Special Issue "Foodborne Pathogens"

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A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Aaron Lynne (Website)

125C Lee Drain Building Box 2116, 1900 Ave I, Department of Biological Sciences, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Infections due to foodborne pathogens continue to be a major source of disease worldwide, especially in developing countries where these infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Foodborne diseases can be caused by a number of viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic pathogens.

In this Special Issue, we invite submissions from the many disciplines that cover this broad field. These can include original research spanning the “farm-to-fork” aspect of food safety. Of particular interest is: emerging foodborne pathogens, emergence of drug resistance in pathogens, microbial pathogenesis, and use of novel technologies to detect, identify or classify foodborne pathogens.

We look forward to your contribution.

Dr. Aaron Lynne
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 600 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • foodborne disease
  • food safety
  • bacteria
  • virus
  • parasite
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • pathogenesis
  • host-pathogen interaction

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts
Pathogens 2015, 4(2), 182-198; doi:10.3390/pathogens4020182
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 20 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 28 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and [...] Read more.
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts), and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80%) followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50%) then pork 43/99 (43.3%). No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens)
Open AccessArticle Proteomic Differences between Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Food and Clinical Environments
Pathogens 2014, 3(4), 920-933; doi:10.3390/pathogens3040920
Received: 26 September 2014 / Revised: 21 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes is an organism associated with a wide range of foods. It causes listeriosis, a severe illness that mainly affects people with weakened immune systems. Proteomic profiles of three different L. monocytogenes isolates were studied using 1D SDS PAGE, 2DE and [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes is an organism associated with a wide range of foods. It causes listeriosis, a severe illness that mainly affects people with weakened immune systems. Proteomic profiles of three different L. monocytogenes isolates were studied using 1D SDS PAGE, 2DE and mass spectrometry. The protein banding patterns generated by 1D SDS PAGE of three strains of L. monocytogenes were found to be similar. Visual observations from 2DE gel maps revealed that certain spots appeared to have intensity differences. Key differences in proteins synthesis of three strains of L. monocytogenes were found using the PDQest TM 2DE Analysis software. Comparison showed that the clinical isolate (strain SB92/844) had 53.4% and 53.9% protein profile similarity with dairy isolate (strain V7) and seafood isolate (SB92/870), respectively. The identity of selected protein spots was achieved using MALDI-TOF and ion trap mass spectrometry. It was found that certain identified proteins (i.e., a major cold shock protein and superoxide dismutase) were expressed differently between two local strains of L. monocytogenes (SB92/844, SB92/870) and one strain from overseas (V7). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens)
Open AccessArticle Exploring PFGE for Detecting Large Plasmids in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Various Retail Meats
Pathogens 2014, 3(4), 833-844; doi:10.3390/pathogens3040833
Received: 29 July 2014 / Revised: 10 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 21 October 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Campylobacter spp. is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in retail meat, particularly poultry, and is a leading cause of diarrhea in humans. Studies related to Campylobacter large plasmids are limited in the literature possibly due to difficulty in isolating them [...] Read more.
Campylobacter spp. is one of the most prevalent bacterial pathogens in retail meat, particularly poultry, and is a leading cause of diarrhea in humans. Studies related to Campylobacter large plasmids are limited in the literature possibly due to difficulty in isolating them using available alkaline lysis methods. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of plasmids, particularly large ones, in Campylobacter spp. isolated from various Oklahoma retail meats, and to explore PFGE (Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis) as a tool in facilitating the detection of these plasmids. One hundred and eighty nine strains (94 Campylobacter jejuni and 95 Campylobacter coli) were screened for the presence of plasmids using both alkaline lysis and PFGE. Plasmids were detected in 119/189 (63%) using both methods. Most of the plasmids detected by alkaline lysis were smaller than 90 kb and only three were larger than 90 kb. Plasmids over 70 kb in size were detected in 33 more strains by PFGE of which 11 strains contained larger than 90 kb plasmids. Plasmids were more prevalent in Campylobacter coli (73.5%) than in Campylobacter jejuni (52%). BglII restriction analysis of plasmids isolated from 102 isolates revealed 42 different restriction patterns. In conclusion, PFGE was able to detect large plasmids up to 180 Kb in Campylobacter spp. which might have been missed if the alkaline lysis method was solely used. Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail meats harbor a diverse population of plasmids with variable sizes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use PFGE to detect large plasmids in Campylobacter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens)
Open AccessArticle Fitness of Outbreak and Environmental Strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Aerosolizable Soil and Association of Clonal Variation in Stress Gene Regulation
Pathogens 2014, 3(3), 528-548; doi:10.3390/pathogens3030528
Received: 16 May 2014 / Revised: 20 June 2014 / Accepted: 24 June 2014 / Published: 30 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Airborne dust from feedlots is a potential mechanism of contamination of nearby vegetable crops with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157). We compared the fitness of clinical and environmental strains of EcO157 in <45 µm soil from a spinach farm. Differences in survival were [...] Read more.
Airborne dust from feedlots is a potential mechanism of contamination of nearby vegetable crops with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157). We compared the fitness of clinical and environmental strains of EcO157 in <45 µm soil from a spinach farm. Differences in survival were observed among the 35 strains with D-values (days for 90% decreases) ranging from 1–12 days. Strains that survived longer, generally, were from environmental sources and lacked expression of curli, a protein associated with attachment and virulence. Furthermore, the proportion of curli-positive (C+) variants of EcO157 strains decreased with repeated soil exposure and the strains that were curli-negative (C) remained C post-soil exposure. Soil exposure altered expression of stress-response genes linked to fitness of EcO157, but significant clonal variation in expression was measured. Mutations were detected in the stress-related sigma factor, rpoS, with a greater percentage occurring in parental strains of clinical origin prior to soil exposure. We speculate that these mutations in rpoS may confer a differential expression of genes, associated with mechanisms of survival and/or virulence, and thus may influence the fitness of EcO157. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens)
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Open AccessArticle Molecular Identification of Isolated Fungi from Unopened Containers of Greek Yogurt by DNA Sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer Region
Pathogens 2014, 3(3), 499-509; doi:10.3390/pathogens3030499
Received: 28 April 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 25 June 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In our previous study, we described the development of an internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 sequencing method, and used this protocol in species-identification of isolated fungi collected from the manufacturing areas of a compounding company known to have caused the multistate fungal meningitis [...] Read more.
In our previous study, we described the development of an internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 sequencing method, and used this protocol in species-identification of isolated fungi collected from the manufacturing areas of a compounding company known to have caused the multistate fungal meningitis outbreak in the United States. In this follow-up study, we have analyzed the unopened vials of Greek yogurt from the recalled batch to determine the possible cause of microbial contamination in the product. A total of 15 unopened vials of Greek yogurt belonging to the recalled batch were examined for the detection of fungi in these samples known to cause foodborne illness following conventional microbiological protocols. Fungi were isolated from all of the 15 Greek yogurt samples analyzed. The isolated fungi were genetically typed by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed all of the isolated fungal isolates from the Greek yogurt to be Rhizomucor variabilis. The generated ITS1 sequences matched 100% with the published sequences available in GenBank. In addition, these yogurt samples were also tested for the presence of five types of bacteria (Salmonella, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Escherichia coli) causing foodborne disease in humans, and found negative for all of them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens)
Open AccessArticle Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold
Pathogens 2014, 3(2), 341-355; doi:10.3390/pathogens3020341
Received: 17 February 2014 / Revised: 30 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF) test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655) are reported. A variety of [...] Read more.
Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF) test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655) are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD) of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300–600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodborne Pathogens)
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