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Special Issue "Frontiers in Infrared Photodetection"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Professor Robert H. Hadfield

School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: infrared single-photon detection; superconducting single-photon detectors; cryogenic systems; advanced photon-counting applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human vision is limited to a narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Infrared photodetection technologies dramatically augment our visual perception, allowing us to see through fog and smoke, peer into the depths of space and pick up faint fluorescence signatures from living cells. This Sensors Special Issue Frontiers in infrared photodetection will capture a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in infrared photodetection technologies, including emerging device paradigms, techniques and applications.

Topics of interest:

  • Near- to mid-infrared detectors, focal plane arrays cameras and bolometers
  • Infrared low light level and photon-counting detectors
  • Emerging device paradigms, such as novel semiconductor materials, graphene and two dimensional materials, superconductors, bioinspired detectors, frequency upconversion detection schemes.
  • Ancillary technology, including optical coupling strategies, filters, readout circuits and practical cryogenic platforms for infrared detectors
  • Frontier sensing applications in infrared photodetection: remote sensing, imaging, ranging, infrared fluorescence, spectroscopy, fault testing in integrated circuits.

Within the scope of the Special Issue, authors are encouraged to submit review articles, full-length technical articles and rapid communications. Submissions should indicate clearly how the work addresses current challenges in infrared photodetection. Authors are welcome to contact the Guest Editor to discuss outline submissions.

Prof. Dr. Robert H. Hadfield
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • Infrared detector
  • Photodetector
  • Single-photon detector
  • Photon counting
  • Focal plane array
  • Infrared sensing
  • Imaging
  • Remote sensing
  • LIDAR
  • Spectroscopy

