Special Issue "Smart Systems"

A special issue of Technologies (ISSN 2227-7080). This special issue belongs to the section "Innovations in Materials Processing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hidemitsu Furukawa

1. Chair of Life-3D Printing Innovation Center (LPIC), Yamagata University, Japan
2. PI of Soft & Wet Matter Engineering Laboratory (SWEL), Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa City, Yamagata, 992-8510 Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-(0)238-26-3197
Interests: gels; 3D Printing; light scattering; soft matter; shape memory
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bungo Ochiai

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: polymer chemistry; organic–inorganic hybrid material; green chemistry
Guest Editor
Dr. Ajit Khosla

Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: MEMS/NEMS; wearable sensors, precision medicine; flexible sensors; MEMS/NEMS; wearable devices; 3D printed sensors and systems; healthcare; 4D materials; IoT
Guest Editor
Dr. Masato Makino

Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: microhydrodynamics; soft matter physics; 3D printing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are planning to publish a Special Issue on "Smart System" for the International Conference of Smart Systems Engineering (SmaSys2017, http://smasys.yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp/2017/) which was held on October 12–13, 2017, in Yonezawa, Japan. The issue “Smart System” provides opportunities for collaboration across a wide range of fields and technologies related to emerging smart systems. The smart system covers broad scientific and engineering fields. It consists of organic materials, biomaterials, electrical engineering, mechanical systems, green materials, tour engineering, engineering education, etc.

All the participants of SmaSys2017 and their colleagues, especially the students, are encouraged to submit to this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Hidemitsu Furukawa
Prof. Dr. Bungo Ochiai
Dr. Ajit Khosla
Dr. Masato Makino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Technologies is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • organic materials, organic electronics and organic device
  • biomaterials, biomedical and biosystems engineering
  • electrical engineering and informatics
  • mechanical systems engineering
  • smart flexible structures and systems
  • green materials and processing
  • tourism engineering with agriculture and foods
  • new engineering education

