Special Issue "Surface Modification and Functional Coatings for Polymers"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2018

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Boxin Zhao

University of Waterloo, Department of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: surface science and bionanomaterials; interfacial materials engineering for advanced manufacturing; biomimicry and biomimetic materials; multifunctional polymers and nanocomposites; biopolymer; hydrogels and healthcare materials; advanced coating and adhesive bonding technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface modification and interfacial phenomena of polymeric materials are critical to many existing applications in manufacturing, biomedical, energy, and healthcare, etc., and the development of new functional materials and devices. For instance, the surface of plastics needs to be activated to improve its surface polarity and surface energy for effective assembly processes, while the surfaces of polymer commodities are typically treated or coated so as to have good waterproof, wear-resistance properties, or have a soft texture. Polymer-based parts and devices in biomedical area are often functionalized with a thin layer of hydrophilic molecular chains to inhibit fouling and reduce drag force. Anti-microbial surfaces are highly desired for healthcare materials to prevent the spreading of infection in clinical settings.

This Special Issue focuses on the current of state-of-art of surface modification and coating development for polymeric materials including synthetic polymers, biopolymer and bio-based polymer, polymer nanocomposite, gels, adhesives. Of particular interests are the recent development of functional surfaces, smart coatings, biomimetic surface modification, and the fundamental exploration of the structure-property relationships for such desired functions as water-repellence, self-cleaning, anti-flogging, anti-reflection, biocompatibility, adhesion, surface hardness, low friction, wear-resistance, conductivity, antistatic.

Prof. Dr. Boxin Zhao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Polymer surfaces and interface
  • Surface functionalization and modification
  • Biomimetic surface patterning
  • Superhydrophobicity and self-cleaning
  • Polymer composites
  • Biopolymers
  • Smart coatings
  • Functional polymers
  • Polymer adhesive and coating