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs
Sensors 2015, 15(7), 17258-17273; doi:10.3390/s150717258
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 11 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight
[...] Read more.
Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR) and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR) with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Infrared Photodetection)
Open AccessArticle HyperCube: A Small Lensless Position Sensing Device for the Tracking of Flickering Infrared LEDs
Sensors 2015, 15(7), 16484-16502; doi:10.3390/s150716484
Received: 30 March 2015 / Revised: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 2 July 2015 / Published: 8 July 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
An innovative insect-based visual sensor is designed to perform active marker tracking. Without any optics and a field-of-view of about 60°, a novel miniature visual sensor is able to locate flickering markers (LEDs) with an accuracy much greater than the one dictated by
[...] Read more.
An innovative insect-based visual sensor is designed to perform active marker tracking. Without any optics and a field-of-view of about 60°, a novel miniature visual sensor is able to locate flickering markers (LEDs) with an accuracy much greater than the one dictated by the pixel pitch. With a size of only 1 cm3 and a mass of only 0.33 g, the lensless sensor, called HyperCube, is dedicated to 3D motion tracking and fits perfectly with the drastic constraints imposed by micro-aerial vehicles. Only three photosensors are placed on each side of the cubic configuration of the sensing device, making this sensor very inexpensive and light. HyperCube provides the azimuth and elevation of infrared LEDs flickering at a high frequency (>1 kHz) with a precision of 0.5°. The minimalistic design in terms of small size, low mass and low power consumption of this visual sensor makes it suitable for many applications in the field of the cooperative flight of unmanned aerial vehicles and, more generally, robotic applications requiring active beacons. Experimental results show that HyperCube provides useful angular measurements that can be used to estimate the relative position between the sensor and the flickering infrared markers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Infrared Photodetection)
Open AccessArticle An Evaluation of the Pedestrian Classification in a Multi-Domain Multi-Modality Setup
Sensors 2015, 15(6), 13851-13873; doi:10.3390/s150613851
Received: 2 April 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 12 June 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
The objective of this article is to study the problem of pedestrian classification across different light spectrum domains (visible and far-infrared (FIR)) and modalities (intensity, depth and motion). In recent years, there has been a number of approaches for classifying and detecting pedestrians
[...] Read more.
The objective of this article is to study the problem of pedestrian classification across different light spectrum domains (visible and far-infrared (FIR)) and modalities (intensity, depth and motion). In recent years, there has been a number of approaches for classifying and detecting pedestrians in both FIR and visible images, but the methods are difficult to compare, because either the datasets are not publicly available or they do not offer a comparison between the two domains. Our two primary contributions are the following: (1) we propose a public dataset, named RIFIR , containing both FIR and visible images collected in an urban environment from a moving vehicle during daytime; and (2) we compare the state-of-the-art features in a multi-modality setup: intensity, depth and flow, in far-infrared over visible domains. The experiments show that features families, intensity self-similarity (ISS), local binary patterns (LBP), local gradient patterns (LGP) and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), computed from FIR and visible domains are highly complementary, but their relative performance varies across different modalities. In our experiments, the FIR domain has proven superior to the visible one for the task of pedestrian classification, but the overall best results are obtained by a multi-domain multi-modality multi-feature fusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Infrared Photodetection)
Open AccessArticle High-Speed Incoming Infrared Target Detection by Fusion of Spatial and Temporal Detectors
Sensors 2015, 15(4), 7267-7293; doi:10.3390/s150407267
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 13 March 2015 / Accepted: 20 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
Cited by 7
Abstract
This paper presents a method for detecting high-speed incoming targets by the fusion of spatial and temporal detectors to achieve a high detection rate for an active protection system (APS). The incoming targets have different image velocities according to the target-camera geometry. Therefore,
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a method for detecting high-speed incoming targets by the fusion of spatial and temporal detectors to achieve a high detection rate for an active protection system (APS). The incoming targets have different image velocities according to the target-camera geometry. Therefore, single-target detector-based approaches, such as a 1D temporal filter, 2D spatial filter and 3D matched filter, cannot provide a high detection rate with moderate false alarms. The target speed variation was analyzed according to the incoming angle and target velocity. The speed of the distant target at the firing time is almost stationary and increases slowly. The speed varying targets are detected stably by fusing the spatial and temporal filters. The stationary target detector is activated by an almost zero temporal contrast filter (TCF) and identifies targets using a spatial filter called the modified mean subtraction filter (M-MSF). A small motion (sub-pixel velocity) target detector is activated by a small TCF value and finds targets using the same spatial filter. A large motion (pixel-velocity) target detector works when the TCF value is high. The final target detection is terminated by fusing the three detectors based on the threat priority. The experimental results of the various target sequences show that the proposed fusion-based target detector produces the highest detection rate with an acceptable false alarm rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Infrared Photodetection)
Open AccessArticle Human Detection Based on the Generation of a Background Image by Using a Far-Infrared Light Camera
Sensors 2015, 15(3), 6763-6788; doi:10.3390/s150306763
Received: 15 January 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 19 March 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
The need for computer vision-based human detection has increased in fields, such as security, intelligent surveillance and monitoring systems. However, performance enhancement of human detection based on visible light cameras is limited, because of factors, such as nonuniform illumination, shadows and low external
[...] Read more.
The need for computer vision-based human detection has increased in fields, such as security, intelligent surveillance and monitoring systems. However, performance enhancement of human detection based on visible light cameras is limited, because of factors, such as nonuniform illumination, shadows and low external light in the evening and night. Consequently, human detection based on thermal (far-infrared light) cameras has been considered as an alternative. However, its performance is influenced by the factors, such as low image resolution, low contrast and the large noises of thermal images. It is also affected by the high temperature of backgrounds during the day. To solve these problems, we propose a new method for detecting human areas in thermal camera images. Compared to previous works, the proposed research is novel in the following four aspects. One background image is generated by median and average filtering. Additional filtering procedures based on maximum gray level, size filtering and region erasing are applied to remove the human areas from the background image. Secondly, candidate human regions in the input image are located by combining the pixel and edge difference images between the input and background images. The thresholds for the difference images are adaptively determined based on the brightness of the generated background image. Noise components are removed by component labeling, a morphological operation and size filtering. Third, detected areas that may have more than two human regions are merged or separated based on the information in the horizontal and vertical histograms of the detected area. This procedure is adaptively operated based on the brightness of the generated background image. Fourth, a further procedure for the separation and removal of the candidate human regions is performed based on the size and ratio of the height to width information of the candidate regions considering the camera viewing direction and perspective projection. Experimental results with two types of databases confirm that the proposed method outperforms other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Infrared Photodetection)
Open AccessArticle Plasmonic Structure Integrated Single-Photon Detector Configurations to Improve Absorptance and Polarization Contrast
Sensors 2015, 15(2), 3513-3539; doi:10.3390/s150203513
Received: 6 November 2014 / Revised: 8 December 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2015 / Published: 3 February 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
Configurations capable of maximizing both the absorption component of system detection efficiency and the achievable polarization contrast were determined for 1550 nm polarized light illumination of different plasmonic structure integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) consisting of p = 264 nm and P
[...] Read more.
Configurations capable of maximizing both the absorption component of system detection efficiency and the achievable polarization contrast were determined for 1550 nm polarized light illumination of different plasmonic structure integrated superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) consisting of p = 264 nm and P = 792 nm periodic niobium nitride (NbN) patterns on silica substrate. Global effective NbN absorptance maxima appear in case of p/s-polarized light illumination in S/P-orientation (γ = 90°/0° azimuthal angle) and the highest polarization contrast is attained in S-orientation of all devices. Common nanophotonical origin of absorptance enhancement is collective resonance on nanocavity gratings with different profiles, which is promoted by coupling between localized modes in quarter-wavelength metal-insulator-metal nanocavities and laterally synchronized Brewster-Zenneck-type surface waves in integrated SNSPDs possessing a three-quarter-wavelength-scaled periodicity. The spectral sensitivity and dispersion characteristics reveal that device design specific optimal configurations exist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Infrared Photodetection)
Open AccessArticle Multi-Frequency Band Pyroelectric Sensors
Sensors 2014, 14(12), 22180-22198; doi:10.3390/s141222180
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 20 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
Cited by 6
Abstract
A methodology is proposed for designing a multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor which can detect subjects with various frequencies or velocities. A structure with dual pyroelectric layers, consisting of a thinner sputtered ZnO layer and a thicker aerosol ZnO layer, proved helpful in the
[...] Read more.
A methodology is proposed for designing a multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor which can detect subjects with various frequencies or velocities. A structure with dual pyroelectric layers, consisting of a thinner sputtered ZnO layer and a thicker aerosol ZnO layer, proved helpful in the development of the proposed sensor. The thinner sputtered ZnO layer with a small thermal capacity and a rapid response accomplishes a high-frequency sensing task, while the thicker aerosol ZnO layer with a large thermal capacity and a tardy response is responsible for low-frequency sensing tasks. A multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor is successfully designed, analyzed and fabricated in the present study. The range of the multi-frequency sensing can be estimated by means of the proposed design and analysis to match the thicknesses of the sputtered and the aerosol ZnO layers. The fabricated multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor with a 1 μm thick sputtered ZnO layer and a 20 μm thick aerosol ZnO layer can sense a frequency band from 4000 to 40,000 Hz without tardy response and low voltage responsivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Infrared Photodetection)

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