E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Assembly"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bart Jan Ravoo (Website)

Organic Chemistry Institute, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Correnstrasse 40, Münster 48149, Germany
Interests: Carbohydrate recognition; Microcontact printing; Molecular monolayers; Janus particles; Self-assembly; Vesicles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the field of supramolecular chemistry has progressed from rather simple non-covalent complexes of small molecules to increasingly complex and dynamic structures and materials. Also the interplay of supramolecular chemistry and polymer chemistry has witnessed exciting developments. The formation of supramolecular polymers by non-covalent interaction of monomers and the self-assembly of block-copolymers in solution and bulk are two prominent examples. This special issue of Polymers aims to highlight recent advances in the area of molecular recognition and folding of polymers, chirality and controlled growth of supramolecular polymers, smart polymersomes, stimulus-responsive and self-healing polymers, and more.

Prof. Dr. Bart Jan Ravoo
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • self-assembly
  • molecular recognition
  • multivalent interactions
  • supramolecular chirality
  • supramolecular polymers
  • polyrotaxanes
  • coordination polymers
  • polymersomes
  • responsive materials

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles
Polymers 2013, 5(3), 1102-1114; doi:10.3390/polym5031102
Received: 1 July 2013 / Revised: 5 August 2013 / Accepted: 29 August 2013 / Published: 6 September 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1018 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar [...] Read more.
Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter) of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Assembly)
Figures