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle An Environmentally Friendly Approach for the Fabrication of Conductive Superhydrophobic Coatings with Sandwich-Like Structures
Polymers 2018, 10(4), 378; doi:10.3390/polym10040378
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 25 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract
A large amount of research has been devoted to developing novel superhydrophobic coatings. However, it is still a great challenge to pursuean environmentally friendly method that leads to superhydrophobic coatings. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time, an environmentally friendly method for the
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A large amount of research has been devoted to developing novel superhydrophobic coatings. However, it is still a great challenge to pursuean environmentally friendly method that leads to superhydrophobic coatings. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time, an environmentally friendly method for the preparation of conductive superhydrophobic coatings with sandwich-like structures by using aminoethylaminopropyl polydimethylsiloxane modified waterborne polyurethane (SiWPU) and N-octadecylamine functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes. These environmentally friendly coatings with the sheet resistance of 1.1 ± 0.1 kΩ/sq exhibit a high apparent contact angle of 158.1° ± 2° and a low sliding angle below 1°. The influence of the surface texture before and after heat treatment on the wetting properties is discussed. In addition, the coatings can be electrically heated by 3~113 °C with a voltage of 12~72 V, and thus, can be used for deicing. Furthermore, the resulting coatings demonstrate good performance of wear resistance and ultraviolet resistance, which will have broad application potential in harsh environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification and Functional Coatings for Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Novel Dual-Component Microencapsulated Hydrophobic Amine and Microencapsulated Isocyanate Used for Self-Healing Anti-Corrosion Coating
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 319; doi:10.3390/polym10030319
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 9 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
Dual component microencapsulated hydrophobic amine and microencapsulated isocyanate were designed and fabricated for self-healing anti-corrosion coating. In this system, novel hydrophobic polyaspartic acid ester (PAE) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) were microencapsulated respectively with melamine-formaldehyde (MF) as shell via in situ polymerization. To reduce
[...] Read more.
Dual component microencapsulated hydrophobic amine and microencapsulated isocyanate were designed and fabricated for self-healing anti-corrosion coating. In this system, novel hydrophobic polyaspartic acid ester (PAE) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) were microencapsulated respectively with melamine-formaldehyde (MF) as shell via in situ polymerization. To reduce the reaction activity between shell-forming MF prepolymer and PAE, another self-healing agent tung oil (TO) was dissolved in PAE and subsequently employed as core material. With field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and optical microscopy (OM), the resultant microencapsulated IPDI with diameter of 2–5 μm showed a spherical shape and smooth surface. More importantly, both the morphology and microstructure of microencapsulated PAE enhanced significantly after addition of TO. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) analysis confirmed the molecular structure of chemical structure of the microcapsules. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that both kinds of microcapsules exhibit excellent thermal resistance with the protection of MF shell. Furthermore, the self-healing epoxy coating system containing microencapsulated IPDI and microencapsulated PAE/TO was prepared and investigated. From the micrographs of true color confocal microscope (TCCM), the self-healing coating containing dual-component microcapsules showed excellent self-repairing performance compared to single microencapsulated IPDI system, and the optimal content of dual-component microcapsules in epoxy coating was 20 wt % approximately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification and Functional Coatings for Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Cationic Surface Modification on the Rheological Behavior and Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Cellulose
Polymers 2018, 10(3), 278; doi:10.3390/polym10030278
Received: 4 February 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
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Abstract
In the present work, the microstructure and rheological behavior of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and cationically modified NCC (CNCC) were comparatively studied. The resultant CNCC generally showed improved dispersion and higher thermal stability in comparison to the un-modified NCC. The rheological behavior demonstrated that
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In the present work, the microstructure and rheological behavior of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and cationically modified NCC (CNCC) were comparatively studied. The resultant CNCC generally showed improved dispersion and higher thermal stability in comparison to the un-modified NCC. The rheological behavior demonstrated that the viscosity of the NCC suspension substantially decreased with the increasing shear rate (0.01–100 s−1), showing the typical characteristics of a pseudoplastic fluid. In contrast, the CNCC suspensions displayed a typical three-region behavior, regardless of changes in pH, temperature, and concentration. Moreover, the CNCC suspensions exhibited higher shear stress and viscosity at a given shear rate (0.01–100 s−1) than the NCC suspension. Meanwhile, the dynamic viscoelasticity measurements revealed that the CNCC suspensions possessed a higher elastic (G′) and loss modulus (G″) than NCC suspensions over the whole frequency range (0.1–500 rad·s−1), providing evidence that the surface cationization of NCC makes it prone to behave as a gel-like structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification and Functional Coatings for Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Immobilization of Platelet-Rich Plasma onto COOH Plasma-Coated PCL Nanofibers Boost Viability and Proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Polymers 2017, 9(12), 736; doi:10.3390/polym9120736
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
The scaffolds made of polycaprolactone (PCL) are actively employed in different areas of biology and medicine, especially in tissue engineering. However, the usage of unmodified PCL is significantly restricted by the hydrophobicity of its surface, due to the fact that its inert surface
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The scaffolds made of polycaprolactone (PCL) are actively employed in different areas of biology and medicine, especially in tissue engineering. However, the usage of unmodified PCL is significantly restricted by the hydrophobicity of its surface, due to the fact that its inert surface hinders the adhesion of cells and the cell interactions on PCL surface. In this work, the surface of PCL nanofibers is modified by Ar/CO2/C2H4 plasma depositing active COOH groups in the amount of 0.57 at % that were later used for the immobilization of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The modification of PCL nanofibers significantly enhances the viability and proliferation (by hundred times) of human mesenchymal stem cells, and decreases apoptotic cell death to a normal level. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), after immobilization of PRP, up to 10.7 at % of nitrogen was incorporated into the nanofibers surface confirming the grafting of proteins. Active proliferation and sustaining the cell viability on nanofibers with immobilized PRP led to an average number of cells of 258 ± 12.9 and 364 ± 34.5 for nanofibers with ionic and covalent bonding of PRP, respectively. Hence, our new method for the modification of PCL nanofibers with PRP opens new possibilities for its application in tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification and Functional Coatings for Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle The Effects of Using Sodium Alginate Hydrosols Treated with Direct Electric Current as Coatings for Sausages
