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Special Issue "Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Technology: New Perspectives Offered by New-Generation and Forthcoming SAR Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Antonio Pepe

National Research Council (CNR) of Italy—Institute for the Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment (IREA), via Diocleziano 328, 80124 Napoli, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: remote sensing; synthetic aperture radar (SAR); InSAR; phase unwrapping; combination/integration of multi-mode/multi-sensor data

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A new generation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments mounted on-board to space and aerial vectors has been emerging over recent years, thus guaranteeing improved temporal sampling and spatial resolutions of remote-based investigations. In this framework, of particular relevance is the development of new approaches for the effective processing of long-term sequences of SAR images. Use of novel High Computing paradigms and the development of new methods for the integration of information derived from different sets of SAR images acquired at complementary frequency bands represent the new challenging frontiers of SAR technologies. SAR-driven cutting-edge technologies also concern: combination/fusion of SAR and optical data; development of new multi-temporal/multi-mode InSAR methods based on the use of mono/multi-static SAR configurations; advances of Polarimetric InSAR and Tomography SAR techniques with new-generation of high-resolution SAR images; computer science applications for high-speed computing.     

The Special Issue is open to all researchers. Papers are solicited on the following general themes:

- Exploitation of the existing and planned SAR missions

- Advances of Interferometric SAR techniques: development of new algorithms and methodologies for the estimation of the height topography, the deformation, the atmospheric phase screen as well as other contributions regarding the InSAR signal.

- Potential of new-generation SAR instruments onboard the principal spaceborne platforms: the Sentinel constellation of the European Union, the COSMO-SkyMed constellation of the Italian Space Agency, the ALOS-2 mission of the Japanese Space Agency, the TerraSAR-X constellation operated by DLR, other SAR instruments.

- Future perspectives in the use of SAR data for the development of new emerging cutting-edge
technologies for Earth's remote sensing.

- Synergic use of SAR and optical data (e.g., Sentinel-2, LANDSAT, etc) for agricultural applications and/or for the study of land-use, land-cover of imaged scenes.

- High Performance Computing (HPC) for SAR data processing.

- Geophysical Investigations of the deformation sources that are responsible for the detected movements of the Earth's crust retrieved by InSAR measurements, due to heterogeneous causes, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruption, ground-water extraction in urban areas, landslide movements, etc.

- Integration of information provided through space-, aerial- and terrestrial-based InSAR data systems.

Dr. Antonio Pepe
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Synthetic Aperture Radar
  • InSAR
  • deformation
  • space
  • high performance computing
  • cutting-edge technologies
  • agricultural, optical data
  • geodesy
  • new challenges
  • LIDAR
  • ALOS
  • Sentinel
  • TerraSAR-X
  • COSMO-SkyMed
  • SRTM
  • aerial SAR
  • ground-based SAR

