Special Issue "Advancements in Membranes for Electrochemical Energy Applications"
A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2013)
Prof. Dr. Bruno Scrosati
Department of Chemistry, University Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Phone: +39 06 4991 3530
Interests: polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells; lithium polymer batteries
This Special Issue came as the natural consequence of the great success of the previous one “Membranes for Electrochemical Energy Applications”.
Membranes play a key role in energy-related fields since they are the main components of devices which could help address one of the most serious threats to our society, namely global warming. Serious concern is associated with the continuous CO2 emission resulting from our energy policy, which is still mainly based on burning of fossil fuels. Accordingly, an efficient use of renewable energy sources and the replacement of internal combustion engines with electric motors for the development of sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) and ultimately, full electric vehicles (EVs), are major goals in the present energy scenario. On the other hand, an efficient use of alternative, green, energy sources, such as solar and wind, requires the side support of energy storage systems that can compensate for their intermittent characteristics. Analogously, HEVs, PHEVs and EVs require an on-board energy source for powering the electric engine. Among the various choices, electrochemical devices, such as fuel cells and batteries, capable of delivering stored chemical energy as electrical energy with high conversion efficiency and without any gaseous emission, are the most suitable. Moreover, fuel cells and batteries offer a promising option to efficiently power the electric engine in HEVs or EVs.
The most common and most studied fuel cells utilize a perfluorosulfonic membrane electrolyte, mainly of the NAFION® type. Although becoming increasingly well-known over time, these membranes still require attention to further improve performance. Much research is presently being carried out in this area, and this second Special Issue will be a perfect forum to bring together the latest results obtained by key laboratories presently engaged in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell R&D.
In terms of battery research, particular interest is focused on lithium batteries due to their intrinsic, high energy density value. However, in their present configuration, lithium batteries are affected by a series of issues that still prevent their wide use for electric vehicle application. One of the most serious is the safety concern associated with the unstable and flammable nature of the common liquid electrolytes. Improving safety is thus a present challenge in the field. One approach to reach this goal is to move away from the unreliable liquid, organic electrolytes, to stable and safe polymer electrolyte membranes. There are two classes of these membranes: a polymer-liquid hybrid type, generally named gel-type membranes, and membranes formed by liquid-free combinations of polymer with lithium salts, generally named solid polymer electrolytes. Today there is tremendous research ongoing worldwide is involved into lithium batteries, motivated by a large amount of funding granted in many countries. Therefore, breakthroughs in the area―especially in membrane electrolyte and related polymer batteries―are expected to soon concretize. Again, this second Special Issue offers a perfect site for welcoming the latest innovations, and accordingly authors from top laboratories are invited to submit their latest results.
Prof. Dr. Bruno Scrosati
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.
- hydrogen conducting membranes
- perfluorosulfonic membranes
- fuel cells
- lithium conducting membranes
- gel-type membranes
- solvent-free, solid-state membranes
- lithium batteries
Article: The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties
Membranes 2013, 3(3), 182-195; doi:10.3390/membranes3030182
Received: 23 May 2013; in revised form: 23 July 2013 / Accepted: 26 July 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013| Download PDF Full-text (323 KB)
Membranes 2013, 3(3), 242-248; doi:10.3390/membranes3030242
Received: 2 August 2013; Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013| Download PDF Full-text (126 KB)
Article: Interface Properties between Lithium Metal and a Composite Polymer Electrolyte of PEO18Li(CF3SO2)2N-Tetraethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether
Membranes 2013, 3(4), 298-310; doi:10.3390/membranes3040298
Received: 22 July 2013; in revised form: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 21 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013| Download PDF Full-text (889 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Testing the Chemical/Structural Stability of Proton Conducting Perovskite Ceramic Membranes by in Situ/ex Situ Autoclave Raman Microscopy
Membranes 2013, 3(4), 311-330; doi:10.3390/membranes3040311
Received: 1 August 2013; in revised form: 7 October 2013 / Accepted: 17 October 2013 / Published: 25 October 2013| Download PDF Full-text (1087 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Al2O3 Disk Supported Si3N4 Hydrogen Purification Membrane for Low Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells