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 602; doi:10.3390/polym9110602
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
We investigated the effect of sodium alginate hydrosols (1%) with 0.2% of NaCl treated with direct electric current (DC) used as a coating on microbial (Total Viable Counts, Psychrotrophic bacteria, yeast and molds, Lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae), physiochemical (pH, lipid oxidation, antioxidant
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We investigated the effect of sodium alginate hydrosols (1%) with 0.2% of NaCl treated with direct electric current (DC) used as a coating on microbial (Total Viable Counts, Psychrotrophic bacteria, yeast and molds, Lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae), physiochemical (pH, lipid oxidation, antioxidant activity, weight loss, color) and sensory properties of skinned pork sausages or with artificial casing stored at 4 °C for 28 days. Moreover, the cytotoxicity analysis of sodium alginate hydrogels was performed. The results have shown that application of experimental coatings on the sausage surface resulted in reducing all tested groups of microorganisms compared to control after a 4-week storage. The cytotoxicity analysis revealed that proliferation of RAW 264.7 and L929 is not inhibited by the samples treated with 200 mA. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) analyses showed that there are no significant differences in antioxidant properties between control samples and those covered with sodium alginate. After 28 days of storage, the highest value of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was noticed for variants treated with 400 mA (1.07 mg malondialdehyde/kg), while it was only slightly lower for the control sample (0.95 mg MDA/kg). The obtained results suggest that sodium alginate treated with DC may be used as a coating for food preservation because of its antimicrobial activity and lack of undesirable impact on the quality factors of sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification and Functional Coatings for Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Surface Modification of Cardiovascular Stent Material 316L SS with Estradiol-Loaded Poly (trimethylene carbonate) Film for Better Biocompatibility
Polymers 2017, 9(11), 598; doi:10.3390/polym9110598
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
A delay in the endothelialization process represents a bottleneck in the application of a drug-eluting stent (DES) during cardiovascular interventional therapy, which may lead to a high risk of late restenosis. In this study, we used a novel active drug, estradiol, which may
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A delay in the endothelialization process represents a bottleneck in the application of a drug-eluting stent (DES) during cardiovascular interventional therapy, which may lead to a high risk of late restenosis. In this study, we used a novel active drug, estradiol, which may contribute to surface endothelialization of a DES, and prepared an estradiol-loaded poly (trimethylene carbonate) film (PTMC-E5) on the surface of the DES material, 316L stainless steel (316L SS), in order to evaluate its function in improving surface endothelialization. All the in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that the PTMC-E5 film significantly improved surface hemocompatibility and anti-hyperplasia, anti-inflammation and pro-endothelialization properties. This novel drug-delivery system may provide a breakthrough for the surface endothelialization of cardiovascular DES. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification and Functional Coatings for Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Surface and Protein Adsorption Properties of 316L Stainless Steel Modified with Polycaprolactone Film
Polymers 2017, 9(10), 545; doi:10.3390/polym9100545
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
The surface and protein adsorption properties of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) modified with polycaprolactone (PCL) films are systematically investigated. The wettability of the PCL films was comparable to that of bare 316L SS because the rough surface morphology of the PCL films
[...] Read more.
The surface and protein adsorption properties of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) modified with polycaprolactone (PCL) films are systematically investigated. The wettability of the PCL films was comparable to that of bare 316L SS because the rough surface morphology of the PCL films counteracts their hydrophobicity. Surface modification with PCL film significantly improves the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS because PCL is insulating in nature. A coating of PCL film effectively reduces the amount of adhered bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surface of 316L SS in a bicinchoninic acid protein assay. PCL is both biodegradable and biocompatible, suggesting the potential for the surface modification of implants used in human bodies; in these applications, excellent corrosion resistance and anticoagulant properties are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification and Functional Coatings for Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Al2O3 Nano-Structure Functional Film on a Cellulose Insulation Polymer Surface and Its Space Charge Suppression Effect
Polymers 2017, 9(10), 502; doi:10.3390/polym9100502
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 5 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cellulose insulation polymer (paper/pressboard) has been widely used in high voltage direct current (HVDC) transformers. One of the most challenging issues in the insulation material used for HVDC equipment is the space charge accumulation. Effective ways to suppress the space charge injection/accumulation in
[...] Read more.
Cellulose insulation polymer (paper/pressboard) has been widely used in high voltage direct current (HVDC) transformers. One of the most challenging issues in the insulation material used for HVDC equipment is the space charge accumulation. Effective ways to suppress the space charge injection/accumulation in insulation material is currently a popular research topic. In this study, an aluminium oxide functional film was deposited on a cellulose insulation pressboard surface using reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The sputtered thin film was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influence of the deposited functional film on the dielectric properties and the space charge injection/accumulation behaviour was investigated. A preliminary exploration of the space charge suppression effect is discussed. SEM/EDS, XPS, and XRD results show that the nano-structured Al2O3 film with amorphous phase was successfully fabricated onto the fibre surface. The cellulose insulation pressboard surface sputtered by Al2O3 film has lower permittivity, conductivity, and dissipation factor values in the lower frequency (<103 Hz) region. The oil-impregnated sputtered pressboard presents an apparent space-charge suppression effect. Compared with the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 90 min, the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 60 min had a better space charge suppression effect. Ultra-small Al2O3 particles (<10 nm) grew on the surface of the larger nanoparticles. The nano-structured Al2O3 film sputtered on the fibre surface could act as a functional barrier layer for suppression of the charge injection and accumulation. This study offers a new perspective in favour of the application of insulation pressboard with a nano-structured function surface against space charge injection/accumulation in HVDC equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Modification and Functional Coatings for Polymers)
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