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Enormously Low Frictional Surface on Tough Hydrogels Simply Created by Laser-Cutting Process
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030082
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
We measured the friction forces and calculated the friction coefficients of non-processed and laser-processed surfaces of a double network hydrogel (DN gel), which is one of the more famous high-strength gels. The results indicate that laser processing has the ability to reduce the
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We measured the friction forces and calculated the friction coefficients of non-processed and laser-processed surfaces of a double network hydrogel (DN gel), which is one of the more famous high-strength gels. The results indicate that laser processing has the ability to reduce the friction coefficients of the gel surfaces. The observation of gel surfaces suggests that the cause of friction reduction is a change in the roughness of the gel surfaces due to laser processing. This finding is expected to lead us to further understanding of the physicochemical properties of hydrogels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Reversible Gelation System for Hydrazine Based on Polymer Absorbent
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030080
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Reversible absorbents for safe storage of toxic hydrazine were developed. Various cross-linked polar polymers were examined as absorbents for hydrazine and its 35% aqueous solution, and structurally similar polymers were found to be suitable for effective absorption. Namely, cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPAM) was most
[...] Read more.
Reversible absorbents for safe storage of toxic hydrazine were developed. Various cross-linked polar polymers were examined as absorbents for hydrazine and its 35% aqueous solution, and structurally similar polymers were found to be suitable for effective absorption. Namely, cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPAM) was most effective among examined various hydrophilic polymers. CPAM absorbed 43- and 31-fold heavier amounts of absolute hydrazine and 35% aqueous solution, respectively, by simple soaking. Absorbed hydrazine could be quantitatively released either by N2 gas flow and compression, and the resulting absorbent reabsorbed hydrazine without loss of the absorption ability. The absorption ability was higher than conventional covalent storages, and the release protocol, without dissolution of the absorbent, are suitable for storage systems in hydrazine fuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Suppression Method for Elution of F, [B(OH)4], AsO43−, and CrO42− from Industrial Wastes Using Some Inhibitors and Crushed Stone Powder
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030079
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
The disposal and the reuse of industrial wastes have become increasingly difficult due to the elution of hazardous anions, such as F, [B(OH)4], AsO43, and CrO42. Effective methods for
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The disposal and the reuse of industrial wastes have become increasingly difficult due to the elution of hazardous anions, such as F, [B(OH)4], AsO43, and CrO42. Effective methods for removing hazardous ions and reusing solid wastes are urgently required. In this study, Ca(OH)2, MgCl2, and BaCl2 were added to reduce the elution concentrations of F, B, As, and Cr by coprecipitating insoluble inorganic salts. After this, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was added to the ion exchange and solidified with these hazardous ion-containing substances. The addition of crushed stone powder (CSP), which was a by-product of the process of crushing aggregates or sawing stone, inhibited the elution of hazardous ions and improved the inhibition effect of OPC. The elution concentrations of F, B, As, and Cr were successfully reduced from their maximum elution concentration of 10 mg/L to below the environmental standards values of Japan. A simultaneous inhibition method for the elution of F, B, As, and Cr from industrial wastes has been developed successfully and would be able to promote the reuse and recycling of CSP and other industrial wastes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Ion-Exchange Characteristics of Cesium in Natural Japanese Rocks
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030078
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
A large amount of soil was contaminated by radioactive cesium due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in 2011. The adsorption behavior of cesium ions (Cs+) is strongly influenced by numerous factors, including the components,
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A large amount of soil was contaminated by radioactive cesium due to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan in 2011. The adsorption behavior of cesium ions (Cs+) is strongly influenced by numerous factors, including the components, structure and weathering conditions of natural soil. The adsorption and ion exchange characteristics of Cs+ ions onto and from natural Japanese rocks with well-known components were studied. Cs+ adsorption onto volcanic rocks (0.9–5.3 mg/g) occurred more easily than that onto plutonic rocks (0.7–0.8 mg/g) due to differences in crystallinity. In addition, the adsorption quantity of cesium increased with increasing lattice water content and content of ion-exchangeable cations in the rock samples. The cesium adsorption ability of rock was inhibited by seawater and coexisting ions in the solution. Cesium adsorption quantities onto andosol, containing the corrosion products, increased approximately 2.7-fold with increasing pH from neutral to basic. Cesium desorption differed depending on the type of salt used, and the desorption rates were highest with ammonium salts. Cs+ desorption from regions such as the soil interlayer and the pores were inhibited by melting of the rock surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of 1,5-anhydroglucitol as a Biomarker for Diabetes Using an Organic Field-Effect Transistor-Based Biosensor
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030077
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
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Abstract
Sensor devices that can be fabricated on a flexible plastic film produced at a low cost using inkjet-printing technology are suitable for point-of-care applications. An organic field-effect transistor (OFET)-based biosensor can function as a potentiometric electrochemical sensor. To investigate the usefulness of an
[...] Read more.
Sensor devices that can be fabricated on a flexible plastic film produced at a low cost using inkjet-printing technology are suitable for point-of-care applications. An organic field-effect transistor (OFET)-based biosensor can function as a potentiometric electrochemical sensor. To investigate the usefulness of an OFET-based biosensor, we demonstrated the detection of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) and glucose, which are monosaccharides used as biomarkers of diabetes. An OFET-based biosensor combined with a Prussian blue (PB) electrode, modified with glucose oxidase (GOx) or pyranose oxidase (POx), was utilized for the detection of the monosaccharides. When the GOx- or POx-PB electrode was immersed in glucose solution at the determined concentration, shifts in the low-voltage direction of transfer characteristic curves of the OFET were observed to be dependent on the glucose concentrations in the range of 0–10 mM. For 1,5-AG, the curve shifts were observed only with the POx-PB electrode. Detection of glucose and 1,5-AG was achieved in a substrate-specific manner of the enzymes on the printed OFET-biosensor. Although further improvements are required in the detection concentration range, the plastic-filmOFET-biosensors will enable the measurement of not only diabetes biomarkers but also various other biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Evaluation on the Traffic State of an Urban Gated Community by Opening the Micro-Inter-Road Network
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030071
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
The opening of a gated community to expand the micro-road network in an urban traffic system is an importance research topic related to urban congestion. To satisfy the demands of opening an early choosing case, this paper proposes a comprehensive selection framework on
