Special Issue "Separation Techniques in Waste Water Treatment"

A special issue of Separations (ISSN 2297-8739).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giovanni de Feo

Department of Industrial Engineering (DIIn), University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084 Fisciano, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39089964113
Fax: +39 089 968738
Interests: chemical-physical processes; environmental decision support systems; environmental impact assessment; life cycle assessment; wastewater treatment technologies
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Sabino De Gisi

Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry (DICATECh), Technical University of Bari, Via Amendola 126/b, 70126 Bari (BA), Italy
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: adsorption processes; chemical-physical processes; environmental decision support systems; environmental impact assessment; membrane technologies; sustainable materials; wastewater treatment technologies.
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Michele Notarnicola

Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry (DICATECh), Technical University of Bari, Via Amendola 126/b, 70126 Bari (BA), Italy
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: air pollutions control; application of new materials for contaminated sites remediation; remediation of contaminated sites; sustainable materials; thermal and mechanical treatments applied to solid waste management; transformation of waste into value-added materials
Guest Editor
Dr. Danilo Spasiano

Department of Civil, Environmental, Land, Building Engineering and Chemistry (DICATECh), Technical University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Our goal is to plan a Special Issue on wastewater separation treatments, to be published in Separations. Many wastewater unitary treatments are aimed to separate contaminants from the main flow, and to concentrate them in a place where they can be easily recovered. That is the case in a classical sedimentation process, as an example, but many other innovative separation techniques could replace conventional treatments that are actually adopted in wastewater treatment plants. For this purpose, we encourage the submission of papers describing innovative, sustainable, and ecofriendly separation processes that are aimed at wastewater treatment. The use of a renewable energy source, the adoption of cheap and non-hazardous material, and the possibility of transforming removed contaminates into reusable end-products, are well accepted.

Prof. Giovanni De Feo
Dr. Sabino De Gisi
Prof. Michele Notarnicola
Dr. Danilo Spasiano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Separations is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Adsorption

  • Clariflocculation

  • Chemical-physical processes

  • Distillation

  • Domestic wastewater

  • Filtration

  • Industrial wastewater

  • Membrane technologies

  • Municipal wastewater

  • Nutrient recovery

  • Photocatalytical processes

  • Reuse

  • Sedimentation

  • Sludge

  • Treatment technologies

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Experimental Application of an Advanced Separation Process for NOM Removal from Surface Drinking Water Supply
Separations 2017, 4(4), 32; doi:10.3390/separations4040032
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
Natural organic matter (NOM) in drinking water supplies significantly impacts on water supply quality and treatment, due to observed reactivity with many dissolved and particulate species. Several technologies are used nowadays to remove NOM from the water supply. The evolution of water-related directives,
[...] Read more.
Natural organic matter (NOM) in drinking water supplies significantly impacts on water supply quality and treatment, due to observed reactivity with many dissolved and particulate species. Several technologies are used nowadays to remove NOM from the water supply. The evolution of water-related directives, and progressively more restrictive standards for drinking water, however, call for the investigation of advanced, more efficient, and cost-effective water treatment processes. This paper contains a brief overview on the state-of-the-art methods for NOM removal from supply waters, and describes the experimental application of an advanced technology, tested and validated at the pilot scale on the water supply source of a town in Poland. The process allowed significant removal of natural organic matter (about 50% as Dissolved Organic Carbon) and turbidity (from 50% to 90%), however, these results requested significant additions of powdered activated carbon. The key to success of this type of process is a correct setup with the identification of optimal types and dosages of reagents. Based on the results of the tests conducted it is foreseeable that this technology could be used onsite, not only for removal of NOM, but also of other hard-to-tackle pollutants potentially contained in the freshwater supply and not presently considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Separation Techniques in Waste Water Treatment)
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An Alternative Use of Olive Pomace as a Wide-Ranging Bioremediation Strategy to Adsorb and Recover Disperse Orange and Disperse Red Industrial Dyes from Wastewater
Separations 2017, 4(4), 29; doi:10.3390/separations4040029
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, industrial dyes, Disperse Red and Disperse Orange, were studied as model pollutants to show the excellent performance of olive pomace (OP) in sequestering and recovering these dangerous dyes from wastewater. The nature of interactions involved between dyes and OP were
[...] Read more.
In this paper, industrial dyes, Disperse Red and Disperse Orange, were studied as model pollutants to show the excellent performance of olive pomace (OP) in sequestering and recovering these dangerous dyes from wastewater. The nature of interactions involved between dyes and OP were inferred by changing several parameters: contact time, pomace dosage, pH and temperature values. Visible spectroscopy was mainly used to obtain the percentage of the removed dyes, while SEM (scanning electron microscopy), FTIR-ATR (Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy in total attenuated reflectance), TG (thermo gravimetric) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses were used to carefully investigate the systems. The recovery of dyes was also obtained using glacial acetic acid, the auxiliary solvent used during the dyeing processes, enabling the recycling of both of the adsorbent material and dyes presenting a green and a wide-ranging strategic approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Separation Techniques in Waste Water Treatment)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Porous Alumosilicate Aggregate as Lead Ion Sorbent in Wastewater Treatments
Separations 2017, 4(3), 25; doi:10.3390/separations4030025
Received: 20 April 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
Porous alumosilicate aggregate, namely perlite, was used as an alternative material in wastewater treatments for the selective removal of ionic pollutants such as lead which is present in industrial wastewaters and toxic at relatively low concentrations. Metal retention was investigated by single metals
[...] Read more.
Porous alumosilicate aggregate, namely perlite, was used as an alternative material in wastewater treatments for the selective removal of ionic pollutants such as lead which is present in industrial wastewaters and toxic at relatively low concentrations. Metal retention was investigated by single metals and multispecies equilibrium isotherms (batch system) and by carrying out dynamic (column) experiments. Lead ions were supposedly preferentially retained by ion exchange at the negatively charged silicate functional groups present on the perlite material, and to a minor extent by weak electrostatic (Van der Waals) interactions at non-specific functionalities. In the case of the batch system, the Freundlich isotherm gave a good correlation of the experimental data and lead maximum retention (qmax) in single ion solution was 4.28 mg/gperlite, and in multimetal solution was 1.50 mg/gperlite. In the case of the column system, overall capacity was 3.7 mg/gperlite in single ion solution, and in multimetal solution was 3.0 mg/gperlite. In multimetal solutions, lead ions showed the best interaction at the perlite functional groups because of the lowest free energies of hydration and hydrated radius. After sorption, perlite beads were used as lightweight aggregates for cement mortars after evaluation of the potential release of lead ions from the conglomerates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Separation Techniques in Waste Water Treatment)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Article: Porous alumosilicate aggregate as lead ion sorbent in wastewater treatments
Authors: Andrea Petrella 1*, Pinalysa Cosma 2 and Vito Rizzi 3
Affiliation:
1 Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Edile, del Territorio e di Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Orabona, 4, 70125, Bari, Italy; andrea.petrella@poliba.it
2 Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, Orabona, 4, 70125, Bari, Italy;pinalysa.cosma@uniba.it
3 Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, Orabona, 4, 70125, Bari, Italy;vito.rizzi@uniba.it
* Correspondence: andrea.petrella@poliba.it; Tel.: +39(0)805963275
Abstract: Porous alumosilicate aggregate namely perlite was used for the removal of lead ions in wastewater. Metals retention was investigated by single metals and multispecies equilibrium isotherms and by dynamic (column) experiments. Lead ions were uptaken by ion exchange as well as by adsorption. In the case of batch system, Freundlich isotherm gave a good correlation of the experimental data and lead maximum retention (qmax) in single ion solution was 4.28 mg/gperl, in multimetal solution was 1.50 mg/gperl. In the case of column system, overall capacity was 3.7 mg/gperl in single ion solution, in multimetal solution was 3.0 mg/gperl. The metals exhausted beads were embedded into environmental safe cement mortars.

