Special Issue "Urban Thermal Environment under Global Warming Pressure"
A special issue of Urban Science (ISSN 2413-8851).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)
Prof. Dr. Panagiotis Nastos
Director of Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, Department of Geography & Climatology; Faculty of Geology & Geoenvironment, School of Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University Campus, GR 15784, Athens, Greece
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Interests: climate variability; extreme weather and climate; urban heat island; human biometeorology; urban microclimate; outdoor thermal comfort; urban environment and human health
Urban agglomerations combine into one body, the cause and the impact, simultaneously. The cause, on one hand, is that the urban environment is itself responsible for the modification of the microclimate via heat release (urban heat island) and air polluting emissions due to anthropogenic activities. On the other hand, the greenhouse effect is forcing a warmer climate, and it exacerbates the already adverse environmental conditions in a city. The impact triggered by the aforementioned causes concerns the quality of life and public health. Thus, it is clear that urban areas influence/control the final state of the thermal environment by means of intensifying extreme weather, such as strong heat stress, convective precipitation, and poor air quality. Given that the thermal urban environment cannot be assessed and quantified by utilizing only one meteorological parameter, such as air temperature, the implementation of complex thermal indices, based on the human energy balance model, should be considered to reach reliable results. Towards this objective, this Special Issue aims at compiling state-of-the-art work from researchers who focus, but not exclusively so, on the assessment of present and future biometeorological simulations of thermal urban environments and, especially, open areas in a city. In particular, this Special Issue welcomes theoretical and experimental research articles on the following themes, although progress reports on relevant research issues are also acceptable:
- Thermal comfort on the built environment and urban landscapes
- Experimental techniques and biometeorological measurements in an urban area
- Remote sensing methodologies (drones, LiDARs and satellites) on urban climatology
- Urban design and planning towards sustainable cities
- Urban heat island and mitigation strategies
- Global warming and resilience plans for cities
- Modeling of thermal urban environment
- Early warning systems of heat and cold waves designed for urban environments
- Green cities
- Public health and extreme weather (heat and cold waves) in a city
- Air quality and thermal comfort in a city
Prof. Dr. Panagiotis Nastos
Manuscript Submission Information
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Urban Science is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.
- urban heat island
- heat stress
- human biometeorology
- global warming forcing
- convective weather
- adaptation and resilience
- early warning systems
- green policies
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Characterising Urban Influences on Nocturnal Mixing and Dispersion Using Radon-222
Authors: S.D. Chambers 1, A. Podstawczyńska 2, A.D. Griffiths 1 and A.G. Williams 1
Affiliations: 1 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232, Australia
2 University of Łódź, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Department of Meteorology and Climatology, Narutowicza 88, 90-139 Łódź, Poland
Abstract: Although urban environments presently constitute only 2%-3% of the global land area, they are home to more than half of the global population and are responsible for a disproportionately large fraction of anthropogenic emissions to the global atmosphere. Contrasts in surface characteristics between urban and rural or natively-vegetated regions give rise to considerable changes in the net radiation available at the surface (through the surface radiation balance) and how this available energy is subsequently redistributed at the surface-atmosphere interface (through the surface energy budget). The combination of increased surface roughness and greater partitioning of net radiation into convective heating have the potential to modify atmospheric mixing characteristics across the whole diurnal cycle. In this study we use a recently-developed radon-based nocturnal stability classification technique (Chambers et al. 2015) to characterise the local (~50 km radius) atmospheric mixing state, and then investigate how a compact (10-15 km diameter) urban centre (population ca 750,000) perturbs these conditions as a function of the local stability.
Four years (2008-2011) of paired hourly near-surface meteorological and atmospheric radon measurements from adjacent urban and rural sites were analyzed. The urban station was located in the centre of Lodz, the 3rd largest city in Poland. The rural station was located 25 km to the north, in the district of Ciosny, and is representative of typical agricultural land with low vegetation and sparse dwellings. Near-surface wind speeds were generally lower in the urban centre than in the rural region during all seasons due to the increased roughness of the city. The only exception to this rule was in summer and spring, under the most stable nocturnal conditions, when wind speeds were higher within the urban region. An analysis of wind directions confirmed that the increase in urban wind speeds under these conditions (when urban heat island intensity also achieved its highest values) was as a result of an “urban breeze” circulation developing. Wind is a crucial mechanism to “flush” pollutants and excess heat from the urban centre; we demonstrate an ability to accurately characterize the relationship between the urban wind speed and the urban heat island intensity. Based on rates of nocturnal radon accumulation, and a simple column model (Griffiths et al. 2013), nocturnal mixing heights over the rural area were estimated to vary from 20m under stable conditions to ~80m under weakly stable conditions. By comparison, corresponding mixing depths over the urban centre were generally deeper and more consistent, ranging from only ~60 to 80m. Furthermore, using radon (which has an exclusive surface-based source) as a proxy for primary pollutant concentrations, we demonstrate the enhanced ability of the urban boundary layer to dilute and disperse locally-generated pollution in all but the most well-mixed atmospheric conditions.
References: Chambers, S.D., A.G. Williams, J. Crawford and A.D. Griffiths: On the use of radon for quantifying the effects of atmospheric stability on urban emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1175-1190, 2015.
Griffiths, A.D., S.D. Parkes, S.D., Chambers, M.F. McCabe and A.G. Williams: Improved mixing height monitoring through a combination of lidar and radon measurements, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 207-218, 2013.