Membranes 2013, 3(4), 406-414; doi:10.3390/membranes3040406
Received: 26 November 2013; Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 5 December 2013| Download PDF Full-text (775 KB) | Download XML Full-text
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Testing the Chemical/Structural Stability of Proton Conducting Perovskite Ceramic Membranes by in situ Autoclave Raman Microscopy
Author: Aneta Slodczyk, Settakorn Upasen and Philippe Colomban *
Affiliation: LADIR, UMR7075 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), 4 Place Jussieu, Paris 75005, France
Abstract: Ceramics exhibiting high proton conductivity at moderate temperature are researched as electrolyte membranes or electrode components of fuel cells, electrolysers or CO2 converters. In severe operating conditions: under high partial pressure and high temperature, a significant increase of the chemical activity of potentially reacting atmospheres (water, CO2, etc.) is systematically observed. This can lead to mechanical, chemical and structural instability of membranes and premature efficiency loss. Since a device lifetime duration determines the economical interest, the stability/ageing tests are then essential. Consequently, we developed the autoclave allowing in situ study of perovskite ceramics in the 25–620 °C temperature range, under 1–50 bar of water vapour or CO2 pressure, with or without application of an electric field, equipped with a sapphire window and coupled with Raman microspectrometer (532 or 785 nm excitation). Taking examples of different compositions (LiNbO3, BaZr1-xLnxO3, SrZr1-xLnxO3, …) we will demonstrate the high potential of our unique set-up to discriminate between good/stable and instable electrolytes (accelerating stability test) as well as to detect and monitor in situ: (i) the sample surface reaction with surrounding atmosphere and the formation of crystalline or amorphous second phases (carbonates, hydroxides, hydrates, etc.) hardly or not detectable by X-ray diffraction, and (ii) structural modifications of the host structure as a function of operating conditions. The results of these studies allow to determine the conditions preserving the membrane stability and to go further in comprehension of ageing mechanism.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Interface Properties between Lithium Metal and a Composite Polymer Electrolyte of PEO18Li(CF3SO2)2N-tetra(ethylene) Glycol Dimethyl Ether
Author: H.Wang 1, M.Matsui 1, T.Takeda 1, O.Yamamoto 1,*, D.Im 2, D.J.Lee 2 and N.Imanishi 1
Affiliation: 1 Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan
2 Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronic, Yongin, 446-712, Korea
Abstract: The electrochemical properties of a composite solid polymer electrolyte consisting of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-lithium trifluoromethanesulfonylimide (LiTFSI) and tetra (ethylene) glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) was studied as a protect layer between lithium metal and a water-stable lithium ion-conducting glass ceramic of Li1.35Ti1.75Al0.25P0.9Si0.1O12. The lithium ion conductivity and salt diffusion coefficient of PEO18LiTFSI at 60 °C were dramatically enhanced by addition of TEGDME. The composite polymer electrolyte of PEO18LiTFSI-2TEGDME exhibited a quite low stable interface resistance with lithium metal of 85 Ω•cm2 after 28 days and a low over-potential for lithium plating and striping.
Title: New Insights on the Study of Nafion Nanoscale Morphology by Transmission Electron Microscopy
Authors: S. Yakovlev and K. Downing
Affiliation: Downing Lab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Abstract: Nafion is one of the most common materials used for polyelectrolyte membranes and is the standard to which novel materials are compared. In spite of great interest in Nafion’s nanostructure it is still a subject of controversy. While multiple research efforts have addressed Nafion’s morphology with Transmission Electron Microscopy, the results of these efforts are sometimes controversial and cannot satisfactorily describe the membrane structure. One of the reasons for the differences in the reported results is a lack of sufficient control over the damage caused by electron beam irradiation. In this work we fill this gap by describing some aspects of damage in the material. We show that irradiation causes a phase separation in the material and that the morphology observed in many cases is an artifact caused by damage. We study effect of the sample temperature on damage and show that, while cryo-temperature does not prevent damage and mass loss, it slows formation of damage-induced artifacts to the point where informative low dose images of undamaged material may be collected. The importance of charge neutralization under irradiation is also illustrated. To help interpret the low dose images we can apply slightly higher exposures to etch away the hydrophobic phase with the electron beam and reveal the network formed by the hydrophilic phase. Energy loss spectroscopy shows evidence that fluorine removal governs the beam damage process, and we find that charging of the sample also has a substantial effect on the damage.
Last update: 22 April 2013