Special Issue "Neurotoxins: Health Threats and Biological Tools"
A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2014
Prof. Dr. Peter S. Spencer
Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Global Health Center, and Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, L356, Portland, OR 97239, USA
Phone: +1 503 4942517
Interests: neurotoxinology (plant, fungal); neurotoxicology; systems biology; human disease
Neurotoxicity is a direct or indirect effect of chemical substances that disrupt nervous system function. Substances with these properties—“neurotoxins”—include the products, secretions and contents of certain bacteria, endophyte and exophyte fungi, ancient and modern plants, coelenterates, insects, arachnids, molluscs, amphibia, reptilia, fish, and mammals. Hundreds of naturally occurring toxins with systemic neurotoxic potential in humans and animals are known, but rarely does human and veterinary medicine connect, let alone synergize. Many neurotoxins are used as experimental tools to explore cellular function and dysfunction. Neurotoxins may act at the level of DNA, coding and non-coding RNAs, protein, and other macromolecules. Some directly perturb neural function; others interfere with metabolic processes on which the nervous system is especially dependent, and amino acid neurotoxins might even be incorporated into brain proteins with unknown functional outcomes. The effects of neurotoxins find expression in nervous system dysfunction in the presence or absence visible structural damage. Perturbations may appear and disappear rapidly, or may evolve and regress over days, weeks, years, or even decades. This special issue seeks papers that illuminate the mechanisms of natural neurotoxins and those that bridge neurotoxin mechanisms with associated human and animal disease.
Prof. Dr. Peter Spencer
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on theInstructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.
- chemical structure of naturally occurring neurotoxins
- molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin action
- gene/protein-neurotoxin interactions
- neurotoxins as biological tools
- neurotoxins linked human neurological disease
- neurotoxins linked to veterinary neurology
Review: Hyperhidrosis: Anatomy, Pathophysiology and Treatment with Emphasis on the Role of Botulinum Toxins
Toxins 2013, 5(4), 821-840; doi:10.3390/toxins5040821
Received: 12 February 2013; in revised form: 27 March 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 23 April 2013| Download PDF Full-text (497 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Review: Sialorrhea: Anatomy, Pathophysiology and Treatment with Emphasis on the Role of Botulinum Toxins
Toxins 2013, 5(5), 1010-1031; doi:10.3390/toxins5051010
Received: 1 March 2013; in revised form: 9 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013| Download PDF Full-text (774 KB) | Download XML Full-text
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Microcystins Alter Behavior by Uniquely Targeting the AWA Sensory Neuron in Caenorhabditis elegans
Authors: Caroline Moore and Birgit Puschner
Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA; E-Mail: email@example.com (B.P.)
Abstract: Harmful algal blooms expose humans and animals to microcystins (MCs) through contaminated drinking water. While acute hepatotoxic exposure to these ubiquitous toxins has been well documented, sub-lethal exposure to MCs is poorly understood. MCs are known to inhibit protein phosphatases (PP) 1 and 2A, which are critical for neuron function. The alternative model Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used to assess whether MCs target neurons. Adult C. elegans, N2 (wildtype) and bah-1 (weakened cuticle), were exposed to MC-LR, MC-LF, okadaic acid and tautomycin. Okadaic acid and tautomycin inhibit only PP2A and PP1, respectively, and were used to determine if MC neurotoxicity occurs through the inhibition of PP1 and/or PP2A.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: The Use of Recently Developed Histochemical Markers for Localizing Neurotoxicant Induced Cell Specific Brain Pathologies
Authors: Sumit Sarkar 1, James Raymick 2 and Larry C Schmued 1
Affiliations:1 Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research/FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
2 Toxicology Pathology Associates Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
Abstract: Neuronal and vascular brain components are interrelated morphologically, physiologically and developmentally. Due to this close interrelationship, it is often difficult to understand the cause and effect relationship between neuronal vs. vascular dysfunction and pathology. This review will discuss some of the more promising recent developments for detecting vascular pathology, and will compare them with the labeling pattern seen with markers of glial and neuronal pathology, following exposure to known neurotoxicants. To detect the vascular dysfunction in the brain, we recently developed FT-gel, a fluorescent probe that helps to delineate between healthy vs. sclerotic vessels. Similarly, we have investigated the potential for Fluoro-Gold to label all the endothelial cells in the brain as they co-localize with RECA, an endothelial cell marker. We have also developed Amylo-Glo that can detect neurotoxic A-beta aggregates in the brain. In this article, we will discuss potential use of all these novel histochemical markers to neurotoxicant induced brain. We will also discuss neurovascular strategies that may offer novel therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative disorders.
Last update: 24 October 2013