Special Issue "Canine Rabies Surveillance, Control and Elimination"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Ricardo Castillo-Neyra

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 715 Blockley Hall, 423 Guardian Drive, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: epidemiology; One Health; tropical diseases; veterinary public health; zoonoses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Despite being the oldest zoonotic disease known to humanity, rabies still kills tens of thousands of people each year. Moreover, dog-mediated rabies represents 99% of human cases. Improving surveillance systems and control and elimination programs for canine rabies, therefore, is a global public health imperative and should be at the forefront of veterinary science priorities.

Important progress has been achieved to reduce canine rabies around the world. However, dog-mediated human rabies continues to pose a problem, especially affecting children in underserved areas of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Recently, multiple international stakeholders have set a visionary and ambitious target for rabies under a new global framework: To eliminate dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Reaching this goal will require a multipronged approach, and several important research questions must be addressed.

Mass dog vaccination continues to be the most cost-effective intervention to control and eliminate rabies. Why are we not reaching the appropriate vaccination coverage in key areas? Surveillance systems are vital for halting canine rabies transmission and must be strengthened. Where are we in the adoption of technologies for canine rabies surveillance? Additionally necessary to achieve this goal are community awareness, strategic communication, and political willingness, topics that benefit drawing from disciplines such as economics and social sciences.

This Special Issue is dedicated to discussing recent developments in canine rabies surveillance, and exploring new control and elimination strategies for canine rabies. The pressing challenges to eliminate canine rabies require transdisciplinary teams and projects; manuscripts using the One Health approach are specially encouraged for this special issue. The Special Issue will highlight new research questions, current challenges, innovative approaches and techniques, and will bring attention to one of the most neglected diseases in the world.

We look forward to your valuable contributions on this interesting and important topic.

Dr. Ricardo Castillo-Neyra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Awareness
  • Communication
  • Epidemiology
  • One Health
  • Modeling
  • Neglected diseases
  • Rabies
  • Surveillance system
  • Vaccination
  • Zoonoses

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Field Studies Evaluating Bait Acceptance and Handling by Free-Roaming Dogs in Thailand
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020047
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
(1) Background: As part of the ongoing endeavor to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies in Thailand, renewed interest has been shown in oral vaccination of dogs as a supplementary tool to increase vaccination coverage of the dog population. (2) Methods: Three different bait types
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(1) Background: As part of the ongoing endeavor to eliminate dog-mediated human rabies in Thailand, renewed interest has been shown in oral vaccination of dogs as a supplementary tool to increase vaccination coverage of the dog population. (2) Methods: Three different bait types were tested using a hand-out model on the campus of the Kasetsart University and the surrounding temples in Thailand during September 2017, consisting of two industrial manufactured baits (fish meal and egg-flavored) and one bait made from local material (boiled pig intestine placed in collagen casing). A PVC-capsule containing dyed water was inserted in the bait. (3) Results: The fishmeal bait was significantly less often accepted and consumed (50.29%) than the other two baits (intestine bait—79.19%; egg bait—78.77%). Delivery and release of the dyed water in the oral cavity was highest in the egg-flavored bait (84.50%), followed by the intestine bait (76.61%) and fishmeal (54.85%) baits. Bait acceptance was influenced by sex, age, and body size of the dog. Also, the origin of the dogs had a significant effect: temple dogs accepted the baits more often than street dogs. (4) Conclusion: A significant portion of the free-roaming dog population in this study can be vaccinated by offering vaccine baits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Rabies Surveillance, Control and Elimination)
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Open AccessArticle Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in India
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010024
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
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Abstract
Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT), as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain
[...] Read more.
Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT), as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat) and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal) animals from various parts of India. Of the 257 samples tested, 167 were positive by all the three tests; in addition, 35 of the 36 decomposed samples were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first study in which such large number of animal samples have been subjected to the three tests simultaneously. The results confirm 100% corroboration between DFA and dRIT, buttress the applicability of dRIT in the simple and rapid diagnosis of rabies in animals, and reaffirm the suitability of RT-PCR for samples unfit for testing either by DFA or dRIT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Rabies Surveillance, Control and Elimination)
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Open AccessCommunication Qualitative Evaluation of the Five-Year ‘Red Collar’ Campaign to End Inhumane Culling of Dogs as a Method of Rabies Control
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010018
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
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Abstract
Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated through mass dog vaccination. Despite leading authorities in human and animal health uniting to advance effective and humane rabies control, some governments resort to lethal methods, which are unethical, often inhumane and ineffective. To end the inhumane
[...] Read more.
Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated through mass dog vaccination. Despite leading authorities in human and animal health uniting to advance effective and humane rabies control, some governments resort to lethal methods, which are unethical, often inhumane and ineffective. To end the inhumane culling of dogs in response to rabies, World Animal Protection launched ‘Red Collar’; a five-year campaign (2011–2016) that worked with governments to promote the implementation of mass dog vaccination for rabies control. We present the findings from a qualitative evaluation of ‘Red Collar’, conducted both regionally and with national focus on Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and Zanzibar, Tanzania. Through semi-structured interviews and written contributions from stakeholders (n = 54), we compared perceptions of changes with stated campaign goals to capture recommendations for future work. The campaign successfully generated momentum for implementation of mass dog vaccination by targeted governments. Lessons learned were established: Value of a consistent animal welfare ‘voice’; the need to explore the motivations behind culling; the need to capacity build; time required for the ‘ripple effect’ to inspire humane control in other countries; importance of monitoring and evaluation of indicators; time and effort required for exit strategies and prior preparation for a robust response to culling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Rabies Surveillance, Control and Elimination)

