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Special Issue "Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Linda Monaci

Natl Res Council Italy ISPA CNR, Inst Sci Food Prod, Via Amendola 122-O, I-70126 Bari, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +390805929343
Interests: food allergens; bacteria; intestinal microbiota; mycotoxins; proteomics
Guest Editor
Prof. Clare Mills

Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester,131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food allergy; gastrointestinal; gluten; food safety; clinical immunology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food allergy represents a food safety issue with an increasing recorded prevalence worldwide, making this field of primary importance for clinicians, as well as for the food industry. The role of diet and nutrition is of paramount importance in the development of the allergic disease along with the protective role exerted by micronutrients and probiotics in modulating the power of allergic reactions. Alongside, the effect of food matrix, technological treatments and human digestion also deserve attention on the possible influence on the final allergenicity of a food. This Special Issue of Nutrients entitled “Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy” aims to collect contributions focused on food allergy, evaluating the influence of the diet on the incidence of food allergies also placing emphasis on simulated digestion protocols applied to allergenic foods to illustrate the advances made in this field so far not deeply investigated. Manuscripts either original research papers or review articles addressing food allergy are welcome and are expected to cover one of these three aspects:

  1. Epidemiological evidence/role of diet and nutrition on the allergic disease
  2. The role for micronutrients and probiotics in modulating food allergies
  3. The influence of food matrix, technological treatments and bioaccessibility along the gastro-intestinal tract on food allergy

Dr. Linda Monaci
Prof. Clare Mills
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food allergy
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Allergic disease
  • Gastro-intestinal tract
  • Diet

