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Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010024

Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in India

1
Commonwealth Veterinary Association—Crucell Rabies Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Veterinary College—Bengaluru, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bengaluru 560024, India
2
Department of Microbiology, Veterinary College—Bengaluru, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bengaluru 560024, India
3
Department of Pathology, Veterinary College—Bengaluru, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bengaluru 560024, India
4
National Institute of Animal Biotechnology, Miyapur, Hyderabad 500049, India
5
Commonwealth Veterinary Association, Jayanagar, Bengaluru 560011, India
Current Address: Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Services, Government of Karnataka, Sullia, Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka 574239, India.
Current Address: Department of Microbiology, Veterinary College, Hassan, Karnataka Veterinary Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Hassan, Karnataka 573201, India.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Rabies Surveillance, Control and Elimination)
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Abstract

Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT), as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat) and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal) animals from various parts of India. Of the 257 samples tested, 167 were positive by all the three tests; in addition, 35 of the 36 decomposed samples were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first study in which such large number of animal samples have been subjected to the three tests simultaneously. The results confirm 100% corroboration between DFA and dRIT, buttress the applicability of dRIT in the simple and rapid diagnosis of rabies in animals, and reaffirm the suitability of RT-PCR for samples unfit for testing either by DFA or dRIT. View Full-Text
Keywords: rabies; direct fluorescent antibody (DFA); direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT); reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); India rabies; direct fluorescent antibody (DFA); direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT); reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); India
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Prabhu, K.N.; Isloor, S.; Veeresh, B.H.; Rathnamma, D.; Sharada, R.; Das, L.J.; Satyanarayana, M.; Hegde, N.R.; Rahman, S.A. Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in India. Vet. Sci. 2018, 5, 24.

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