Special Issue "1D Nanostructure-Based Piezo-Generators"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Noelle Gogneau

Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, C2N-CNRS-UMR9001
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +33-169-63-61-75
Fax: +33-169-63-60-06
Interests: III-nitride nanowires, piezoelectric properties, energy harvesting, piezogenerators, molecular beam epitaxy, atomic force microscope

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ambient energy harvesting, using piezoelectric nanomaterials, is, today, considered as a promising way to supply nomad microelectronic devices, such as environmental or biomedical devices, portable multimedia, distributed sensor networks, or mobile communication.

1D nanostructures have recently emerged as excellent candidates to fabricate novel ultracompact and efficient piezoelectric generators due to the improvement of their properties with respect to their bulk counterpart. Since the first demonstration of electrical energy generation from ZnO nanowires in 2006, the piezoelectric response of 1D-nanostructures and the development of 1D-nanostructures-based Piezo-Nano-generators have become hot topics in nanoscience.

This Special Issue of Nanomaterials will attempt to cover the recent advances in the field of piezoelectric energy generation with 1D-nanostructures; from studies (both experimental and theoretical) of the piezoelectric properties of individual nanostructure to the development of macroscopic 1D nanostructure-based Piezo-Nano-generators, while considering the material properties or the nanomaterial/electrode contacts that influence the piezo-conversion efficiency.

Dr. Noelle Gogneau
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Nanowires