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Multichannel High Resolution Wide Swath SAR Imaging for Hypersonic Air Vehicle with Curved Trajectory
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 411; doi:10.3390/s18020411
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
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Abstract
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on the hypersonic air vehicle in near space has many advantages over the conventional airborne SAR. However, its high-speed maneuvering characteristics with curved trajectory result in serious range migration, and exacerbate the contradiction between the high resolution and
[...] Read more.
Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) equipped on the hypersonic air vehicle in near space has many advantages over the conventional airborne SAR. However, its high-speed maneuvering characteristics with curved trajectory result in serious range migration, and exacerbate the contradiction between the high resolution and wide swath. To solve this problem, this paper establishes the imaging geometrical model matched with the flight trajectory of the hypersonic platform and the multichannel azimuth sampling model based on the displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) technology. Furthermore, based on the multichannel signal reconstruction theory, a more efficient spectrum reconstruction model using discrete Fourier transform is proposed to obtain the azimuth uniform sampling data. Due to the high complexity of the slant range model, it is difficult to deduce the processing algorithm for SAR imaging. Thus, an approximate range model is derived based on the minimax criterion, and the optimal second-order approximate coefficients of cosine function are obtained using the two-population coevolutionary algorithm. On this basis, aiming at the problem that the traditional Omega-K algorithm cannot compensate the residual phase with the difficulty of Stolt mapping along the range frequency axis, this paper proposes an Exact Transfer Function (ETF) algorithm for SAR imaging, and presents a method of range division to achieve wide swath imaging. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the ETF imaging algorithm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Accurate Analysis of Target Characteristic in Bistatic SAR Images: A Dihedral Corner Reflectors Case
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 24; doi:10.3390/s18010024
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
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Abstract
The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS) in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles
[...] Read more.
The dihedral corner reflectors are the basic geometric structure of many targets and are the main contributions of radar cross section (RCS) in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. In stealth technologies, the elaborate design of the dihedral corners with different opening angles is a useful approach to reduce the high RCS generated by multiple reflections. As bistatic synthetic aperture sensors have flexible geometric configurations and are sensitive to the dihedral corners with different opening angles, they specially fit for the stealth target detections. In this paper, the scattering characteristic of dihedral corner reflectors is accurately analyzed in bistatic synthetic aperture images. The variation of RCS with the changing opening angle is formulated and the method to design a proper bistatic radar for maximizing the detection capability is provided. Both the results of the theoretical analysis and the experiments show the bistatic SAR could detect the dihedral corners, under a certain bistatic angle which is related to the geometry of target structures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Wavenumber Domain Imaging Algorithm for Ground-Based Arc Array SAR
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2950; doi:10.3390/s17122950
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 10 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) has become an important technique for remote sensing deformation monitoring. However, most of the existing GB-SAR systems realize synthetic aperture by exploiting two closely spaced horn antennas to move along a linear rail. In order to obtain higher
[...] Read more.
Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR) has become an important technique for remote sensing deformation monitoring. However, most of the existing GB-SAR systems realize synthetic aperture by exploiting two closely spaced horn antennas to move along a linear rail. In order to obtain higher data acquisition efficiency and a wider view angle, we introduce arc antenna array technology into the GB-SAR system, which realizes a novel kind of system: ground-based arc array SAR (GB-AA-SAR). In this paper, we analyze arc observation geometry and derive analytic expressions of sampling criteria. Then, we propose a novel wavenumber domain imaging algorithm for GB-AA-SAR, which can achieve high image reconstruction precision through numerical solutions in the wavenumber domain. The proposed algorithm can be applied in wide azimuth view angle scenarios, and the problem of azimuth mismatch caused by distance approximation in arc geometric efficient omega-k imaging can be solved successfully. Finally, we analyze the two-dimensional (2D) spatial resolution of GB-AA-SAR, and verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through numerical simulation experiments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Precise Aperture-Dependent Motion Compensation with Frequency Domain Fast Back-Projection Algorithm
Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2454; doi:10.3390/s17112454
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
Precise azimuth-variant motion compensation (MOCO) is an essential and difficult task for high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In conventional post-filtering approaches, residual azimuth-variant motion errors are generally compensated through a set of spatial post-filters, where the coarse-focused image is segmented into overlapped
[...] Read more.
Precise azimuth-variant motion compensation (MOCO) is an essential and difficult task for high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. In conventional post-filtering approaches, residual azimuth-variant motion errors are generally compensated through a set of spatial post-filters, where the coarse-focused image is segmented into overlapped blocks concerning the azimuth-dependent residual errors. However, image domain post-filtering approaches, such as precise topography- and aperture-dependent motion compensation algorithm (PTA), have difficulty of robustness in declining, when strong motion errors are involved in the coarse-focused image. In this case, in order to capture the complete motion blurring function within each image block, both the block size and the overlapped part need necessary extension leading to degeneration of efficiency and robustness inevitably. Herein, a frequency domain fast back-projection algorithm (FDFBPA) is introduced to deal with strong azimuth-variant motion errors. FDFBPA disposes of the azimuth-variant motion errors based on a precise azimuth spectrum expression in the azimuth wavenumber domain. First, a wavenumber domain sub-aperture processing strategy is introduced to accelerate computation. After that, the azimuth wavenumber spectrum is partitioned into a set of wavenumber blocks, and each block is formed into a sub-aperture coarse resolution image via the back-projection integral. Then, the sub-aperture images are straightforwardly fused together in azimuth wavenumber domain to obtain a full resolution image. Moreover, chirp-Z transform (CZT) is also introduced to implement the sub-aperture back-projection integral, increasing the efficiency of the algorithm. By disusing the image domain post-filtering strategy, robustness of the proposed algorithm is improved. Both simulation and real-measured data experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Fast Terahertz Imaging Method Using Sparse Rotating Array
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2209; doi:10.3390/s17102209
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
For fast and standoff personal screening, a novel terahertz imaging scheme using a sparse rotating array is developed in this paper. A linearly sparse array is designed to move along a circular path with respect to an axis perpendicular to the imaging scenario.
[...] Read more.
For fast and standoff personal screening, a novel terahertz imaging scheme using a sparse rotating array is developed in this paper. A linearly sparse array is designed to move along a circular path with respect to an axis perpendicular to the imaging scenario. For this new scheme, a modified imaging algorithm is proposed based on the frequency-domain reconstruction method in circular synthetic aperture radar. To achieve better imaging performance, an optimization method of the sparse array is also proposed, according to the distribution of the spectral support. Theoretical and numerical analysis of the point spread function (PSF) is provided to demonstrate the high-resolution imaging ability of the proposed scheme. Comprehensive simulations are carried out to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the array optimization method. Finally, the imaging results of a human-scattering model are also obtained to further demonstrate the good performance of this new imaging scheme and the effectiveness of the array optimization approach. This work can facilitate the design and practice of terahertz imaging systems for security inspection. Full article
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