Open AccessArticle DNA-Promoted Auto-Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles: Effect of the DNA Sequence on the Stability of the Assemblies
Polymers 2013, 5(3), 1041-1055; doi:10.3390/polym5031041
Received: 26 June 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 22 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (755 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides has proven to be a powerful and versatile strategy to assemble nanomaterials into two (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) superlattices. With the aim of contributing to the elucidation of the factors that affect the stability of [...] Read more.
The use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides has proven to be a powerful and versatile strategy to assemble nanomaterials into two (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) superlattices. With the aim of contributing to the elucidation of the factors that affect the stability of this type of superlattices, the assembly of gold nanoparticles grafted with different DNA oligonucleotides was characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy as a function of temperature. After establishing an appropriate methodology the effect of (i) the length of the grafted oligonucleotides; (ii) the length of their complementary parts and also of (iii) the simultaneous grafting of different oligonucleotides was investigated. Our results indicate that the electrostatic repulsion between the particles and the cooperativity of the assembly process play crucial roles in the stability of the assemblies while the grafting density of the oligonucleotide strands seems to have little influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Assembly)
Open AccessArticle Supramolecular Functionalities Influence the Thermal Properties, Interactions and Conductivity Behavior of Poly(ethylene glycol)/LiAsF6 Blends
Polymers 2013, 5(3), 937-953; doi:10.3390/polym5030937
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 20 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we tethered terminal uracil groups onto short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form the polymers, uracil (U)-PEG and U-PEG-U. Through AC impedance measurements, we found that the conductivities of these polymers increased upon increasing the content of the lithium salt, [...] Read more.
In this study, we tethered terminal uracil groups onto short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form the polymers, uracil (U)-PEG and U-PEG-U. Through AC impedance measurements, we found that the conductivities of these polymers increased upon increasing the content of the lithium salt, LiAsF6, until the Li-to-PEG ratio reached 1:4, with the conductivities of the LiAsF6/U-PEG blends being greater than those of the LiAsF6/U-PEG-U blends. The ionic conductivity of the LiAsF6/U-PEG system reached as high as 7.81 × 10−4 S/cm at 30 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray scattering, 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the presence of the uracil groups in the solid state electrolytes had a critical role in tuning the glass transition temperatures and facilitating the transfer of Li+ ions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Assembly)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Solid-State Organization and Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors of Benzothiadiazole-Cyclopentadithiophene Copolymer with Long Branched Alkyl Side Chains
Polymers 2013, 5(2), 833-846; doi:10.3390/polym5020833
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The solid-state organization of a benzothiadiazole-cyclopentadithiophene copolymer with long, branched decyl-tetradecyl side chains (CDT-BTZ-C14,10) is investigated. The C14,10 substituents are sterically demanding and increase the π-stacking distance to 0.40 nm from 0.37 nm for the same polymer with linear [...] Read more.
The solid-state organization of a benzothiadiazole-cyclopentadithiophene copolymer with long, branched decyl-tetradecyl side chains (CDT-BTZ-C14,10) is investigated. The C14,10 substituents are sterically demanding and increase the π-stacking distance to 0.40 nm from 0.37 nm for the same polymer with linear hexadecyls (C16). Despite the bulkiness, the C14,10 side chains tend to crystallize, leading to a small chain-to-chain distance between lamellae stacks and to a crystal-like microstructure in the thin film. Interestingly, field-effect transistors based on solution processed layers of CDT-BTZ-C14,10 show ambipolar behavior in contrast to CDT-BTZ-C16 with linear side chains, for which hole transport was previously observed. Due to the increased π-stacking distance, the mobilities are only 6 × 104 cm²/Vs for electrons and 6 × 105 cm²/Vs for holes, while CDT-BTZ-C16 leads to values up to 5.5 cm²/Vs. The ambipolarity is attributed to a lateral shift between stacked backbones provoked by the bulky C14,10 side chains. This reorganization is supposed to change the transfer integrals between the C16 and C14,10 substituted polymers. This work shows that the electronic behavior in devices of one single conjugated polymer (in this case CDT-BTZ) can be controlled by the right choice of the substituents to place the backbones in the desired packing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Assembly)
Open AccessArticle One-Dimensional Coordination Polymers of Lanthanide Cations to Cucurbit[7]uril Built Using a Range of Tetrachloride Transition-Metal Dianion Structure Inducers
Polymers 2013, 5(2), 418-430; doi:10.3390/polym5020418
Received: 18 March 2013 / Revised: 30 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (4333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A number of linear coordination polymers have been assembled from lanthanide cations (Ln3+) and cucurbit[7]uril (Q[7]) in the presence of [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions acting as inorganic structure inducers in HCl solution. X-ray diffraction [...] Read more.
A number of linear coordination polymers have been assembled from lanthanide cations (Ln3+) and cucurbit[7]uril (Q[7]) in the presence of [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions acting as inorganic structure inducers in HCl solution. X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that they form three groups of isomorphous structures. Generally, the complexes of Q[7] with light lanthanide cations (those with atomic number below that of neodymium (Nd3+)) are in one group. The other two groups, in which the lanthanide cation has atomic number greater than that of europium (Eu3+), seem to follow no obvious rule. For example, the complexes of Q[7] with Eu3+ and Gd3+cations are in the second group in the presence of [CuCl4]2− anions, while they are in the third group in the presence of [CoCl4]2− anions. However, whatever group a given complex belongs to, they all show a common honeycomb-patterned supramolecular assembly, in which [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions form a honeycomb structure. The Ln3+ cations then coordinate to neighboring Q[7] molecules to form 1D coordination polymers that are inserted into the channels of the honeycomb framework, such that each individual coordination polymer is surrounded by [CuCl4]2−or [CoCl4]2− anions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Assembly)
Open AccessArticle Charge-Transfer Complexes Studied by Dynamic Force Spectroscopy
Polymers 2013, 5(1), 269-283; doi:10.3390/polym5010269
Received: 2 February 2013 / Revised: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the strength and kinetics of two charge-transfer complexes, naphthol-methylviologen and pyrene-methylviologen, are studied using dynamic force spectroscopy. The dissociation rates indicate an enhanced stability of the pyrene-methylviologen complex, which agrees with its higher thermodynamic stability compared to naphthol-methylviologen complex. [...] Read more.
In this paper, the strength and kinetics of two charge-transfer complexes, naphthol-methylviologen and pyrene-methylviologen, are studied using dynamic force spectroscopy. The dissociation rates indicate an enhanced stability of the pyrene-methylviologen complex, which agrees with its higher thermodynamic stability compared to naphthol-methylviologen complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Assembly)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies
Polymers 2013, 5(2), 576-599; doi:10.3390/polym5020576
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 7 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (2078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the [...] Read more.
Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Assembly)
Figures

Open AccessReview Structural Diversity of Metallosupramolecular Assemblies Based on the Bent Bridging Ligand 4,4′-Dithiodipyridine
Polymers 2013, 5(2), 527-575; doi:10.3390/polym5020527
Received: 2 April 2013 / Revised: 30 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
4,4′-Dithiodipyridine (dtdp), also termed 4,4′-dipyridyldisulfide, is a bridging ligand of the 4,4′-bipyridine type. The introduction of the disulfide moiety inevitably leads to a relatively rigid angular structure, which exhibits axial chirality. More than 90 metal complexes containing the dtdp ligand [...] Read more.
4,4′-Dithiodipyridine (dtdp), also termed 4,4′-dipyridyldisulfide, is a bridging ligand of the 4,4′-bipyridine type. The introduction of the disulfide moiety inevitably leads to a relatively rigid angular structure, which exhibits axial chirality. More than 90 metal complexes containing the dtdp ligand have been crystallographically characterised until now. This review focuses on the preparation and structural diversity of discrete and polymeric metallosupramolecular assemblies constructed from dtdp as bridging ligands. These encompass metallamacrocycles with M2L2 topology and coordination polymers with periodicity in one or two dimensions. One-dimensional coordination polymers represent the vast majority of the metallosupramolecular structures obtained from dtdp. These include repeated rhomboids, zigzag, helical and arched chains among other types. In this contribution, we make an attempt to provide a comprehensive account of the structural data that are currently available for metallosupramolecular assemblies based on the bent bridging ligand dtdp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supramolecular Chemistry and Self-Assembly)
Figures

