Special Issue "Comparative Studies on HIV and FIV in Animals and Humans"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 December 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rick Meeker PhD

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 170 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: feline immunodeficiency virus; human immunodeficiency virus; inflammation; neurodegeneration; macrophages; microglia
Guest Editor
Dr. Jonathan Fogle DVM, PhD, DACVIM

Comparative Immunology Research Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, NC State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: comparative immunology; animal models; regulatory T cells; CD8+ T cells; lymphocyte epigenetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Animal models are essential components of efforts devoted to the development of treatments for diseases and injury for both human and veterinary medicine. This is clearly demonstrated for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), where research has not only led to the development of a vaccine effective against heterologous virus challenge, but also has provided a wealth of information on retroviral biology, immunology and neuro-immune interactions relevant to humans infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The success of efforts focused on the development of interventions for human diseases depends not only on the unique information provided by animal models but also on successful translation of findings from animal studies to humans. The melding of veterinary and human medicine is essential to the process but often receives too little attention leading to costly, inefficient and often-ineffective development strategies. In this Special Issue, “Comparative Studies on HIV and FIV in Animals and Humans”, original articles and short communications will highlight cutting-edge lentiviral research focusing on translational applications. As a complement to original research, several mini-reviews discussing contributions and limitations of the FIV model to our understanding of retroviral pathogenesis will be included. We are excited about this opportunity to present recent advances using this important translational model.

Rick Meeker, PhD
Jonathan Fogle, DVM, PhD, DACVIM
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Veterinary Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • animal models
  • immune deficiency
  • immune activation
  • FIV
  • Retrovirus
  • Inflammation
  • nervous system
  • dementia
  • vaccine
  • immune regulation

Published Papers (3 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-3
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Sequence Instability in the Proviral Long Terminal Repeat and gag Regions from Peripheral Blood and Tissue-Derived Leukocytes of FIV-Infected Cats during the Late Asymptomatic Phase
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(2), 10; doi:10.3390/vetsci3020010
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
PDF Full-text (2453 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection results in viral persistence, a prolonged asymptomatic phase, and progressive immunopathology. During the asymptomatic phase, a cohort of experimentally FIV-infected cats exhibits features of viral latency in blood suggestive of inactive viral replication. We sought to investigate viral
[...] Read more.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection results in viral persistence, a prolonged asymptomatic phase, and progressive immunopathology. During the asymptomatic phase, a cohort of experimentally FIV-infected cats exhibits features of viral latency in blood suggestive of inactive viral replication. We sought to investigate viral replication activity and genomic stability of the FIV proviral long terminal repeat (LTR) and the 5′ aspect of gag over time. FIV-infected cats during the asymptomatic phase demonstrated undetectable plasma FIV gag RNA transcripts and intermittent to undetectable blood-derived cell-associated FIV gag RNA. The LTR sequence demonstrated instability in blood-derived cells over time, in spite of low to undetectable viral replication. Sequence variation in the LTR was identified in CD4+ and CD21+ leukocytes from blood and surgically removed lymph nodes. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the LTR were commonly identified. Promoter functionality of a common LTR SNP and rare U3 mutation were examined by reporter gene assays and demonstrated either no change or increased basal FIV promoter function, respectively. In conclusion, this cohort of asymptomatic FIV-infected cats demonstrated instability of the LTR and 5’ gag sequences during the study period, in spite of undetectable plasma and rare to undetectable viral gag RNA, which suggests that blood may not accurately represent viral activity in asymptomatic FIV-infected cats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies on HIV and FIV in Animals and Humans)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Comparative Value of Feline Virology Research: Can Findings from the Feline Lentiviral Vaccine Be Translated to Humans?
Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010007
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 17 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of domestic cats that shares several similarities with its human counterpart, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Their analogies include genomic organization, lymphocyte tropism, viral persistence and induction of immunodeficiency. FIV is the only lentivirus for which a
[...] Read more.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of domestic cats that shares several similarities with its human counterpart, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Their analogies include genomic organization, lymphocyte tropism, viral persistence and induction of immunodeficiency. FIV is the only lentivirus for which a commercial vaccine is registered for prevention in either human or veterinary medicine. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of protection induced by lentivirus vaccines at the population level and might contribute to the development of efficacious HIV vaccines. As well as having comparative value for vaccine studies, FIV research has shed some light on the relationship between lentiviral tropism and pathogenesis. Recent studies in our laboratory demonstrated that the interaction between FIV and its primary receptor changes as disease progresses, reminiscent of the receptor switch observed as disease progresses in HIV infected individuals. Here we summarise findings illustrating that, in addition to its veterinary significance, FIV has comparative value, providing a useful model to explore lentivirus–host interactions and to examine potential immune correlates of protection against HIV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies on HIV and FIV in Animals and Humans)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The Use of Recombinant Feline Interferon Omega Therapy as an Immune-Modulator in Cats Naturally Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: New Perspectives
Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(4), 32; doi:10.3390/vetsci3040032
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human
[...] Read more.
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats. Several studies have recently shown that this compound seems to stimulate the innate immunity, decreasing clinical signs and co-infections in naturally FIV-infected cats. More than summarizing the main conclusions about rFeIFN-ω in cats, this review emphasizes the immune-modulation properties of IFN therapy, opening new perspectives for its use in retroviral infections. Either in FIV-infected cats or in HIV individuals, type I IFNs seem to induce an innate immune-modulation and should not be overlooked as a therapeutic option in retroviral infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies on HIV and FIV in Animals and Humans)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Veterinary Sciences Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Veterinary Sciences
Back to Top