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Release of Major Peanut Allergens from Their Matrix under Various pH and Simulated Saliva Conditions—Ara h2 and Ara h6 Are Readily Bio-Accessible
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1281; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091281
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The oral mucosa is the first immune tissue that encounters allergens upon ingestion of food. We hypothesized that the bio-accessibility of allergens at this stage may be a key determinant for sensitization. Light roasted peanut flour was suspended at various pH in buffers
[...] Read more.
The oral mucosa is the first immune tissue that encounters allergens upon ingestion of food. We hypothesized that the bio-accessibility of allergens at this stage may be a key determinant for sensitization. Light roasted peanut flour was suspended at various pH in buffers mimicking saliva. Protein concentrations and allergens profiles were determined in the supernatants. Peanut protein solubility was poor in the pH range between 3 and 6, while at a low pH (1.5) and at moderately high pHs (>8), it increased. In the pH range of saliva, between 6.5 and 8.5, the allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 were readily released, whereas Ara h1 and Ara h3 were poorly released. Increasing the pH from 6.5 to 8.5 slightly increased the release of Ara h1 and Ara h3, but the recovery remained low (approximately 20%) compared to that of Ara h2 and Ara h6 (approximately 100% and 65%, respectively). This remarkable difference in the extraction kinetics suggests that Ara h2 and Ara h6 are the first allergens an individual is exposed to upon ingestion of peanut-containing food. We conclude that the peanut allergens Ara h2 and Ara h6 are quickly bio-accessible in the mouth, potentially explaining their extraordinary allergenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Strawberry Genotype, Cultivation and Processing on the Fra a 1 Allergen Content
Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 857; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070857
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 12 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
Birch pollen allergic patients show cross-reactivity to vegetables and fruits, including strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). The objective of this study was to quantify the level of the Fra a 1 protein, a Bet v 1-homologous protein in strawberry fruits by a
[...] Read more.
Birch pollen allergic patients show cross-reactivity to vegetables and fruits, including strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). The objective of this study was to quantify the level of the Fra a 1 protein, a Bet v 1-homologous protein in strawberry fruits by a newly developed ELISA, and determine the effect of genotype, cultivation and food processing on the allergen amount. An indirect competitive ELISA using a specific polyclonal anti-Fra a 1.02 antibody was established and revealed high variability in Fra a 1 levels within 20 different genotypes ranging from 0.67 to 3.97 µg/g fresh weight. Mature fruits of red-, white- and yellow-fruited strawberry cultivars showed similar Fra a 1 concentrations. Compared to fresh strawberries, oven and solar-dried fruits contained slightly lower levels due to thermal treatment during processing. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis demonstrated degradation of recombinant Fra a 1.02 after prolonged (>10 min) thermal treatment at 99 °C. In conclusion, the genotype strongly determined the Fra a 1 quantity in strawberries and the color of the mature fruits does not relate to the amount of the PR10-protein. Cultivation conditions (organic and conventional farming) do not affect the Fra a 1 level, and seasonal effects were minor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Immunological Comparison of Native and Recombinant Hen’s Egg Yolk Allergen, Chicken Serum Albumin (Gal d 5), Produced in Kluveromyces lactis
Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 757; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060757
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
Chicken serum albumin (CSA) is a hen’s egg yolk allergen causing IgE-mediated allergy. The objective of this study was to produce a recombinant version of CSA and compare its IgE reactivity to natural CSA (nCSA). CSA was cloned and expressed as a soluble
[...] Read more.
Chicken serum albumin (CSA) is a hen’s egg yolk allergen causing IgE-mediated allergy. The objective of this study was to produce a recombinant version of CSA and compare its IgE reactivity to natural CSA (nCSA). CSA was cloned and expressed as a soluble fraction in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis) protein expression system. The gene encoding CSA was amplified with a C-terminal hemagglutinin epitope tag by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cloned into the pKLAC2 expression vector prior to transforming into K. lactis. Recombinant CSA (rCSA) was purified by immunoprecipitation. Twenty-one patients allergic to hen’s egg white were examined for sensitisation against nCSA. 38% of patients were found to be sensitised to CSA based on Western immunoassay. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding capacity of rCSA and nCSA was analysed by ELISA using sera from patients sensitised to CSA. Levels of IgE-binding were similar for both the recombinant and the natural CSA, indicating the existence of similar epitopes. rCSA produced in this study is a potential candidate to be used in component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) of egg yolk allergy. The usefulness of rCSA in CRD of egg yolk allergy warrants further characterisation using sera from patients with allergy to hen’s egg yolk in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy)
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Open AccessArticle Milk-Related Symptoms and Immunoglobulin E Reactivity in Swedish Children from Early Life to Adolescence
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050651
Received: 5 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 May 2018 / Published: 21 May 2018
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Abstract
Cow’s milk often causes symptoms in infants. Whereas, some continue to experience symptoms through childhood, others become tolerant. Yet, the ages at which persistence and tolerance occur are less clear. Thus, we examined the age of onset and persistence of milk-related symptoms from
[...] Read more.
Cow’s milk often causes symptoms in infants. Whereas, some continue to experience symptoms through childhood, others become tolerant. Yet, the ages at which persistence and tolerance occur are less clear. Thus, we examined the age of onset and persistence of milk-related symptoms from early life to adolescence, and Immunoglobulin E (IgE) milk reactivity, focusing on gender differences in a large, population-based birth cohort. Overall, 20.0% (537/2985) of children, with a comparable gender distribution, had early life milk-related symptoms. At 16y, approximately 2% (62/2985) children had persistent symptoms and high milk IgE levels (e.g., median at 4 years: 1.5 kUA/L) that were beginning in early life. In contrast, 94% had transient symptoms and low median IgE levels (early life: 0.63 kUA/L, 8y: 0.72 kUA/L; 16 years: 1.1 kUA/L). Also, at 16 years, approximately 6% of females and 3% of males without any previously reported symptoms reported adolescent-onset of symptoms (p < 0.001). Such symptoms were almost exclusively gastrointestinal symptoms and were not associated with detectable IgE. In conclusion, early life milk-related symptoms are common, although most cases are transient by 16 years. Twice as many females vs. males report adolescent-onset symptoms, and particularly gastrointestinal symptoms. Children with persistent symptoms have both a higher prevalence and higher milk IgE levels, as compared to other phenotypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Effect of Digestion and Digestibility on Allergenicity of Food
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091129
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Food allergy prevalence numbers are still on the rise. Apart from environmental influences, dietary habits, food availability and life-style factors, medication could also play a role. For immune tolerance of food, several contributing factors ensure that dietary compounds are immunologically ignored and serve
[...] Read more.
Food allergy prevalence numbers are still on the rise. Apart from environmental influences, dietary habits, food availability and life-style factors, medication could also play a role. For immune tolerance of food, several contributing factors ensure that dietary compounds are immunologically ignored and serve only as source for energy and nutrient supply. Functional digestion along the gastrointestinal tract is essential for the molecular breakdown and a prerequisite for appropriate uptake in the intestine. Digestion and digestibility of carbohydrates and proteins thus critically affect the risk of food allergy development. In this review, we highlight the influence of amylases, gastric acid- and trypsin-inhibitors, as well as of food processing in the context of food allergenicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contributions of Diet and Gastrointestinal Digestion to Food Allergy)
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