Title: Ion Chromatography Applications in Wastewater Analysis
Author: Rajmund Michalski
Email: Affiliation: Institute of Environmental Engineering, Polish Academy of Science, Zabrze, Poland
Abstract: Wastewater analysis is very important area in analytical chemistry. The development of new methods and improvement of existing ones (classical and instrumental) are major tasks for analytical chemists. Substances present in various types of wastewater may be classified as biological, chemical (both inorganic and organic), physical, and radiological impurities. Once of them routinely determined are inorganic and organic anions and cations. The determination of common inorganic anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, PO43-, SO42-) and cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) was traditionally carried out using wet chemical methods such as gravimetry, titration, photometry, turbidimetry, and colorimetry. Many of them suffer from interferences and limited sensitivity and can be labor intensive and difficult to automate. Thus, it is necessary to develop and validate new methods which are cheaper, more effective, repeatable, and available in routine laboratories. An alternative to classical wet methods in this range is ion chromatography. It is an attractive technique, especially for laboratories that need to analyse numerous anions and cations in several thousand samples but do not have the throughput to justify the purchase of large automatic analyzers.
Ion chromatography can be used for the determination of ionic solutes such as inorganic anions, inorganic cations (including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, and rare earth metals), organic acids, detergents, carbohydrates, low molecular weight organic bases, and ionic metal complexes. Ion chromatography offers several advantages over conventional methods for determination of ions in wastewater, such as: short time of analysis; sensitivity at the mg/L level; high selectivity in samples with complex matrices; simple water sample pretreatment; simultaneous determination of anions and cations, or inorganic and organic ions; species analysis (e.g., NO2-/NO3-/NH4+; Cr(III)/Cr(VI), As(III)/As(V)); use of cheap, safe, and environment friendly chemicals. Moreover, ion chromatography provides a direct method for the simultaneous determination of alkali and alkaline earth cations and ammonia, what is not possible by using spectroscopic methods. Ion-exchange is the primary separation mode used with modern ion chromatography, although other related techniques can be use for separation of ions including: ion interaction, ion exclusion, and chelation chromatography. Ion chromatography, with suppressed conductivity detection, is the most widely used although depends on requirements and possibilities many other detection modes (e.g. UV/Vis, MS, amperometric) can be use. A large variety of stationary phases, with different selectivities and capacities, have been developed but usually they are based on polystyrene–divinylbenzene (PS–DVB), polymethacrylate, and polyvinyl resins.
Because several individual wet chemistry methods for common ions could be replaced by one method, it is not surprising that ion chromatography has quickly become accepted worldwide as reference method for the analysis of anions and cations in water and waste water.
The most routine ion chromatography methods have been standardized over the last 30 years. Ion chromatography can be considered to be a well established, mature technique for the analysis of anions and cations and many organizations, such as ISO, US EPA, ASTM, NIOSH or AOAC. After the publications international standard methods concerning with ion chromatography the number of laboratories applying this technique have increased dramatically. Because of many advantages such as a broad range of applications, well-developed hardware, many detection options, reliability (good accuracy and precision), high selectivity, high speed, high separation efficiency, good tolerance to sample matrices, and low cost of consumables - ion chromatography is more and more popular in wastewater analysis.

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