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Entropy 2009, 11(4), 782-797; doi:10.3390/e11040782

The Languages of Neurons: An Analysis of Coding Mechanisms by Which Neurons Communicate, Learn and Store Information

Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Center for Neurochemistry, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
Received: 17 August 2009 / Accepted: 30 October 2009 / Published: 4 November 2009
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In this paper evidence is provided that individual neurons possess language, and that the basic unit for communication consists of two neurons and their entire field of interacting dendritic and synaptic connections. While information processing in the brain is highly complex, each neuron uses a simple mechanism for transmitting information. This is in the form of temporal electrophysiological action potentials or spikes (S) operating on a millisecond timescale that, along with pauses (P) between spikes constitute a two letter “alphabet” that generates meaningful frequency-encoded signals or neuronal S/P “words” in a primary language. However, when a word from an afferent neuron enters the dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field between two neurons, it is translated into a new frequency-encoded word with the same meaning, but in a different spike-pause language, that is delivered to and understood by the efferent neuron. It is suggested that this unidirectional inter-neuronal language-based word translation step is of utmost importance to brain function in that it allows for variations in meaning to occur. Thus, structural or biochemical changes in dendrites or synapses can produce novel words in the second language that have changed meanings, allowing for a specific signaling experience, either external or internal, to modify the meaning of an original word (learning), and store the learned information of that experience (memory) in the form of an altered dendritic-synaptic-dendritic field. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosemiotics; codes; cognition; language; learning; memory; neurons; semiosis biosemiotics; codes; cognition; language; learning; memory; neurons; semiosis

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Baslow, M.H. The Languages of Neurons: An Analysis of Coding Mechanisms by Which Neurons Communicate, Learn and Store Information. Entropy 2009, 11, 782-797.

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