  • 1D-Nanostructures

  • Piezoelectric properties

  • Piezoelectric potential

  • Mechanical energy harvesting

  • Mechanical-electrical energy conversion

  • Nanogenerators

  • Piezogenerators

  • Renewable energy sources

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Stable and High Piezoelectric Output of GaN Nanowire-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Nanogenerator by Suppression of Internal Screening
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060437
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 14 June 2018
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Abstract
A piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) that is based on c-axis GaN nanowires is fabricated on flexible substrate. In this regard, c-axis GaN nanowires were grown on GaN substrate using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Further, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was coated
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A piezoelectric nanogenerator (PNG) that is based on c-axis GaN nanowires is fabricated on flexible substrate. In this regard, c-axis GaN nanowires were grown on GaN substrate using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) technique by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Further, Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was coated on nanowire-arrays then PDMS matrix embedded with GaN nanowire-arrays was transferred on Si-rubber substrate. The piezoelectric performance of nanowire-based flexible PNG was measured, while the device was actuated using a cyclic stretching-releasing agitation mechanism that was driven by a linear motor. The piezoelectric output was measured as a function of actuation frequency ranging from 1 Hz to 10 Hz and a linear tendency was observed for piezoelectric output current, while the output voltages remained constant. A maximum of piezoelectric open circuit voltages and short circuit current were measured 15.4 V and 85.6 nA, respectively. In order to evaluate the feasibility of our flexible PNG for real application, a long term stability test was performed for 20,000 cycles and the device performance was degraded by less than 18%. The underlying reason for the high piezoelectric output was attributed to the reduced free carriers inside nanowires due to surface Fermi-level pinning and insulating metal-dielectric-semiconductor interface, respectively; the former reduced the free carrier screening radially while latter reduced longitudinally. The flexibility and the high aspect ratio of GaN nanowire were the responsible factors for higher stability. Such higher piezoelectric output and the novel design make our device more promising for the diverse range of real applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 1D Nanostructure-Based Piezo-Generators)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Piezo-Potential Generation in Capacitive Flexible Sensors Based on GaN Horizontal Wires
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060426
Received: 28 April 2018 / Revised: 1 June 2018 / Accepted: 8 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
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Abstract
We report an example of the realization of a flexible capacitive piezoelectric sensor based on the assembly of horizontal c¯-polar long Gallium nitride (GaN) wires grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with the Boostream® technique spreading wires on
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We report an example of the realization of a flexible capacitive piezoelectric sensor based on the assembly of horizontal c¯-polar long Gallium nitride (GaN) wires grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with the Boostream® technique spreading wires on a moving liquid before their transfer on large areas. The measured signal (<0.6 V) obtained by a punctual compression/release of the device shows a large variability attributed to the dimensions of the wires and their in-plane orientations. The cause of this variability and the general operating mechanisms of this flexible capacitive device are explained by finite element modelling simulations. This method allows considering the full device composed of a metal/dielectric/wires/dielectric/metal stacking. We first clarify the mechanisms involved in the piezo-potential generation by mapping the charge and piezo-potential in a single wire and studying the time-dependent evolution of this phenomenon. GaN wires have equivalent dipoles that generate a tension between metallic electrodes only when they have a non-zero in-plane projection. This is obtained in practice by the conical shape occurring spontaneously during the MOVPE growth. The optimal aspect ratio in terms of length and conicity (for the usual MOVPE wire diameter) is determined for a bending mechanical loading. It is suggested to use 60–120 µm long wires (i.e., growth time less than 1 h). To study further the role of these dipoles, we consider model systems with in-plane 1D and 2D regular arrays of horizontal wires. It is shown that a strong electrostatic coupling and screening occur between neighbouring horizontal wires depending on polarity and shape. This effect, highlighted here only from calculations, should be taken into account to improve device performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 1D Nanostructure-Based Piezo-Generators)
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Open AccessArticle High Piezoelectric Conversion Properties of Axial InGaN/GaN Nanowires
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060367
Received: 29 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 23 May 2018 / Published: 25 May 2018
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Abstract
We demonstrate for the first time the efficient mechanical-electrical conversion properties of InGaN/GaN nanowires (NWs). Using an atomic force microscope equipped with a modified Resiscope module, we analyse the piezoelectric energy generation of GaN NWs and demonstrate an important enhancement when integrating in
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We demonstrate for the first time the efficient mechanical-electrical conversion properties of InGaN/GaN nanowires (NWs). Using an atomic force microscope equipped with a modified Resiscope module, we analyse the piezoelectric energy generation of GaN NWs and demonstrate an important enhancement when integrating in their volume a thick In-rich InGaN insertion. The piezoelectric response of InGaN/GaN NWs can be tuned as a function of the InGaN insertion thickness and position in the NW volume. The energy harvesting is favoured by the presence of a PtSi/GaN Schottky diode which allows to efficiently collect the piezo-charges generated by InGaN/GaN NWs. Average output voltages up to 330 ± 70 mV and a maximum value of 470 mV per NW has been measured for nanostructures integrating 70 nm-thick InGaN insertion capped with a thin GaN top layer. This latter value establishes an increase of about 35% of the piezo-conversion capacity in comparison with binary p-doped GaN NWs. Based on the measured output signals, we estimate that one layer of dense InGaN/GaN-based NW can generate a maximum output power density of about 3.3 W/cm2. These results settle the new state-of-the-art for piezo-generation from GaN-based NWs and offer a promising perspective for extending the performances of the piezoelectric sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 1D Nanostructure-Based Piezo-Generators)
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Open AccessArticle The Influence of Shape on the Output Potential of ZnO Nanostructures: Sensitivity to Parallel versus Perpendicular Forces
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050354
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 8 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
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Abstract
With the consistent shrinking of devices, micro-systems are, nowadays, widely used in areas such as biomedics, electronics, automobiles, and measurement devices. As devices shrunk, so too did their energy consumptions, opening the way for the use of nanogenerators (NGs) as power sources. In
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With the consistent shrinking of devices, micro-systems are, nowadays, widely used in areas such as biomedics, electronics, automobiles, and measurement devices. As devices shrunk, so too did their energy consumptions, opening the way for the use of nanogenerators (NGs) as power sources. In particular, to harvest energy from an object’s motion (mechanical vibrations, torsional forces, or pressure), present NGs are mainly composed of piezoelectric materials in which, upon an applied compressive or strain force, an electrical field is produced that can be used to power a device. The focus of this work is to simulate the piezoelectric effect in different ZnO nanostructures to optimize the output potential generated by a nanodevice. In these simulations, cylindrical nanowires, nanomushrooms, and nanotrees were created, and the influence of the nanostructures’ shape on the output potential was studied as a function of applied parallel and perpendicular forces. The obtained results demonstrated that the output potential is linearly proportional to the applied force and that perpendicular forces are more efficient in all structures. However, nanotrees were found to have an increased sensitivity to parallel applied forces, which resulted in a large enhancement of the output efficiency. These results could then open a new path to increase the efficiency of piezoelectric nanogenerators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 1D Nanostructure-Based Piezo-Generators)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of Aligned Flexible Lead-Free Piezoelectric Nanofibers for Wearable Device Applications
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040206
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 24 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
PDF Full-text (9386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flexible lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers, based on BNT-ST (0.78Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.22SrTiO3) ceramic and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) copolymers, were fabricated by an electrospinning method and the effects of the degree of alignment in the nanofibers on the piezoelectric characteristics
[...] Read more.
Flexible lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers, based on BNT-ST (0.78Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.22SrTiO3) ceramic and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) copolymers, were fabricated by an electrospinning method and the effects of the degree of alignment in the nanofibers on the piezoelectric characteristics were investigated. The microstructure of the lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers was observed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and the orientation was analyzed by fast Fourier transform (FFT) images. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the phase was not changed by the electrospinning process and maintained a perovskite phase. Polarization-electric field (P-E) loops and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) were used to investigate the piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric nanofibers, according to the degree of alignment—the well aligned piezoelectric nanofibers had higher piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the output voltage of the aligned lead-free piezoelectric nanofibers was measured according to the vibration frequency and the bending motion and the aligned piezoelectric nanofibers with a collector rotation speed of 1500 rpm performed the best. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 1D Nanostructure-Based Piezo-Generators)
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Review

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Open AccessReview 1D Piezoelectric Material Based Nanogenerators: Methods, Materials and Property Optimization
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040188
Received: 4 March 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 20 March 2018 / Published: 23 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the enhanced piezoelectric properties, excellent mechanical properties and tunable electric properties, one-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric materials have shown their promising applications in nanogenerators (NG), sensors, actuators, electronic devices etc. To present a clear view about 1D piezoelectric materials, this review mainly focuses
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Due to the enhanced piezoelectric properties, excellent mechanical properties and tunable electric properties, one-dimensional (1D) piezoelectric materials have shown their promising applications in nanogenerators (NG), sensors, actuators, electronic devices etc. To present a clear view about 1D piezoelectric materials, this review mainly focuses on the characterization and optimization of the piezoelectric properties of 1D nanomaterials, including semiconducting nanowires (NWs) with wurtzite and/or zinc blend phases, perovskite NWs and 1D polymers. Specifically, the piezoelectric coefficients, performance of single NW-based NG and structure-dependent electromechanical properties of 1D nanostructured materials can be respectively investigated through piezoresponse force microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the in-situ scanning/transmission electron microcopy. Along with the introduction of the mechanism and piezoelectric properties of 1D semiconductor, perovskite materials and polymers, their performance improvement strategies are summarized from the view of microstructures, including size-effect, crystal structure, orientation and defects. Finally, the extension of 1D piezoelectric materials in field effect transistors and optoelectronic devices are simply introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 1D Nanostructure-Based Piezo-Generators)
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