Nutrients 2012, 4(9), 1171-1186; doi:10.3390/nu4091171
Article

Effects of Glycerol and Creatine Hyperhydration on Doping-Relevant Blood Parameters

1 Institute of Cardiovascular & Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK 2 Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE, UK 3 Medical School, College of Medicine, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK 4 Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Ave, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK 5 Institute of Biochemistry, German Research Center of Elite Sport, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne 50933, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2012; in revised form: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sports Nutrition)
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Abstract: Glycerol is prohibited as an ergogenic aid by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) due to the potential for its plasma expansion properties to have masking effects. However, the scientific basis of the inclusion of Gly as a “masking agent” remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a hyperhydrating supplement containing Gly on doping-relevant blood parameters. Nine trained males ingested a hyperhydrating mixture twice per day for 7 days containing 1.0 g•kg−1 body mass (BM) of Gly, 10.0 g of creatine and 75.0 g of glucose. Blood samples were collected and total hemoglobin (Hb) mass determined using the optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method pre- and post-supplementation. BM and total body water (TBW) increased significantly following supplementation by 1.1 ± 1.2 and 1.0 ± 1.2 L (BM, P < 0.01; TBW, P < 0.01), respectively. This hyperhydration did not significantly alter plasma volume or any of the doping-relevant blood parameters (e.g., hematocrit, Hb, reticulocytes and total Hb-mass) even when Gly was clearly detectable in urine samples. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementation with hyperhydrating solution containing Gly for 7 days does not significantly alter doping-relevant blood parameters.
Keywords: masking agent; glycerol; creatine; hyperhydration; doping markers

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MDPI and ACS Style

Polyviou, T.P.; Easton, C.; Beis, L.; Malkova, D.; Takas, P.; Hambly, C.; Speakman, J.R.; Koehler, K.; Pitsiladis, Y.P. Effects of Glycerol and Creatine Hyperhydration on Doping-Relevant Blood Parameters. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1171-1186.

AMA Style

Polyviou TP, Easton C, Beis L, Malkova D, Takas P, Hambly C, Speakman JR, Koehler K, Pitsiladis YP. Effects of Glycerol and Creatine Hyperhydration on Doping-Relevant Blood Parameters. Nutrients. 2012; 4(9):1171-1186.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Polyviou, Thelma P.; Easton, Chris; Beis, Lukas; Malkova, Dalia; Takas, Pantazis; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John R.; Koehler, Karsten; Pitsiladis, Yannis P. 2012. "Effects of Glycerol and Creatine Hyperhydration on Doping-Relevant Blood Parameters." Nutrients 4, no. 9: 1171-1186.

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