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The opening of a gated community to expand the micro-road network in an urban traffic system is an importance research topic related to urban congestion. To satisfy the demands of opening an early choosing case, this paper proposes a comprehensive selection framework on qualified communities and their appropriate opening times by describing the traffic state at the boundary road network accurately. The traffic entropy model and fuzzy c-means (FCM) method are used in this paper. In the framework, a new opening evaluation entropy model is built using basic theory of the thermodynamic traffic entropy method. The traffic state entropy values of the boundary road network and entropy production are calculated to determinate the opening time. In addition, a specific fuzzy range evaluation standard at a preset gated community is drawn with an FCM algorithm to verify the opening determination. A case study based on the traffic information in a simulated gated community in Shanghai is evaluated and proves that the findings of opening evaluation are in accordance with the actual situation. It is found that the micro-inter-road network of a gated community should be opened as the entropy value reaches 2.5. As the travel time is less than 20 s, the correlation between the opening entropy value and the journey delay time exhibits a good linear correlation, which indicates smooth traffic flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Tactile Feels in Grasping/Cutting Processes with Scissors
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030066
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Understanding the dynamic phenomena in grasping/cutting processes with scissors is important for the design of surgical robots and virtual reality systems. Here, we show the relationship between the mechanical stimuli and tactile sensations when forceps or scissors are used. Nineteen subjects grasped or
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Understanding the dynamic phenomena in grasping/cutting processes with scissors is important for the design of surgical robots and virtual reality systems. Here, we show the relationship between the mechanical stimuli and tactile sensations when forceps or scissors are used. Nineteen subjects grasped or cut objects and evaluated the tactile sensations in each of the processes. To conduct the tactile and mechanical evaluation simultaneously, subjects operated scissors that were fixed to a mechanical evaluation system. When subjects grasped urethane resin, stainless steel plate, and adhesive tape, soft, hard, and sticky feels were perceived, respectively. Dry, hard, and creaking feels were perceived in the paper cutting process. In addition, we observed four characteristic tangential force profiles in the processes. Regression analysis suggests the following findings: Hardness is perceived by the change of force and blade movement when the scissors make contact with the object. Stickiness is caused by the increase and decrease of force at the moment of peeling when the scissors break contact with the object. The cutting sensation is affected by fine force fluctuations during the scissors closing and the rapidly decreased force at the moment of cutting completion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Odorant Molecules in the Gaseous Phase Using α-, β-, and γ-Cyclodextrin Films on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030063
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
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Abstract
There is an interest in sensors for the detection of odorant molecules in the gaseous phase, especially those related to the fragrance of fruits, because odorant sensing is useful for on-site quality control of agricultural products. Previously, gas-chromatographic methods requiring bench-top devices were
[...] Read more.
There is an interest in sensors for the detection of odorant molecules in the gaseous phase, especially those related to the fragrance of fruits, because odorant sensing is useful for on-site quality control of agricultural products. Previously, gas-chromatographic methods requiring bench-top devices were used for odorant-molecule detection. Herein, we report an odorant sensor based on cyclodextrins (CDs) as a stable odorant receptor, using a highly mass-sensitive and quantitative 27-MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) device, which has the advantage of possible incorporation into portable devices. When ethyl butyrate (a model odorant molecule for fruit fragrances) was flowed onto a QCM plate modified with α-, β-, or γ-CD network films, a decrease in frequency was observed (corresponding to an increase in mass), owing to the capture of odorant molecules by CD molecules. The CD films were capable of capturing and releasing odorant molecules, depending on the type of CD (α-, β-, or γ-CD). Thus, these sensors are reusable for odorant-molecule sensing, and are applicable to pattern recognition of odorant molecules. Thus, sensors based on CD films combined with a QCM handheld device could be applied to monitoring the condition of fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Formation of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC) Films as Revealed by Real Time Retardation Measurements during Fast Stretching Process
Technologies 2018, 6(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6030060
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 23 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
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Abstract
This work reports on an experimental study of the fast stretching of a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) film. We measured the stress retardation of the polymer film during fast stretching and identified a relationship between stress and birefringence. This relationship indicates that the
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This work reports on an experimental study of the fast stretching of a cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) film. We measured the stress retardation of the polymer film during fast stretching and identified a relationship between stress and birefringence. This relationship indicates that the film obeys the stress optical rule (SOR) at the onset of stretching. At slower stretching speeds, the stress optical constant (SOC) settles at a certain value. With faster stretching speeds, SOC values approach the photo-elastic constant (PEC). Our study also investigated the effects of stretching temperatures and stretching modes for both uniaxial stretching and biaxial stretching. We applied techniques of thermal analysis to evaluate higher order structures after fast stretching. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Morphology Control of Nanocrystallized C60 Thin Films Prepared by Poor Solvent Immersion
Technologies 2018, 6(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/technologies6020051
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 20 May 2018
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Abstract
Nanocrystallized C60 thin films of such as hexagonal, plate-like, and rod-like morphologies were recrystallized by poor solvent immersion, employing 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and butanol respectively. A C60 thin film fabricated by evaporation was immersed in the poor solvent, partially dissolving the surface
[...] Read more.
Nanocrystallized C60 thin films of such as hexagonal, plate-like, and rod-like morphologies were recrystallized by poor solvent immersion, employing 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and butanol respectively. A C60 thin film fabricated by evaporation was immersed in the poor solvent, partially dissolving the surface C60. This was followed by the solvent rapidly reaching a supersaturated state, resulting in the induced recrystallization of the C60. C60 fine high-density crystals were successfully prepared using propanol, with crystal sizes varying between 84 and 141 nm by changing the immersion time. In addition, due to the 1-propanol recrystallizing solvated crystals which were formed through interactions between the solvent and the C60, uniform C60 fine crystals were obtained by the formation of a large number of nucleation sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Systems)
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