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Charge-Transfer Complexes Studied by Dynamic Force Spectroscopy
Authors: A. Gomez-Casado, A. Gonzalez-Campo, Y. Zhang, X. Zhang, P. Jonkheijm and J. Huskens
Affiliation: Molecular Nanofabrication and Biophysical Engineering, Department of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, The Netherlands; E-Mail: P.Jonkheijm@utwente.nl
Abstract: In this manuscript, the strength and kinetics of two charge-transfer complexes, naphthol-methylviologen and pyrene-methylviologen, are studied using dynamic force spectroscopy. The dissociation rates indicate an enhanced stability of the pyrene-methylviologen complex, which agrees with its higher thermodynamic stability compared to naphthol-methylviologen complex.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Metal Coordination and Organometallic Chemistry for Supramolecular Metal Containing Polymers and Nanomaterials
Author: Xiaosong Wang
Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, C2 280, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1; E-Mail: xiaosong.wang@uwaterloo.ca
Abstract: Building on established supramolecular chemistry, metal coordination and organometallic chemistry have been widely investigated for their potential application in supramolecular polymers and nanostructures. Increasingly, literature has demonstrated that this is a promising approach for the synthesis of novel materials with functions derived from metal elements and their coordination structures. However, when systems involve multiple non-covalent interactions in addition to metal coordination, unique self-assembly behaviour and unexpected supramolecular strucutres are frequently discovered. Understanding the synergistic effects of non-covalent interactions for the designed synthesis of metal containing assemblies with high structure complexity is a key challenge at the forefront of the field. Recent reports are highlighted in this review in an attempt to illustrate the state of the art of the area and stress the importance to develop controlled chemistry for the synthesis of metal containing assemblies.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Hybrid, Nanoscale Polymersome/Lipid Membranes
Authors: Seng Koon Lim 1, Jeremy Sanborn 2, Hans-Peter de Hoog 1, Atul Parikh 1,2, Madhavan Nallani 1,3,* and Bo Liedberg 1
Affiliations: 1 Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive 637553, Singapore
2 Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, CA, USA
3 Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research link, Singapore 117602
Abstract: Hybrid polymersomes, where the polymersome membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior and incorporate the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes, with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can conveniently be characterized by the formation of giant vesicles formed via electroformation. We were interested to show the behavior of these giant structures correlate with that of nanoscale hybrid polymersomes of the same (initial) composition, an architecture that has so far not been thoroughly investigated. It is shown that the stability and compound release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-PEG/POPC hybrid polymersomes can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles, analogous to the way in which the drug-release behavior of phospholipid vesicles can be tuned by ‘pegylation’. In brief, these hybrids provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications that clearly warrant further study.
Keywords: polymersomes; hybrid vesicles; self-assembly; drug-delivery; soft matter

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Tetrachloride Transition-metal dianion-induced Ccoordination and Supramolecular self-Assembly of Strontium Dications to Cucurbit8uril
Author: Gang Wei
Affiliation: CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Bradfield Road, West Lindfield, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070, Australia; Email: gang.wei@csiro.au
Abstract: In the present work, we describe a kind of novel cucurbit8uril-based coordination supramolecular self-assemblies in the presence of tetrachloride transition-metal dianion ([MtransCl4]2-, Mtrans = Cd, Zn, Cu, Co) in the HCl solution. Again the “honeycomb effect” of the tetrachloride transition-metal dianion ([MtransCl4]2- has been observed in the coordination of strontium cations to cucurbit8uril molecules (Q8s). It seems that the [MtransCl4]2− anions form honeycomb structure with hexagonal cells filled with the Sr2+-Q8 linear coordination polymers in which the Sr2+ cations coordinate to Q8 molecules and form zigzag coordination polymers.

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Polymers Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
polymers@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Polymers
Back to Top