Review

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Open AccessReview A Perspective on Rabies in the Middle East—Beyond Neglect
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5030067
Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Rabies is a neglected but preventable viral zoonosis that poses a substantial threat to public health. In this regard, a global program has been initiated for the elimination of human rabies caused by rabid dogs through the mass vaccination of canine populations. Geographic
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Rabies is a neglected but preventable viral zoonosis that poses a substantial threat to public health. In this regard, a global program has been initiated for the elimination of human rabies caused by rabid dogs through the mass vaccination of canine populations. Geographic areas vary greatly towards attainment of this objective. For example, while dog-mediated and wildlife rabies have been largely controlled in major parts of the Americas and Western Europe, the Middle East still grapples with human rabies transmitted by unvaccinated dogs and cats. Rabies prevention and control in the Middle East is quite difficult because the region is transcontinental, encompassing portions of Africa, Asia, and Europe, while consisting of politically, culturally, and economically diverse countries that are often subject to war and unrest. Consequently, one over-riding dilemma is the misinformation or complete lack of rabies surveillance data from this area. This communication is an attempt to provide an overview of rabies in the Middle East, as a cohesive approach for the honing of disease management in each area, based on data compiled from multiple sources. In addition, the related regional transboundary movement of rabies was investigated through phylogenetic studies of available viral gene sequences. Thereafter, the epidemiological status of rabies was assessed for the region. Finally, localities were classified first by the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination framework and then categorized into four different groups based on management theme: “rabies free”; owned dog and domestic animal vaccination; community dog vaccination; and wildlife vaccination. The classification system proposed herein may serve as a baseline for future efforts. This is especially important due to the severe lack of rabies information available for the Middle East as a whole and a need for a comprehensive program focusing on the entirety of the region in light of renewed international commitment towards canine rabies elimination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Rabies Surveillance, Control and Elimination)
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperTechnical Note Additional Progress in the Development and Application of a Direct, Rapid Immunohistochemical Test for Rabies Diagnosis
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020059
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 14 June 2018 / Published: 20 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1506 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laboratory-based surveillance is fundamental to effective rabies prevention and control. The direct fluorescent antibody (AB) test (FAT) is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. Recently, additional tests besides the FAT have been developed, such as the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT). In this
[...] Read more.
Laboratory-based surveillance is fundamental to effective rabies prevention and control. The direct fluorescent antibody (AB) test (FAT) is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. Recently, additional tests besides the FAT have been developed, such as the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (DRIT). In this study, our objective was to further refine technical aspects of the DRIT using a combination of two monoclonal ABs (MABs), 502 and 802, conduct additional testing among rabies reference laboratories using a diversity of animal species and rabies virus (RV) variants and compare the potential utility of the DRIT for end users via proficiency testing (PT) against the FAT. Considering the ideal molar ratios of biotin to AB in formulation of the DRIT conjugate, 3.9 was found to be superior to 7.4, for detection of RV antigens in the brain of a naturally infected raccoon. Optimization of the DRIT conjugate may also be dependent upon the apparent choice of specific viral antigens for testing, as a gray fox RV variant reacted less strongly than a raccoon RV variant in determining the working dilution of the MAB cocktail. Using the same MABs and protocol, the DRIT was compared to the FAT using more than 800 samples of mammalian brains, representative of more than 25 taxa, including in excess of 250 animal rabies cases from Europe and North America. Sensitivity was determined at 98% (96–100%, 95% CI) and specificity was calculated at 95% (92–96%, 95% CI). In a comparison among end users, PT of laboratory personnel resulted in values of 77–100% sensitivity and 86-100% specificity. Based upon these and previously reported results, the DRIT appears to be a suitable alternative to the FAT for use in lyssavirus diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Rabies Surveillance, Control and Elimination)
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