009 / Accepted: 10 December 2009 / Published: 14 December 2009
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Abstract: A survey is given summarizing the state of the art of describing information processing in Quantum Decision Theory, which has been recently advanced as a novel variant of decision making, based on the mathematical theory of separable Hilbert spaces. This mathematical structure captures the effect of superposition of composite prospects, including many incorporated intended actions. The theory characterizes entangled decision making, noncommutativity of subsequent decisions, and intention interference. The selfconsistent procedure of decision making, in the frame of the quantum decision theory, takes into account both the available objective information as well as subjective contextual effects. This quantum approach avoids any paradox typical of classical decision theory. Conditional maximization of entropy, equivalent to the minimization of an information functional, makes it possible to connect the quantum and classical decision theories, showing that the latter is the limit of the former under vanishing interference terms.
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p. 11211122
Received: 11 December 2009 / Accepted: 18 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
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Abstract: The volume of the body enclosed by the n dimensional Lamé curve defined by Ʃ^{n} _{i=1} x^{b} _{i} = E is computed.
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